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Factsheet for Sweden

1. General facts

CountrySweden (SE)
Surface area449,964 Km²
Population (thousands)9261
Population density21
Persons per household2.1
GDP per capita PPS122.2
GDP per capita
Household characteristics24% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km²)
17% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km²)
58% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab./km²)
Gross value added24% Industry, including energy
5% Construction
19.5% Trade, transport and communication services
22.9% Business activities and financial services
27.2% Other services
1.4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The parliament and the government (Ministry of Environment) issue laws and ordinances. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Swedish EPA) may issue complementing regulations for specific issues. The municipalities may issue local regulations regarding the management of household waste (including fees).

The Swedish EPA is responsible for guiding the authorities responsible for inspection and enforcement. In general the municipalities are responsible for the supervision of the waste legislation. However the county administration boards are responsible for major waste treatment plants, like incineration plants and landfills. The EPA is only responsible for the supervision regarding the WEEE- battery directive.

Chapter 15 of the Environment Act (1998:808) and the Waste ordinance (2001:1063) contain the general waste legislation. Legislation on specific waste streams or waste treatment methods could be found in specific ordinances. In some cases there are complementing regulations, issued by the EPA.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Environment Act (1998:808), chapter 15
(In Swedish: Miljöbalken)
Chapter 15 is the main regulation of Swedish waste management. It provides the central rules concerning the following objectives:
- general obligations for the waste holder;
- producers responsibility;
- general obligations of the local municipalities for the collection, handling and treatment of household waste;
- municipal waste management regulation;
- general provisions for waste management
- littering
- dumping
- Authorization from the parliament given to the government and/or national/regional/municipal authorities to issue rules concerning certain kinds of waste, rules concerning permit requirements, rules concerning waste in consequence of Sweden’s membership of the EU, rules for the defence sector,
Waste ordinance (2001:1063)
(In Swedish: Avfallsförordning)
- The waste ordinance provides complementary rules regarding municipal waste management regulation, general provisions for waste management and dumping.
- It also provides rules concerning certain kinds of waste, permit requirements and transport of waste and certain other special regulations.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Ordinance (2001:512) on landfillingno i
Landfill The EPA regulation (NFS 2004:10) on landfillingno i
Landfill tax Law (1999:673) on waste taxno i
IncinerationOrdinance (2002:1060) on incineration of wasteno i
Incineration The EPA regulation (NFS 2002:28) on incineration of wasteno i
Incineration tax Law (1994:1776) on energy taxno i
Permit for recovery or disposal operations Ordinance (1998:899) on environmentally hazardous activities and health protectionno i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Waste paper Ordinance (1994:1205) on producer responsibility for waste paper
Packaging Ordinance (1997:185) on producer responsibility for packaging
End of life Vehicles (ELV) Ordinance (1997:788) on producer responsibility for ELV
TyresOrdinance (1994:1236) on producer responsibility for tyres
Batteries Ordinance (2008:834) on producer responsibility for batteries
Waste oil Ordinance (1993:1268) on waste oil
PCB Ordinance (1998:122) on PCB
WEEE Ordinance (2005:209) on producer responsibility for EEE

2.3 Regional waste acts

no information

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Period of implementation

Main features (short description)

Strategy for sustainable waste management, Swedish EPA (2005b).

Not legally binding. An overview of situation and changes in Swedish waste management 1994-2004, including environmental effects. Targets and strategies are outlined and areas of priority outlined for the next 5 years. 2010 the plan will be revised.

A national strategy for waste management, Government Communication 1998/99:63

Not legally binding; provides an overall picture of waste management objectives and guidelines for local authorities.

3.2 Regional plans

 

Period of implementation

Main features (short description)

Since 1991 Swedish municipalities are obliged to have a  waste management plan.How often the plans should be revised is not regulated.

The waste management plan shall contain information

concerning waste in the municipality and concerning the

municipality’s measures to reduce the quantity and hazardousness. The plans shall contain targets based on national environmental objectives.

The municipality shall hand in the plans to the County administrative board (CAB). Every CAB shall put together the plans and forward to the Swedish EPA. Moreover the CAB shall analyse the waste treatment capacity. If necessary the CAB shall consult the operators within the county in order to make sure there is sufficient treatment capacity within the region.

 

4. Waste prevention for Sweden

4.1. Objectives

All waste management should be based on the waste hierarchy (as stated in the new waste directive), i.e. the main priority is to prevent the generation of waste.

The overall aim of the Environmental Code is to prevent environmental impact of all human activity. This should be achieved through preventive measures and general rules of consideration.

