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Factsheet for Turkey

1. General facts

CountryTurkey (TR)
Surface area814,578 Km²
Population (thousands)71517
Population density93
Persons per household3.7
GDP per capita PPS45.5
GDP per capita
Household characteristicsPercentage living in rural areas: 34%
Percentage living in urban areas: 66%
Gross value added21.9% Industry, including energy
5.2% Construction
31.9% Trade, transport and communication services
21.1% Business activities and financial services
11.4% Other services
8.5% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

Turkish Republic Waste Legislation is structured in a way that there are two overarching legislations which are;

·         Regulation on General Principles of Waste Management (05.07.08 - 26927 ); and

·         Regulation on Solid Waste Control ( 14.3.1991 -  20814)

The rest of the specified waste management legislations listed at section 2.2.1 are organized under these two main legislations with the principles summarized below;

• Waste hierarchy

• Prevention or reduction of waste production

• Recovery of waste (re-use, recycling, energy recovery)

• Disposal of waste

• Polluter pays

• Producer responsibility

• Proximity

Responsible central and local bodies and their responsibilities are summarized below.

Table 1 . List of Responsible Bodies

Responsible Body

Responsibility

The Ministry of Environment and Forestry

·         Inspection and supervision of the institutions and establishments that have the task of disposing of waste so that they do not pose a threat to public and environment.

·         Assess the needs of these institutions and find solutions for any insufficiencies.

·         Generate the National Waste Management Policy and ensure it is implemented effectively.

·         Announcing any notifications concerning the implementation of the legislation.

The Ministry of Health

·         To follow and to audit the effects on public health.

·         To authorize and issue licenses for waste disposal areas.

The Ministry of Finance

·         To make arrangements related to the environmental clear up tax.

The Ministry of Interior

·         To direct, monitor and control local administrations.

The State Planning Organization

·         To prepare the sectoral plans and to approve projects in need of public financing and foreign credits.

·         To be in charge of planning and programming waste.

·         To manage investments and strategic solid waste projects.

İller Bank

·         To implement the projects on solid waste management.

·         To provide the financing of those projects.

Turkish Statistical Institute

·         To be in charge of specifying standards in this sector.

The Metropolitan Municipalities

·         To implement the Solid Waste Management Plan.

·         To make sure that solid wastes are collected at source, recycled, reused, or stored and removed accordingly; and to establish appropriate facilities, or to make sure that they are established by others, so that these services can be fulfilled.

Municipalities

·         To provide all services regarding collection, transportation, separation, recycling, disposal and storage of solid wastes; or to appoint others to provide these services

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
The Constitution of 1982Establishment of some objectives regarding
environmental protection; it has a provision that “Every citizen is entitled with the right to live in healthy and stable environment.” in its Article 56.
The Environmental Law ( 08.11.1983- 2872)

As a framework law, puts forward the rules and principles for environmental protection, defines the responsible and authorized institutions and organizations, determines the processes for the implementation and establishes the punishments for the improper acts and the liabilities of the concerned within the framework of the principle “polluter pays”.
The Turkish Criminal Code and Law on Minor Offences (No: 5237)

