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Factsheet for Slovakia

1. General facts

CountrySlovakia (SK)
Surface area49,033 Km²
Population (thousands)5402
Population density110
Persons per household2.9
GDP per capita PPS67
GDP per capita
Household characteristics
Gross value added28.1 % Industry, including energy
6.9 % Construction
26.8 % Trade, transport and communication services
18.9 % Business activities and financial services
15.4 % Other services
4 % Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

In June 2001, Act No. 223/2001 Coll. of Laws On Waste and on Amendment of Certain Acts was published in the Collection of Laws of the Slovak Republic.

In 2006 the full text of Act 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and Amendments of Certain Laws - Act No. 409/2006 was published.

In relation to adopted law on waste, several legislative statutory instruments were issued:

Act No. 17/2004 Coll. on fees for waste landfilling;

Act No. 127/2006 Coll. on persistent organic substances and on amendments of the Act No 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendments of certain acts as amended by subsequent regulations;

Act No. 529/2002 Coll. on Packaging and Amendments of Some Acts as amended by subsequent regulations

Statutory instruments:

The new Act on Waste No. 223/2001 Coll. is the biggest legislation project of the Ministry of Environment SR. It was sent for comments to more people that any other SR environmental legislation. The new Act was necessary to harmonise Slovak legislation with EU legislation in the field of waste management. For the first time, some market oriented economic instruments were implemented in the environmental legislation. They include the fund for landfills closure, the new local fee by means of which municipalities will be able to better organise waste management in the field of their activities and the Recycling Fund that creates, for the first time, real economic conditions for the support of waste recycling.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Act No. 543/2003 Coll. on Nature and Landscape ProtectionThe basic and fundamental document about nature and landscape protection in the Slovak Republic. The Act regulates competencies of state administration bodies and municipalities, and rights and obligations of legal persons and natural persons in nature and landscape protection
Act No. 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendment of Certain LawsWaste management (including hazardous waste management) in Slovakia is regulated by one comprehensive act: Act No. 223/2001 on wastes, as amended by later regulations and by a set of implementing regulations. The act has been harmonised with all EU Waste Directives, including the Directive 2000/53/EC on end-of life vehicles, the Directives on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the Directive on PCB/PCT, the Directive on hazardous waste, the Landfill Directive and others.
The Act is structured in 11 parts:
1. Introductory provisions
2. Waste management plans
3. Operation of state administration bodies of waste management and obligations of legal and natural persons in waste management
4. Import, export and transit of waste
5. Handling of waste
6. Treatment of end-of life vehicles
7. Electronic equipment and electrical waste
8. Recycling fund
9. State administration bodies of waste management, municipalities and their operation
10. Accountability for failure to comply with obligations
11. Interim and final provisions

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
LandfillDirective 1999/31/EC has been transposed into: Act No. 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendment of Certain Laws (specifically: § 2-definition of landfill, § 18-prohibition of landfilling, § 22-special purpose financial reserve, § 81-interim provision) The Regulation of the MoE of the SR No. 283/2001 Col. on execution of some provisions of the Waste (§ 5 - restriction to landfilling of biodegradable waste § 23 - § 28 and § 32 - § 35 other articles) Act No. 17/2004 on fees for waste landfilling no i
IncinerationAct No. 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendment of Certain Laws The Regulation of the MoE of the SR No. 283/2001 Col. on execution of some provisions of the Waste no i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
PackagingAct No. 529/2002 on Packaging and Amendments of Some Acts Government Ordinance No. 220/2005 Coll. setting binding targets for packaging waste recovery and recycling in respect of total weight of packaging waste Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Environment No. 210/2005 Coll. on Implementing Certain Provisions of the Act on Packaging Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Environment No. 732/2002 Coll. on the List of Returnable Non- Reusable Packaging and Deposit for Returnable Reusable and Non-reusable Packaging Guideline of the Slovak Ministry of Environment on fulfilling some obligations of obliged persons and authorized organizations under Act on Packaging No. 529/2002 Coll.
Hazardous wasteAct No. 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendment of Certain Laws, § 40. Handling of Hazardous Waste Regulation of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic No. 284/2001 Coll. of Laws, which sets up the Waste Catalogue
Construction/demolition wasteAct No. 223/2001 Coll. on Waste and on Amendment of Certain Laws, § 39. Handling of Municipal Waste and Minor Construction Waste

2.3 Regional waste acts

No regional Waste Acts.

3. Waste management plans

Besides the legal directives and regulations, the conceptual documents for the control of waste management in the Slovak Republic, with the aim to define the principal needs and goals in this field, are the most important conceptual materials.

The obligation to draft waste management programmes is stipulated by law in Slovakia. This system was introduced in 1993 when the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic drafted the Waste Management Programme (WMP) approved by the Government later on.