The Swedish Government has established 16 Environmental Quality Objectives. Under the 15th target, ‘A Good Built Environment’, there are interim targets for waste, e.g. that the quantity of waste generated will not increase and maximum use will be made of its resource potential while minimizing health and environmental effects (for more information see 5.1 Objectives).

4.2. Targets

No specific targets other than that the quantity of waste will not increase.

4.3. Strategy

See 5.3.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2008
Legal documentFörordning (1997:645) om batterier
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Yearno i
Legal documentFörordning (1997:788) om producentansvar för bilar
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE (RoHS- directive)
Year2005
Legal documentFörordning 1998:944 om förbud m.m. i vissa fall och ……..
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1994
Legal documentFörordning (2006:1235) om producentansvar för förpackningar
Regulatory instrument
Titlelandfill ban
Waste streamcombustible waste
Year2002
Legal documentFörordning (2001:512) om deponering av avfall (ordinance)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelandfill ban
Waste streamOrganic waste
Year2005
Legal documentFörordning (2001:512) om deponering av avfall (ordinance)

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeProducer responsibility for waste paper
Year1994
Transition periodno information
Objectives• To provide an incentive for producers to collect and manage waste paper in a rational and efficient manner • To create a system that will work in the long term • To ensure a market for waste paper from Sweden • To ensure that the paper mills have access to recycled fibre materials
Targets75 % of the newspapers shall be collected and recycled.
Description• A producer shall ensure that suitable collection systems are provided to facilitate separation by households and others of waste paper from household refuse and other waste. The collection system shall be designed so that the total environmental impact from the transport associated with collection is minimized.
• The producer shall ensure that the collected waste paper is transported and recycled or disposed of in some other environmentally acceptable fashion. Separated and collected waste paper shall be recycled unless special reasons dictate otherwise.
• Households and other consumers of newspapers etc. shall separate waste paper from household refuse and other waste and deliver it for collection to the collection systems provided by the producers.
ImplementationOrdinance (1994:1205) on Producer Responsibility for Waste Paper defines waste paper as discarded newspapers etc. The producer’s obligations are defined in the Swedish EPA’s regulation SNFS 1996:15.
ResultThe aim of the Ordinance is that the producers shall, by no later than 2000, ensure that 75 percent of the newspapers etc. consumed in Sweden are collected as waste paper to be recycled or disposed of in another environmentally acceptable manner. This target was attained already in 1997, and the result for the past three years has been around 80 percent. 2008 the recovery rate was over 80 %.
Regulatory instrument
TitleProducer responsibility for packaging
ScopeProducer responsibility for packaging
Year1994
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesThe purpose of the Ordinance on Producer Responsibility for Packaging is to influence the design of packaging so that the material use is optimised, the waste is minimised and the waste can be reused or recovered and finally incinerated or landfilled, all with minimal environmental impact. Landfilling should be avoided. Producer responsibility shall serve as a policy instrument to ensure that packaging is designed, produced and offered for sale in such a manner that environmentally acceptable management is possible when the packaging waste is to be disposed of. Another purpose is to stimulate the producers to develop packaging so that emissions of harmful substances when landfilled or incinerated are minimized. At the same time, the Ordinance is aimed at stimulating the development of smaller and lighter packaging so that the amount of waste is reduced.
TargetsRecovery in percent by weight as from 1 January 2005:
• Metal, not beverage containers 70% recycling
• Aluminium beverage containers 90% recycling
• Cardboard, paper and corrugated cardboard 65% recycling
• Plastic, not PET bottles 70% (at least 30% recycling)
• PET bottles 90% recycling
• Glass 70% recycling
• Wood packaging 70% (at least15% recycling)
• Packaging of other material 30% (at least 15% recycling per material)
The recovery result for 2002 is 67%, the same as for 2001. The recycling rate is 65%, which is a slight improvement from 2001.The total quantity of packaging placed on the market has increased by two percent.
Description• The producer shall ensure that the packaging is recoverable; provide suitable collection systems; consult with municipalities and report the recovery rates to the Swedish EPA. The municipalities shall inform the households about the system.
• Households and other consumers shall separate packaging from other waste. The producer shall consult with the municipality in matters concerning a suitable collection system and information.
In order to live up to the requirements laid down in the legislation, the business community has formed joint recycling companies, also called material companies. These companies are run on a non-profit basis and their purpose is to ensure that producer responsibility is fulfilled. They have thus assumed responsibility on behalf of the producers.
There are recycling companies for glass, metal, paper and paperboard, corrugated cardboard, plastic, wood and beverage containers. They are Svensk GlasÅtervinning AB, Svenska Metallkretsen AB, Returkarton AB, RWA Returwell AB, Plastkretsen AB, Svenskt Returträ AB, Returpack AB, Returpack-PET AB. Finally, the Swedish Brewers' Association is responsible for returnable beverage glass containers. There is also a newly-formed recycling company, SvepRetur AB, which is responsible for a voluntary commitment concerning plastics used in agriculture.
The collection system is nationwide. There are two different collection systems, one for consumers and one for industry - companies, hospitals, restaurants, etc. There are recycling stations in all municipalities where households can leave their separated packaging waste free of charge. There are currently a total of about 7,700 recycling stations in the country.
ImplementationProducer responsibility is regulated via the Environmental Code's (1998:808) Chapter 15 on waste and producer responsibility, as well as the Ordinance (1997:185) on Producer Responsibility for Packaging
ResultThe total recovery in 2007, calculated according to the Swedish Ordinance (2006:1273) on producer responsibility for packaging, is 82 per cent, of which 60 per cent is recycled material and 22 per cent energy recovery.
All but one of the packaging materials reach the national targets for recovery
and recycling of material. The exception is metal packaging, of which, 69 per cent
is recycled, i.e. 1 percentage point under the national target of 70 percent. However,
this result is an increase of 3 percentage points compared to 2006.
The recycling of glass increased: from 91 to 94 percent. The calculations are based on the amounts Swedish producers put on the market. Private imports are not included.
The recycling of plastics has decreased: from 38 to 35 percent. The total recovery of plastic packaging was 76 percent.