Criminal sanctions for waste management approaches that create environmental pollution. Likewise, in the laws regarding municipality administration, fundamental provisions on waste management were added. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, which Turkey is a party to, include provisions on waste management.
Regulation on General Principles of Waste Management (05.07.2008-26927)General principles of waste management, from waste generation to disposal, so that the procedures are followed without harming the environment and human health.
Solid Waste Control Regulation (14.3.1991 -20814; amendment 05.04.2005 - 25777)The general framework of waste management
system requires the reduction of waste generation as far as possible, separation of recoverable waste at source and recycling the valuable wastes and disposal of non-recyclable wastes by means of environment-friendly methods.
Regulation on Hazardous Waste Control (14.03.2005-25755)Principles on hazardous waste management; to ensure that waste management takes place in harmony with environmental protection; it includes all legal responsibilities.
Regulation for Control of Waste Oils (30.07.2008-26952)Principles on Waste Oil; so that its management takes place in harmony with environmental protection.
Regulation on the Control of used Batteries and Accumulators (31.08.2004-25568)Principles on control of used batteries and accumulators; so that waste management takes place in harmony with environmental protection.
Regulation for Control of Packaging and Packaging Waste (24.06.2007-26562) (Renamed as Regulation for Packaging Waste Control)Principles on Control of all kinds of packaging and packaging waste.
Regulation for Control of the Tyres which have completed their Life-Cycles (TCL) (25.1.2006-26357)Prevention of direct and indirect delivery of tyres to the receptor platforms which may harm the environment; installation of collection and carriage of them for reuse or termination, forming a management plan and providing the necessary standards and necessary regulations for the management of end-of-life tyres; limitation and responsibilities for their import, export and transit.
Regulation on the Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (30.05.2008-26891) Regulations of restrictions, determination of implementations that will be exempted from such regulations, arrange administrative, legal and technical principles to control the import of electrical and electronic equipment and to establish environmentally sound recovery and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment in order to protect the environment and human health.
Regulation for Control of Medical Waste (24.06.2007-26562)Principles on medical waste control; covering the generation, separate collection at source, temporary storage, removal and disposal.
Regulation on Control of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Terphenyls (27.12.2007 – 26739)Principles for the definitive disposal of used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated biphenyl-containing materials and equipment without endangering human health and harming the environment.
Regulation on the Control of Organic Waste Oils (19.04.2005-25791)Principles on control of organic waste oils.
Regulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406)Principles on control of construction and demolition waste.
Municipality Law (3.7.2005 - 5393)Municipalities are responsible to provide all services regarding collection, transportation, separation, recycling, disposal and storage of solid wastes, or to appoint others to provide these services.
Metropolitan Municipality Law (10.7.2004- 5216)Metropolitan Municipalities are responsible to implement the Solid Waste Management Plan; to make sure that solid wastes are collected at source, recycled, reused, or stored and removed accordingly; and to establish appropriate facilities, or to make sure that they are established by others, so that these services can be fulfilled.
General Health Law, no:1593Includes provisions on collection and landfill of waste and measures to protect human health.
Regulation on Solid Waste Control (14.03.1991-20814)General Framework of waste management system. Requires reduction of waste as far as possible, separation of waste at source and disposal of non-recyclable wastes.
2006, Amendment of the Environmental LawConcrete arrangements with regard to financing of waste services, the scope of fines for polluters; and sanctions for municipalities.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Regulation on Solid Waste Control (14.03.1991-20814) 1991
Landfill Metropolitan Municipality Law (10.7.2004- 5216)2004
Landfill Municipality Law (3.7.2005 – 5393)2005
Landfill Regulation on the landfill of waste (Drafted but not adopted) -
Incineration Rules on the incineration of waste (Drafted but not adopted) -

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Construction and Demolition WasteRegulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406)
Biodegradable WasteMetropolitan Municipality Law (10.7.2004- 5216)
Biodegradable WasteMunicipality Law (3.7.2005 - 5393)
Biodegradable WasteRegulation for Control of Waste Oils (30.07.2008-26952)

2.3 Regional waste acts

Turkey does not have a federal character; thus legislation and the regulations are valid and binding throughout the country and there are no regional waste acts.

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

The main aim of the plan to be prepared is to determine national policies and decision-making structure for the preparation of detailed regional waste management plans for waste streams. Thus, this plan, preparation of which is necessary within the EU harmonization process, aims to create a better organized, integrated and more firmly institutionalized structure for waste management in Turkey.

The target groups of this plan are as follows:

·         Other public institutions and organizations with responsibility for waste management,

·         Municipalities and other major producers of waste,

·         Representatives of private sector organizations which operate facilities related to waste management or suppliers of special services.

The waste management plan of Turkey is prepared considering the whole country and does not involve planning at regional or local level. For this reason, this study is named as “National Waste Management Plan (NWMP)”.

Within the scope of NWMP, 12 different waste streams are examined. The current situation and management problems related with the examined waste streams are set forth and strategic targets are given for solving the problems. Also an Action Plan is prepared parallel to the strategic targets.

The waste streams included in NWMP are as follows:

The time horizon of the plan is 5 years. This is determined to be long enough to make it possible to evaluate whether strategic targets in the plan are reached. Thus, the NWMP, which is prepared in 2009, covers the period 2009 – 2013.