This Programme comprises objectives and measures proposed for the years 1996, 2000, 2005 and the latest for year 2010. They were incorporated later on into the “Strategy Principles And Priorities of The State Environmental Policy In The Slovak Republic” approved by both, the Government and National Council (Parliament) of the Slovak Republic.

3.1 National plan

Period of implementation

Main features (short description)

WMP SR 2006-2010

 

 

Waste management in SR entered a new phase through adopting a new Waste Management

Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010, approved by the Government Resolution 118 of

February 15, 2006.

WMP 2006 - 2010 is fundamental document on handling of waste in Slovak Republic.

WMP SR 2006 - 2010 is divided to 5 basic parts:

§         Current state of waste management in SR

§         Obligatory part (include target trend in handling of specified waste types and quantities at a defined time)

§         Target part (include the intentions for building installations of higher than regional importance)

§         Financing and budget

§         Annex

 

WMP SR 2001-2005

The WMP until 2005 was approved by the Resolution of Government of the Slovak Republic No. 180/2002. In this WMP SR are presented also basic data on generation and treatment of specific waste stream in 2000 and objectives for recovery and recycling for 2005.

WMP SR 1997-2000

In 1996 an updated document “Waste Management Plan until 2000” was issued. The Plan specified the targets and measures for the second period based on the experiences from the first period in 1993 -1996.

Objectives and measures for the period of 1997-2000 and prospectively up to the year 2005 were defined as follows:

-         ensure proper waste treatment and disposal;

-         construct hazardous and municipal waste incineration facilities which were not provided in the preceding period;

-         intensification of composting biological waste;

-         establish conditions to increase recycling of reusable materials;

-         liquidation of old waste sites and environmental burdens.

WMP SR1993-1996

The significance of the waste management programmes together with the conceptual materials at all levels was unambiguously confirmed in 1993-1996.

The objectives and measure of the WMP SR defined for a period of 1993-1996 (1st implementation stage) were fulfilled especially in the following:

-         new landfill sites constructions;

-         separated collection of municipal waste was extended;

-         the amount of hazardous wastes decreased;

-         sanitary waste incineration facilities constructions.

3.2 Regional plans

Conceptual documents for waste management in the Slovak Republic are also elaborated at regional level, with the aim to define the principal needs and goals in this field

Regional and district authorities and municipalities should operate their own waste management programmes. These must be harmonised with the national programme.

4. Waste prevention for Slovakia

4.1. Objectives

In the Waste Act 223/2001 Coll. waste management is defined as “an activity focusing on the prevention and restriction of waste generation and decreasing their hazard for the environment and waste handling compliant with the Act (waste prevention)”.

Main objectives in SR are:

a)   Prevent waste generation and restrict its generation in particular by:

1.        Developing technologies saving natural resources,

2.        The manufacture of products which - equally as in final products - increases the quantity of waste as little as possible and decreases the environment pollution as much as possible,

3.        Developing suitable methods of disposing dangerous substances contained in the waste earmarked for recovery.

b)   Recover waste by recycling, re-use or other processes resulting in secondary raw materials.

c)   Exploit waste as a source of energy.

d)   Dispose waste in a way not threatening to human health, not damaging to the environment.

4.2. Targets

In Waste Management Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010 are defined following targets concerning waste prevention:

·         achieve material recovery from waste (i.e. recycling) for 70% of waste in relation to total waste generated in Slovak Republic in 2010

·         increase energy recovery from waste (i.e. re-use a fuel) up to 15% in relation to total waste generated in Slovak Republic in 2010

·         decrease quantity of landfill waste down to 13% from total waste generated in Slovak Republic in 2010

·         in year 2010 incineration waste wholly with energy recovery

·         by the year 2010 ensure following handling of municipal waste:

 

Targets concerning recovery of selected waste streams:

Waste

stream

Recovery

Material recovery

Energy recovery

%

%

Batteries, Accumulators

100

0

Waste oils

80

20

Used Pneumatic Tyres

98

2

Waste from Multi-Layer

Combined Materials

25

15

Plastics waste

20

20

4.3. Strategy

EC waste and hazardous waste legislation was transposed by the Waste Act 223/2001. It is partially in line with the demands on the supervision and control of shipments of waste within, into and out of the European Community, on the disposal of waste oils, on batteries and accumulators containing certain dangerous substances, and on old vehicles.

Strategy for waste prevention is included in Waste Management Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2006
Legal documentWaste Act No. 409/2006, § 41
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2006
Legal documentWaste Act No. 409/2006, § 54 b
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year2002
Legal documentPackaging Act No. 529/2002, § 5

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year2002
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Packaging has to be designed,

produced and distributed in a way

that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationPackaging Act No. 529/2002, § 5


Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.

- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationWaste Act No. 409/2006, § 54 b
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,

- consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,

- increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationWaste Act No. 409/2006, § 50
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Other instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleRecycling fund
ScopeRecycling
Year2001
Transition period
Objectives
Targets
DescriptionThe Recycling Fund was set up as a non-state special purpose fund to pool financial means to support the collection, appreciation and processing of spent batteries and accumulators, waste oils, used pneumatic tyres, multi-layer combined materials, electronic devices, plastics, paper, glass, vehicles and metal packing. The bodies of the Recycling Fund are:
The Board of Directors, the Supervisory Board and The Director General
ImplementationRecycling fund was constituted by Waste Act 223/2001
ResultNo information
Market-based instrument
TitleLevies on landfilling
Scopelandfills
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThis Act sets progressively increasing levies on landfilling for future years. The levy to be applied will depend upon the number of waste fractions being separated at source by the municipality concerned. The levy is to be paid to the municipality in which the landfill is located.
The levy rates proposed are set out in table below.
ImplementationAct No. 17/2004 on Landfill Cost
ResultNo information

Additional info

 

Proposed Levies on Landfilling of Waste (SKK/tonne) in Slovakia

 

Type of waste

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

1.  Inert waste

1

3

5

8

10

2.  Other waste, except type of waste  

     1,3,4,5

20

30

50

100

200

3.  No source separated MW

     1 waste type source separated MW

     2 waste type source separated MW

     3 waste type source separated MW

     4 waste type source separated MW

     5 waste type source separated MW

30
27
24
21
18
15

50
45
40
35
30
25

100
90
80
70
60
50

200
180
160
140
120
100

300
270
240
210
180
150

4.  Biodegradable waste

30

50

100

200

400

5.  Hazardous waste

250

300

500

700

1 000

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

No information

Bans

Information-based instrument
Titleno information
Waste stream
Year
Legal document

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
Titlecomponent and material coding standards
ScopeDisassembling companies,
ELV
Year2006
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesNo information
TargetsNo information
DescriptionUse of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
ImplementationWaste Act No. 409/2006
ResultNo information
Information-based instrument
Title Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
ScopeFinal Consumer
ELV
Year2006
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesNo information
TargetsNo information
DescriptionWaste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
ImplementationWaste Act No. 409/2006
ResultNo information
Information-based instrument
TitleBattery and accumulator information
ScopeFinal Consumers,
Batteries and accumulators
Year2006
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesNo information
TargetsNo information
Description-Capacity (life span of products)

-higher content of heavy metals

-the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
ImplementationWaste Act No. 409/2006
ResultNo information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
Waste stream
Year
Legal document

Other instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleEco-labelling scheme
Scopeproducts
Year2002
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesTo support development of the production and consumption of products which are envisaged to reduce negative impacts on the environment in comparison with other products within the same product line. This includes products with low energy and resource consumption and includes a reduction of the hazardousness of the waste.
Targetsno information
DescriptionExamples of tax-bases or sub-schemes:
• Eco-label - Biodegradable plastics wrapping materials
• Eco-label - Electric household washing machines
• Eco-label - Radial tyres for passenger vehicles
• Eco-label - Absorbents
• Eco label - Radial tire for automobile

Administration costs consist of wages and costs for project tasks solution. The entry fee for each applicant varies between 5,000 and 15,000 SKK
ImplementationAct No. 217/2007 on eco-label of products
Programme of eco-labelling from 2004 to 2008
ResultIn 2007 were awarded by national eco-label “EVP” 13 products, from 1997 144 products

Additional info

no information

Examples

TitleDescription
Cleaner production programmes of the Slovak Cleaner Production Centre (SCPC)SCPC has been dealing with environmental problems in Slovakia and abroad, as well as with comprehensive consulting activities in the area of occupational health and safety, environment, implementation of management systems, trainings and courses in all mentioned areas.
The general objective is to help society and industries improve environmental performance and lessen pollution problems while increasing efficiency, i.e. to promote, implement and support proactive preventive approaches for solving industrial pollution problems in everyday practices and operations.
Specific objectives:
1. to encourage companies to implement the cleaner production,
2. to use results of case studies on cleaner production in several enterprises of the same sector or branch to demonstrate the benefits of cleaner production to the industrial sectors,
3. to integrate one or several cleaner production projects and environmental management system according ISO 14001
National eco-labelling objectives:
1. Minimisation of waste from products and their production; the product is 100% recyclable.
2. The use of wooden wastes in building industry, minimisation of electric energy consumption in production and application of the product, minimisation of the use of the main building material (cement) in the production and in the building process, decrease of noise level in the surroundings
System of the eco-pack waste collection - Project ECO-PACKSThe project aims to increase the public awareness in the separate collection of a special waste stream.
objectives:
1. Increase the amount of recycled waste multilayer packages
2. Support the separate collection of the used multilayer packaging material especially by school children, enhancing of the environmental awareness.