The recycling of paper packaging was 73 percent,
For packaging made of wood the material companies report a 100 percent recovery rate for 2007.
Regulatory instrument
TitleDeposit refund schemes
ScopeDeposit refund schemes
YearDepo
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesThe deposit-refund system for glass bottles is a voluntary system, whereas deposits for aluminium cans and PET-bottles are mandatory. The purpose is to increase recycling and reuse. In order to safeguard the competitiveness of domestically produced beverage containers, imported containers are levied with a charge equal to the deposit-refund of those produced domestically.
Targets• Aluminium and metal beverage containers 90% recycling
• PET bottles 90% recycling
DescriptionThe deposit-refund is included in the consumer price and the refund rates are generally SEK 0.5 per aluminium can, SEK 0.6 per glass bottle (size 33 cl) and SEK 4 per PET-bottle. The refund rates vary, however, with respect to material and size.
Implementationno information
ResultThe return percentage is generally high at around 90%.
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year1996
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum

- Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationFörordning (1997:185) om producentansvar för förpackningar
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.

- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationFörordning (2005:209) om producentansvar för elektriska och elektroniska produkter
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2007
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,

- consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,

- increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationFörordning (2007:185) om producentansvar för bilar
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePaper/newsprint
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targets- at least 75% of all paper/newsprint should be collected and recycled
Descriptionno information
ImplementationFörordning (?:?) om producentansvar för returpapper
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeLight bulbs
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- producer responsibility for luminaires in households and filament bulbs.
ImplementationFörordning (2000:208) om producentansvar för glödlampor och viss belysningsarmatur
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleTax on waste being landfilled (some exemptions)
ScopeTax on waste being landfilled (some exemptions)
Year2000
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesTo make landfilling a less attractive option and to increase the economic incentives to reduce waste amounts and use waste treatment methods that are preferable from environmental and natural resources perspectives.
TargetsTo reduce quantity of waste going to landfill, not including mining waste, by at least 50 per cent by 2005 compared with 1994.
DescriptionTax on waste being landfilled (43 Euro/tonne)
ImplementationLag (1999:673) om skatt på avfall
ResultThe amount of waste that tax is being paid on decreased by 50 % from 2000 to 2004. However it is not clear whether the tax has had any influence on the amount of waste being produced.
Market-based instrument
TitleTax on household waste that is incinerated
ScopeTax on household waste that is incinerated.
Year2006
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesTo increase the recovery of household waste.
Targetsno information
DescriptionTax on incineration of household waste (50 Euro/tonne)
ImplementationLag (1994:1776) om skatt på energi
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal Consumers
Batteries and Accumulators
Year2009
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Capacity (life span of products)
- higher content of heavy metals
- the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
ImplementationFörordning (2008:834) om producentansvar för batterier
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleWaste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Scopefinal consumer
ELV
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionWaste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
ImplementationFörordning (2007:185) om producentansvar för bilar
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeOffice paper; National
Year1998
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesRecycling of office paper
TargetsCollection of at least 75% of paper sold.
DescriptionAll information about the policy instrument which is relevant for the management of the waste stream or for implementation of waste prevention.
ImplementationReference to legal instrument or voluntary agreement document, etc.
Resultno information
Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFarm plastic; National
Year1998
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesRecycling of Farm Plastics
Targets50%
DescriptionAll information about the policy instrument which is relevant for the management of the waste stream or for implementation of waste prevention.
ImplementationReference to legal instrument or voluntary agreement document, etc.
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