Waste Management Action Plan

The Waste Management Action Plan, which has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in May 2008, is the National Waste Management Plan in Turkey and its implementation period is between 2008 and 2012 and can be found here;

http://www.atikyonetimi.cevreorman.gov.tr/belge/atikeylemplani.pdf

The plan includes;

·         The waste legislation that the Waste Management Action Plan is based on;

·         Solid waste action plan for packaging wastes, medical wastes, organic waste oils, batteries and accumulators, the current situation in Turkey and targets for the period 2008-2012;

·         Hazardous solid waste action plan and the related legislation, the current situation, targets and disposal plan;

·         Solid waste action plans for different towns in Turkey.


3.2 Regional plans

As mentioned at section 2.3., there are no Regional Waste Management Plans at the Federal or Regional Administrative Unit leve[d1] l. On the other hand, there are many small municipalities which do not have technical and financial capacities to realize the required waste management practices. Thus, National Action Plan on Waste Management suggests the application of “Union of Municipalities” model that proposes that the neighboring small municipalities which face similar waste management problems collaborate on waste management[d2] .

Furthermore, in 2006, a “Solid Waste Master Plan” has been drafted under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the State Planning Organization, in order to carry the outputs of the “Environmental Heavy-Cost Investment Planning in Turkey Project” one step forward. Within the scope of the Solid Waste Master Plan, thee demographic and socio-economic  regions and 11 sub-regions are determined as shown in Table.3

Table 2 Regions, Sub – Regions and Municipality Groups

No

Region

Sub - region

1a

Marmara / Aegean Region

İstanbul, İzmir (Metropolitan Municipalities)

1b

Other Metropolitan Municipalities

1c

Other Municipalities (medium / small)

2a

Mediterranean / Black Sea / Central Anatolia Region

Ankara (Metropolitan)

2b

Antalya / İçel (Tourism cities)

2c

Other metropolitan Municipalities

2d

Other Municipalities Black Sea (medium / small)

2e

Other Municipalities, Mediterranean / Central Anatolia (medium / small)

3a

Eastern Anatolia / Southeastern Anatolia Region

Gaziantep (Metropolitan Municipality)

3b

Other Metropolitan Municipalities

3c

Other Municipalities (medium / small)

Source: Solid Waste Master Plan Draft Report, 2006

The Draft Solid Waste Master Plan includes:

Below Table 3. summarizes the Implementation Schedule for the Waste Master Plan

Table 3 - Revised Implementation Schedule for Regions at Waste Master Plan

Region

Description

Separate collection /
Composting (Urban)

MGT

ATM / waste boxes

Incineration

Landfill

İ & Y Recycling /
Biomethanization

Urban

Rural

1c

Marmara / Aegean
Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

2015 (100%)

2015

2010 / 2015

_

_

2016

2014 / 2020

2d

Black Sea - with incineration (Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

_

_

2010 / 2015

_

2020

2016

2016 / 2020

2d

Black Sea - without incineration (Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

2015 (100%)

2015

2010 / 2015

_

_

2016

2016 / 2020

2e

Mediterranean / Central Anatolia (Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

2015 (100%)

2015

2010 / 2015

2015 / 2020

_

2011

2012 / 2016

3c

Eastern Anatolia / Southeastern Anatolia
Dual collection
(Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

2020 (100%)

2020

2015 / 2020

_

_

2016

2017 / 2020

3c

Eastern Anatolia / Southeastern Anatolia
Without Dual Collection
(Metropolitan Municipalities excluded)

_

_

2015 / 2020

_

_

2016

2017 / 2020

 [d1]Section 2.3 is about regional waste management acts, not plans...

 [d2]does this sound rightω

4. Waste prevention for Turkey

4.1. Objectives

The Regulation on Solid Waste Control (14.03.1991-20814) is the main regulation that deals with waste prevention. It aims to develop principles, policies and strategies on collection, recycling, reusing, storage, transportation and removal of wastes; implementation of these policies; and prohibition of any of these actions if they are done in a hazardous manner and to make sure that wastes do not harm biodiversity, ecological balance and the flora. The regulation includes decrees on Implementation of quota application and the related responsibilities; Application for authorization to use the applications of quotas and deposits; Application of quotas; Retrieving of empty cups; Raising the awareness of consumers; Disposal of cups; Collection, Separation and Recycling of Packaging Wastes; and the Obligations of transparency.