4.5 Waste prevention examples

no information

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Slovakia

5.1. Objectives

For construction and demolition waste as such no specific objectives have been formulated, only the general objectives of waste management are applied.

5.2. Targets

No specific targets for construction and demolition waste have been set.

5.3. Strategy

The strategy for construction and demolition waste is included in Waste Management Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010.

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleDefinition and obligations
Scopeno information
Year2001
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe Act provides a definition of construction and demolition waste and rules for handling construction and demolition waste.
ImplementationWaste Act 223/2001
ResultNo information
Regulatory instrument
TitleCategorization of construction and demolition waste
ScopeCategorization of construction and demolition waste
Year2001
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesNo information
TargetsNo information
DescriptionConstruction and demolition waste is divided to following categories:

-Concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics
-Wood, glass and plastic
-Bituminous mixtures, coal tar and tarred products
-Metals (including their alloys)
-Soil, stones and dredging spoil
-Insulation materials and asbestos-containing construction material
-Gypsum based construction material
-Other construction and demolition wastes
ImplementationRegulation No. 284/2001 on establishing the Catalogue of Wastes
ResultNo information

Additional info

No information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

No information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

No information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Slovakia

6.1. Objectives

It is necessary for Slovak municipalities develop a more sustainable system of managing biodegradable materials. This more sustainable management process can generate a range of benefits as the management system shifts away from the traditional, unsustainable approach based around landfilling the majority of the waste collected.

6.2. Targets

The following targets for biodegradable municipal waste are defined  in Waste Management Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010 :

6.3. Strategy

The strategy for biodegradable municipal waste is included in Waste Management Programme of SR for the years 2006 - 2010 .

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of biowaste
ScopeBio-waste: green waste, kitchen waste
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe Act introduces two new obligations for Municipalities:
- by 1st January 2006 green waste has to be source separated,
- by year 2010, Municipalities will have to run source separation for at least 5 items. This will have to include kitchen waste.
Implicitly, this means that by 2010, all municipalities will have to run source separation schemes for biowaste (the law reads ‘biological waste’) and it seems clear that since garden waste is to be banned from disposal in 2006, the intention is to cover kitchen wastes under this proposal.
ImplementationAct No. 24/2004 Coll. amending the Act No. 223/2001 Coll. on waste,
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of packaging waste
ScopePackaging waste
Relevant fraction in relation to BMW is packaging paper waste.
Year2002
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
TargetsBinding limits for recycling packaging paper waste are following:
2009 - 56%, 2011 - 58%, 2012 - 60% (Regulation No. 220/2005)
DescriptionAct 529/2002 regulates rights and obligations for separate collection and recycling of packaging waste and covers all types of packing, incl. paper packing.

Regulation No. 220/2005 establishes binding limits for recycling and recovery of packaging waste, incl. paper packaging waste
ImplementationPackaging Act No. 529/2002
Government Regulation No. 220/2005 - limits for recycling and recovery of packaging waste
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleLevies on landfilling
Scopelandfill
Year2004
Transition periodNo information
ObjectivesNo information
TargetsNo information
DescriptionThis Act sets progressively increasing levies on landfilling for future years. The levy to be applied will depend upon the number of waste fractions being separated at source by the municipality concerned. The levy is to be paid to the municipality in which the landfill is located.
A specific, higher tax is besides hazardous waste (1000 SKK in 2008) also provided for “biodegradable waste” (400 SKK in 2008).
ImplementationAct No. 17/2004 on Landfill Cost
Resultno information
Market-based instrument
TitleLocal charge for municipal waste
Scopemunicipal waste
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe amount of charge depends on resolution of each municipality. The maximum rate is set to 1200 SKK yearly/person. The revenues are earmarked for supporting the system of management of municipal waste.
ImplementationAct No. 582/2004 Coll. on local taxes and local charges for municipal and minor construction waste as amended.
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

Draft Handbook for management of biowastes - manual for Slovak municipalities and local and regional authorities

This Handbook has been prepared by the Team of Experts co-ordinated by Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza in the context of the Phare Twinning Light Project named “Optimisation of handling of Biodegradable Waste”.

The aim is to focus on the possible approaches in managing biowaste produced at Municipal level.

The Handbook continues with the following structure:

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

No information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

The key fractions of biodegradable municipal waste include:

  1. Kitchen waste
  2. Garden waste
  3. Paper and card
  4. Textiles (of natural origin)
  5. Nappies
  6. Wood

In Slovakia, ‘kitchen waste’ and ‘garden waste’ account for close to 40% of MSW. The biodegradable fraction of MSW (also including textiles and nappies, paper and paperboard) is around 65% -70%.

Construction and demolition waste

No information

Waste prevention

no information

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information