Examples

TitleDescription
Reuse as a prevention methodIn Gothenburg, the second biggest city in Sweden, the municipality has introduced a certain place where households can leave their old things like furniture, clothes and other items that they don’t longer want to keep. The “waste” is then given to different voluntary organisations located in the area and thereafter sold.
Material-efficient processesIncreasing the material efficiency of industrial processes reduces production waste. A recent study concluded that if there is a potential economic gain, Swedish industry is prepared to take measures on increased material efficiency (Profu, 2008). The study based the conclusion on interviews with representatives of Swedish industry. Some examples are given below:

The company Finndomo (producer of pre-fabricated houses) buys pre-cut board and plasterboard in order to avoid saw dust and plaster waste, claiming their sub-contractors pre-cut products more material efficiently.

Accordingly, Elitfönster (windows) buys pre-cut aluminium profiles in order to avoid waste. Additionally, chips from drilling are sent back to the manufacturer for recycling.

International Automotive Components (IAC) Group AB (plastic-detail products to the car industry) increased the internal plastic reuse and thereby the raw-material need. Through investments in small mills placed at each production line, which substituted for the earlier used central mill. This decreased the risk for contamination of the plastic waste for recycling due to less storage and internal transport. Thereby, the quality of the plastic waste increases and subsequently the potential rate of reuse.

The floor manufacturer Tarkett AB reuses 23% plastic material per tonne produced plastic floor, through the internal and external reuse system. The internal system both reuses waste from the production process and discarded material from the quality control and has been run 30-40 years. The external reuse system is a possibility for customers to return waste, and was introduced in the 1990s.

4.5 Waste prevention examples

no information

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Sweden

5.1. Objectives

no information

5.2. Targets

There is a voluntary commitment for construction and demolition waste run by the Ecocycle Council. The Council has formulated a number of environmental objectives and a plan of action in the Environmental Program 2003-2010. One of the targets is to reduce landfilling of construction waste (byggavfall) by half from 2004 to 2010.

5.3. Strategy

no information

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeAccording to the planning and building act (Law 1987:10) a demolition permit is required for the demolition of buildings or parts of buildings. A demolition plan shall be attached to the permit. Demolition work may not start before the municipality has approved the plan.
YearThe
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
ResultThe extent of supervisions differs from municipality to municipality. Some municipalities do not have enough capacity or are not organised in a suitable way to supervise all the plans.

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeVoluntary commitment for construction and demolition waste run by the Ecocycle Council, which is an association of around 30 organizations within the Swedish building and real estate sector.
Year1995
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesThe aim of Ecocycle Council is that the building sector, through voluntary efforts, on market grounds and in close co-operation with authorities and legislation, succeeds in conducting credible, effective, coordinated and systematic environmental work that results in permanent environmental improvements.
TargetsSee implementation.
DescriptionThe sector's undertaking spans the whole of the building process, from planning and product development, via project design and building, to maintenance and conversion to demolition, sorting of waste at source and delivery of sorted waste. The undertaking also embraces all owners of buildings, ranging from the State-owned National Road Administration to every Swedish house-owner.
ImplementationThrough the plan of action, everyone in the sector has pledged - to each other and to the State - to take his or her share of responsibility for environmental conservation, without laws or statutes regulating or altering the mutual division of responsibility among the parties involved. The sector's undertaking, through the companies and organisations it represents, may be summarised in the following points:
1. To improve its competence in, and knowledge of, environmental issues.
2. To limit future environmental problems, via action at the early stages.
3. Building product declarations.
4. To adapt industry standards to the needs of the closed-loop system.
5. To identify environmentally hazardous waste and sort it at source.
6. Demolition and sorting at source.
7. Approved waste handlers.
8. To halve the volumes of landfill waste.
9. To follow up the program.
ResultWe lack data in this area.
Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeThe Ecocycle Council’s guidelines on waste handling in
construction and demolition works
Year2007
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesTo raise the level of quality and create uniformity in the handling of construction and demolition waste.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe Ecocycle Council’s guidelines specify the manner in which the construction industry and property owners are to handle waste from construction and demolition operations. The guidelines are an interpretation of the relevant legislation on the basis of the intentions of the environmental programme.
Implementationno information
ResultWe lack data in this area.