4.2. Targets

According to the Regulation on Packaging and Packaging Waste Control (Packaging Waste Control) (24.06.2007-26562) Article 19 – The responsible economic enterprises are liable to recover at least 60% (ration is not given in related article of regulation)  of their package wastes in terms of weight, within ten years after the date when this Regulation is put into force.

Table 4 presents the target recovery rates for the years 2005-2020 for glass, plastic, metal and paper/cardboard packaging waste fractions..

 

Table 4 Recovery Rate Targets of the Package Types

Recovery Rates (%)

Years

Glass

Plastic

Metal

Paper/Cardboard

 

2005

32

32

30

20

 

2006

33

35

33

30

 

2007

35

35

35

35

 

2008

35

35

35

35

 

2009

36

36

36

36

 

2010

37

37

37

37

 

2011

38

38

38

38

 

2012

40

40

40

40

 

2013

42

42

42

42

 

2014

44

44

44

44

 

2015

48

48

48

48

 

2016

52

52

52

52

 

2017

54

54

54

54

 

2018

56

56

56

56

 

2019

58

58

58

58

 

2020

60

60

60

60

 

 

Recovery Rates (%)

Package Type

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Glass

32

35

37

40

43

45

48

52

56

60

Plastic

32

35

37

40

43

45

48

52

56

60

Metal

30

33

35

38

42

45

48

52

56

60

Paper/Cardboard

20

30

35

38

42

45

48

52

56

60

Composite*

                           

(*) Regarding the recovery of composite packages, the ratio of the material, which is included in the component of the unit package and which has the highest quantity in terms of weight, is taken as basis.

Source: Regulation on Packaging and Packaging Waste Control (Packaging Waste Control)   (24.06.2007-26562)

Recovery rates will be based on recovery quantities until the end of 2006; after this date recovery rates will be based on the quantity of packaging waste used as material input to product processes.

According to the Used Batteries and Accumulators Control Regulation (31.08.2004-25568) Article  25 - The MoEF stipulates a quota application to ensure environmentally-friendly used battery management and to prevent the deterioration of the ecological balance, by ensuring the collection and disposal of used batteries. Battery producers are obliged to collect and dispose of group I used batteries; 15% of the previous years sales for the first year after the regulation came into force,  25% for the second year, 30% for the third year, 35% for the fourth year, and 40% for the fifth year; the rates for succeeding years are to be determined by the MoEF. Producers must document and report these collection operations to the MoEF.  Enterprises are obliged to obtain the permission of and give a declaration to the Ministry. In the event of failure to meet the first year quota, the actual collection rate submitted by the producer may be accepted by Ministry as long as a reasonable excuse is given for the shortfall. This applies to the first year only.

Quota rates for group II used batteries are 25% for the first year, 35% for the second year, 50% for the third year, 65% for the fourth year, 80% for the fifth year, and the rate to be determined by the MoEF for the succeeding years.

Article 29 of  the same regulation stipulates that accumulators subject to deposit applications should be collected, recovered and disposed of by 70% for the first year following the effective date of the regulation, and 80% for the second year, and 90% for the third year, as a minimum requirement, and the documents evidencing these rates should be submitted to the Ministry along with deposit applications every year.

4.3. Strategy

In the environmental legislation the recycling activities are encouraged and framed with specific standards. In order to safeguard recycling of packages, quota application has been introduced to producers. With this practice, the manufacturers and sellers of plastic, metallic, glass and carton paper packages are liable to recollect and recycle a certain percent of these materials. This  practice is also applied to some special kinds of wastes such as batteries, accumulators, mineral oil, etc. The sectors producing wastes subject to quota application are encouraged to establish associations and organizations for the fight against waste and to encourage recycling. In this way, these activities are tried to be safeguarded and kept under record.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

In order to meet the requirements of EC directives on waste minimization both prevention at source and recovery mechanisms should be activated.

There are two applications that are available for the recovery mechanism

  1. ÇEVKO
  2. TAP

ÇEVKO (The Foundation for Environmental Protection and Reappraisal of Packaging Wastes) has been assigned the right to use the green dot mark and to represent Turkey in the European Union by the Regulation for Control of Packaging and Packaging Waste (24.06.2007-26562). ÇEVKO denotes the right to use the “Green dot” mark, to the businesses, as an indicator of their participation in the system; and the packages which carry the “green dot” indicate that the responsibility of those packages belong to ÇEVKO in Turkey. ÇEVKO currently performs recycling activities for 780 businesses that produce goods such as detergents, oils, beverages, food, alcoholic drinks, furniture and textile.

The Regulation for Control of Packaging and Packaging Waste (Packaging Waste Control) (24.06.2007-26562) stipulates that businesses that produce packaging goods are obliged to ensure that 37% of the total amount of packaging produced in 2010 is recycled, and that they contribute to the recycling costs. Those businesses can choose to either recycle those goods themselves or transfer their obligations to ÇEVKO for a fee. This enables continuation of recycling activities at a reduced cost. ÇEVKO is obliged to use those fees to implement policies and to separate wastes at source, in cooperation with municipalities.

According to the Regulation for Control of Packaging and Packaging Waste (Packaging Waste Control) (24.06.2007-26562), municipalities are responsible for planning, managing and tracking the implementations carried out. ÇEVKO is responsible for the provision of containers, boxes, collection bags and education materials to those municipalities, free of charge. ÇEVKO currently works in cooperation with 104 municipalities.

TAP (Foundation of Transportable Battery Producers and Importers) is the only organization that is tasked by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry,(under the Regulation on the Control of used Batteries and Accumulators (31.08.2004-25568)), to separately collect, store and dispose of batteries in Turkey. TAP works in cooperation with certain public and private institutions, with consumers and producers; and has a responsibility to distribute materials for the collection of batteries to those organizations, to collect the batteries, dispose of them and to perform awareness raising activities, all free of charge.

Bans

Regulatory instrument
TitleLead, mercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year31.0
Legal document25569 USED BATTERIES AND ACCUMULATORS CONTROL REGULATION
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamno information
Year30.0
Legal document26891 DIRECTIVE ON THE RESTRICTION OF THE USE OF CERTAIN HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year25.0
Legal document26562 ( Packaging Waste Control) REGULATION ON PACKAGING AND PACKAGING WASTE CONTROL

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopePackaging waste
Year25.0
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
- Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
- The packaging material shall include minimum amount of hazardous material
- Packages have to be marked during the production process in order to facilitate collection, reuse and recovery and to inform the consumer
Implementation26562
REGULATION ON
PACKAGING AND PACKAGING WASTE CONTROL (Packaging Waste Control)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopeTCL
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Designing to increase lifecycle of tyres
Implementation26357
REGULATION FOR CONTROL OF THE TYRES WHICH HAVE COMPLETED THEIR LIFE-CYCLE
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopeBatteries, Accumulators
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- products which will contain batteries/ accumulators, have to be designed in a way to enable end-users to safely remove/change batteries or accumulators in the product
- rechargeable batteries are preferred
- clear labelling and instructions about safely remove/change of batteries/accumulators has to be enclosed to the product for the consumers
Implementation25569
USED BATTERIES AND ACCUMULATORS CONTROL REGULATION
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

Achieving waste recovery objectives also depends on the creation of a market for recycled products. Thus, in 1998 an Article was inserted into the Regulation on Solid Waste Management  giving the Ministry, the highest civilian authority, and the municipalities the responsibility to encourage the use of materials that can be recycled or disposed of without harming the environment, as well as recycled materials and products. However, this policy has no instruments for implementation. As illustrated in the examples from developed countries, the selection of pro-environmental products should be encouraged by amending the procurement legislation and public interest should be increased through campaigns.

Law on Revenues of Municipalities, No: 2464, Article 97: By the provision of the “Polluter Pays” principle, the waste producers should be involved in the waste management services.

The Turkish Criminal Code and Law on Minor Offences, No: 5237, Articles 181,182: Criminal sanctions for waste management approaches that create environmental pollution.

Furthermore Regulation on Used Batteries and Accumulators Control Regulation (25569), and Packaging And Packaging Waste Control (Packaging Waste Control) (26562) were subject to sanctions and administrative charges. A penalty is imposed to package, battery and accumulator producers in case of failure to meet the Quota for recollecting and recycling or safely disposal of pertinent materials.

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information based instruments in Turkey are mainly delivered through NGO initiatives mostly funded by EC grants programmes and sometimes Corporate Social Responsibility projects financed by Private Sector. These initiatives aim to achieve a change in consumer patterns regarding waste prevention in packaging waste, batteries, accumulators and waste oil. NGOs are usually supported by local authorities and provincial directorates of central government (especially MOEF) and legal background of these activities are summarized at table below.

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal consumer
Batteries, Accumulators
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Capacity (life span of products)
- higher content of heavy metals
- the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
Implementation25569
USED BATTERIES AND ACCUMULATORS CONTROL REGULATION
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
Scopeconsumer
TCL
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionWaste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Implementation26357
REGULATION FOR CONTROL OF THE TYRES WHICH HAVE COMPLETED THEIR LIFE-CYCLES (TCL)
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titlecomponent and material coding standards,
ScopeDisassembling companies
ELV
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionUse of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

No voluntary instruments are available in Turkey

Additional info

no information

Examples

TitleDescription
Green Shopping- Collaboration of CarrefourSA and ÇEVKORecycling boxes, posters and brochures have been provided by ÇEVKO to the CarrefourSA shopping centers. These have been displayed in certain parts of the shopping areas to raise the awareness of the customers during their shopping activities.
Also a Recycling Stand Point has been placed in CarrefourSA. The stand describes the activities of ÇEVKO and the importance of recycling to CarrefourSA customers.
Zero Waste Project – Collaboration of ÇEVKO and AFM Movie CenterIn the scope of the project, recycling boxes have been placed in 33 AFM movie centers in 12 towns by ÇEVKO, and separate collection at source was enabled. In addition, awareness raising activities were carried out using brochures, posters and films.

4.5 Waste prevention examples

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Turkey

5.1. Objectives

The main objective is summarized at the Regulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406) as “to reduce the demolition and construction waste at source, collect separately and recycle/reuse and dispose environmentally friendly way”.

5.2. Targets

There are no targets related to Construction and Demolition Waste.

5.3. Strategy

According to the Regulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406) the main political strategy is;

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
Title
ScopeSeparate Collection and Recovery of all recyclable parts of demolition and construction waste
Year2004
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesNo specific objectives mentioned
TargetsNo specific targets mentioned
DescriptionThe mentioned waste materials have to be kept separate either on site or at the treatment facility. The separation has to be carried out in a way that recovery is possible.
ImplementationRegulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406)
ResultNo results available
Regulatory instrument
Title
ScopeCollection and Disposal of hazardous materials within the construction and demolition waste
Year2005
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesNo specific objectives mentioned
TargetsNo specific targets mentioned
DescriptionAll hazardous waste such as asbestos, mercury, fluorescent and acid have to be collected separately from all the other waste; and they have to be disposed in line with the conditions of Regulation on Hazardous Waste Control (14.03.2005-25755)
ImplementationRegulation on Hazardous Waste Control (14.03.2005-25755)
ResultNo results available
Regulatory instrument
Title
ScopeReduction and Reuse fo Construction and Demolition waste, management of waste from the extractive industries
Year2004
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesNo specific objectives mentioned
TargetsNo specific targets mentioned
DescriptionConstruction and Demolition waste, should be reduced at source, collected seperately and should be resused and recycled. The part of the construction and Demolition waste that is not recycled should be minimised and be used as a coating material as mentioned in the Regulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste. The recycled parts, on the other hand, can be used for new concrete production and construction of roads, pavements, sewer systems and so on. Vegetative topsoil should also be collected seperately and should be used for recreational purposes and in no circumstance be transfered to the storage premises.
ImplementationRegulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406)
ResultNo information
Regulatory instrument
Title
ScopeStorage and Disposal of Construction and Demolition Waste
Year2004
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesNo specific objectives mentioned
TargetsNo specific targets mentioned
DescriptionIf Construction and Demolition wastes cannot be recycled or re-used, they should be stored in a controlled manner, only in areas that are decided upon related projects, abiding the rules of Regulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406). Under no circumstances should storage facilities for construction and demolition waste be opened or used without permission; and those people will be punished according to the law. In addition, the storage premises cannot be built on productive areas or land which can be used for agricultural activities. Moreover, the facilities should be built 200 meters away from settlements and 100 meters away from cemeteries.
ImplementationRegulation on Control of Construction and Demolition Waste (18.03.2004, 25406)
ResultNo information

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

The owner of the demolition and construction waste is responsible for the separate collection, transfer and disposal of demolition waste and all cost associated with these activities.

The Law on Misdemeanors put into effect on the same date also provides for penalties to the actions polluting environment. According to this law, an administrative fine is applied to those who dispose construction wastes and leftover materials in places other than ones they are collected to or landfilled.

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

No available voluntary instruments or voluntary agreements

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Turkey

6.1. Objectives

Duties and responsibilities of collection and disposal of biodegradable municipal are executed by municipalities, as stipulated by the laws on municipalities and greater municipalities.

Solid Waste Control Regulation (Official Newsletter dated: 14/03/1991; Issue: 20814) aims at minimizing both waste generation and waste disposal though composting the biodegradable fraction. The Regulation on Control of Soil Contamination refers to criteria for appropriate application of compost for agricultural purpose.

Draft Regulation on Landfilling of Solid Waste further promotes minimization of biodegradable waste amount. Landfill gas formed during the biodegradation of waste is to be extracted and, if feasible, used for energy generation, or burned in flares.

6.2. Targets

According to the Regulation on Landfill of Waste (as a draft), proposed targets in relation with biodegradable wastes are as follows;

Article 9:

                     

35% reduction in amount of biodegradable waste in 5 years after this regulation published.*

50% reduction in amount of biodegradable waste in 8 years after this regulation published .*

75% reduction in amount of biodegradable waste in 15 years after this regulation published .*

* Regulation on Landfill of Waste will be published in 2009.

6.3. Strategy

EU Integrated Environmental Approximation Strategy sets the country’s goals, objectives and strategies for all sectors, including the waste sector. The primary goals are to decrease solid waste production and to take necessary measures to ensure the recycling and the landfill disposal of solid waste. The generation of solid waste will be monitored to help develop tools for decreasing waste amounts, such as public awareness raising. There are also plans to increase the necessary capacity for monitoring, inspection and assessment of solid waste disposal facilities.

Necessary measures will be taken to decrease the quantity of biodegradable solid waste going to landfills. In particular, solid waste production will be recorded; solid waste recycling and disposal facilities will be installed; and solid wastes will be inspected from production until disposal.

A “National Strategy” regarding the reduction of biodegradable waste will be formed.  This will focus on capacity-building, forming the financing scheme for waste management, taking the principle of “Polluter Pays” into account, and establishing a licensing system for solid waste recycling and disposal facilities

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleTreatment of biodegradable waste
Scopebiodegradable fraction of solid waste
Year2001
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesComposting of biodegradable fraction of municipal waste
Targets• 50% of biodegradable waste to be treated outside landfills until 2015
• 35% reduction in amount of biodegradable waste until 2020
DescriptionWaste inventories
ImplementationNational Waste Strategy
ResultNo results available
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of waste vegetative oils
ScopeWaste vegetative oils
Year2005
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesTo separate vegetative oil from other fractions of municipal waste and ensure recovery
TargetsN/A
DescriptionImplementation of separate collection and management of vegetative oil. Bans: waste vegetative oils cannot be mixed with other types of waste, released into the municipal sewer system, septic tanks or directly into water, nor can they be discharged on the soil surface or underground.
ImplementationRegulation on Control of Waste Vegetative Oils (Official Newsletter:19/04/2005; Issue: 25791)
ResultNo results available
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of packaging waste
ScopePackaging waste
Year2007
Transition periodN/A
ObjectivesSeparate collection of packaging waste
TargetsNo targets set
DescriptionImplementation of separate collection and management of packaging materials
ImplementationRegulation on Control of Packaging Waste (Packaging Waste Control) (Official Newsletter: 25.06.2007, Issue: 26562)
ResultNo results available

Additional info

no infotmation

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

There are instruments that promote use of compost, such as the Regulation on Support and Technical Assistance for Producers that Prefer the Programme for Protection of Environmentally Sensitive Agricultural Areas (Official Newsletter: 15/11/2005; Issue: 25994)

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

Farmers are targeted by agricultural extension programmes that promote the use of compost.  These are the only information based instruments that focus on marketing of compost as the final treatment of biodegradable waste.

There is no dual collection of waste from households; thereby awareness raising programmes are not in place yet. Such programmes are designed within the scope of EU projects on integrated solid waste management in towns and cities where regional disposal facilities are financed through EU funds.

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

In Turkey, harmonisation of legislation pertaining to Eco-Labelling has not been started. Participation in EMAS, which has been implemented to all economic sectors including manufacturing sector, public and private services since 2001, is voluntary. Harmonisation studies pertaining to EMAS legislation, which extends to public and private organisations operating in the European Union and the European Economic Area (EEA), have not started in Turkey.

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

No result available

Construction and demolition waste

No available results and data

Waste prevention

According to the indicators of EUROSTAT on Turkey,

Municipal Waste (1996-2007) kg per person a year in Turkey was:

Years

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Amount

471

503

510

463

458

457

450

445

421

438

415

430

Municipal Waste Landfilled (kg per capita)

Years

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Amount

345

362

371

354

357

360

357

363

345

362

341

359

Municipal Waste Incinerated (kg per capita)

Years

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Amount

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

ÇEVKO has undertaken the recycling responsibility of 780 businesses and managed to recycled 413,500 tons of paper/carton, plastic, metal, glass and compost materials. ÇEVKO also works in cooperation with 104 municipalities; and it has been reported that within the scope of this cooperation, around 5,180,000 people from 1,473,407 households and work places, manage to collect their waste separately and dispatch them to recycling facilities.

Table 5 Municipalities in which Implementations of Separate Collection at Source is Carried Out

Region

Number of Dwellings and Business reached

Population reached (person)

Adana -Seyhan

34.000 Dwellings

135.000

Adapazarı- Akyazı

3.294 Dwellings  and  business

10.738

Adapazarı- Merkez

14.952 Dwellings  and  Business

58.000

Ankara- Beypazarı

4.531 Dwellings  and  Business

15.000

Ankara- Kazan

4.581 Dwellings

15.000

Ankara- Mamak

13.080 Dwellings

60.000

Ankara- Yenimahalle

92.080 Dwellings

280.000

Ankara- Çankaya

75.164 Dwellings  and  Public Institution

250.000

Antalya- Konyaaltı

27.396 Dwellings  and  Hotels

110.000

Antalya- Muratpaşa

70.000 Dwellings  and  Hotels

250.000

Aydın- Didim

25.158 Dwellings , 352 Business

101.480

Aydın- Merkez

1.014 Dwellings

4.000

Balıkesir

54.968 Dwellings

196.000

Bolu

20.000 Dwellings

60.000

Bursa- Yıldırım

133.219 Dwellings  and  Business

480.000

Bursa- Gürsu

13.301 Dwellings  and  Business

50.039

Bursa- Güzelyalı

10.000 Dwellings  and  Business

40.000

Bursa- Kestel

13.429 Dwellings  and  Business

32.525

Bursa- Mudanya

25.000 Dwellings  and  Business

100.000

Bursa- Nilüfer

44.553 Dwellings  and  Business

178.682

Bursa– Osmangazi

205.540 Dwellings , 2 Shopping Mall

800.000

Eskişehir- Odunpazarı

61.600 Dwellings  and   Business

250.000

Eskişehir-Tepebaşı

24.895 Dwellings

80.000

Gaziantep- Oğuzeli

2.631 Dwellings

7.500

İstanbul- Avcılar

3.000 Dwellings

7.350

İstanbul- Bakırköy

20.357 Dwellings  and  Business

43.274

İstanbul- Gürpınar

12.000 Dwellings  and  Business

40.000

İstanbul- Kadıköy

26.700 Dwellings  and  Business

86.500

İstanbul- Kıraç

3.000 Dwellings  and  Business

10.000

İstanbul- Pendik

54.270 Dwellings  and  Business

130.460

İstanbul- Zeytinburnu

5.000 Dwellings  and  Business

20.000

İzmir- Konak, Karşıyaka, Bornova, Narlıdere, Balçova, Gaziemir, Çiğli, Buca, Aliağa, Özdere, Eski Foça, Ürkmez, Gümüldür, Seferihisar, Urla

162.897 Dwellings , 42 Business , 45 Schools, 45 Health Institute, 44 Otels

651.588

Kocaeli - Bekirpaşa

19.634 Dwellings 

50.000

Konya- Selçuklu

40.000 Dwellings  and  Business

140.000

Manisa

36.000 Dwellings

150.000

Tekirdağ- Çorlu

79.430 Dwellings  and  Business

180.000

Uşak

15.149 Dwellings

60.596

Yalova

21.054 Dwellings

50.000

Toplam

1.473.407 Dwellings  and Business

5.183.732

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information