Additional info

no information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Sweden

6.1. Objectives

The Swedish Parliament has established 16 environmental quality objectives, such as "Clean air" and "Good-quality groundwater", to guide Sweden towards a sustainable society. The 16 environmental objectives will function as benchmarks for all environment-related development in Sweden, regardless of where it is implemented and by whom. The overriding aim is to solve all the major environmental problems within one generation.

The 16 objectives:

  1. Reduced Climate Impact
  2. Clean Air
  3. Natural Acidification Only
  4. A Non-Toxic Environment
  5. A Protective Ozone Layer
  6. A Safe Radiation Environment
  7. Zero Eutrophication
  8. Flourishing Lakes and Streams
  9. Good-Quality Groundwater
  10. A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos
  11. Thriving Wetlands
  12. Sustainable Forests
  13. A Varied Agricultural Landscape
  14. A Magnificent Mountain Landscape
  15. A Good Built Environment
  16. A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal life

6.2. Targets

Interim targets for ‘A Good Built Environment’ decided by the Parliament

 

The total quantity of waste must not increase, and maximum possible use must be made of the resource that waste represents, while at the same time minimising the impact on, and risk to, health and the environment. In particular:

 

Interim target for Reduced Climate Impact decided by the Swedish Government

The average Swedish emissions of greenhouse gases during the period 2008-2012 shall be at least 4% lower than the emissions in 1990. The emissions are to be accounted for as carbon dioxide equivalents and include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and HFCs.

6.3. Strategy

no information

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling of burnable and organic waste
Scopeorganic waste
YearThe
Transition period
ObjectivesTo decrease the amount of organic waste that is landfilled.
Targetsno information
DescriptionIn regions with lack of treatment capacity the County Administrative Board may give exemptions from the ban (480 000 tonnes of organic waste in 2007).
Implementationno information
ResultThe target of reducing waste going to landfill by 50 per cent has fulfilled. As for household waste only 4% was landfilled in 2007. The target of recycling household waste is about to be fulfilled.

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeGovernment investment grants have been given to municipalities during 1998-2008. Almost all plants for bio-gas production in Sweden have received grants.
Year1998
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThere have been two different systems of investment grants. The first one (1998-2003) was called Local Investment Programmes (LIP). The aim was to significantly speed up the transition of Sweden to an ecologically sustainable society. The following one (2003-2008), Climate Investment Programmes (KLIMP) aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Implementationno information
ResultThe grants have been invested in municipalities, municipal associations, county councils and companies in all counties throughout Sweden. The Klimp and LIP projects are expected to decrease greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 2,1 million tonnes/year. Approximately a third of the Klimp funds are allocated to biogas measures (60 million Euro).

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleSystem of certification of compost and bio-fertiliser (digestate)
ScopeSystem of certification of compost and bio-fertiliser (digestate)
Year1999
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesTo ensure that the produced compost or digestate do not contain any hazardous substances that may impose a risk while used for soil improvement.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe facilities producing compost or bio-fertiliser from source separated bio waste, including food waste from the food industry, can quality mark their product through certification. The certification system has been developed by Avfall Sverige among others, and the examining body for this certification system is SP, the Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The certification places demands on the entire handling chain from incoming waste to use.
Implementationno information
ResultAt present, a number of facilities work with certification of their products. Seven biogas facilities have received certification. These are Linköping, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Kristianstad, Uppsala, Laholm and Vänersborg. Three composting facilities are certified, Sysav in Malmö, Borlänge and Örebro.
Voluntary instrument
TitleVoluntary undertaking from operators to investigate and minimise the emissions from biogas and upgrading facilities.
ScopeVoluntary undertaking from operators to investigate and minimise the emissions from biogas and upgrading facilities.
Year2007
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesMinimise emissions from biogas production.
Targetsno information
DescriptionIn the facilities where biological treatment of organic material happens through anaerobic breakdown, and for the upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel biogas, emissions to the air may occur in different parts of the system.
According to the undertaking the facilities are investigate their emissions periodically. Found emissions shall be rectified. They can be rectified through a greater focus on operational issues.
Implementationno information
ResultMore than 30 biogas and upgrading facilities have affiliated themselves to the voluntary undertaking.

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

no information

Construction and demolition waste

no information

Waste prevention

For the past decades Swedish waste management has focused on improving the treatment technologies and on reducing the amount of waste going to landfill. These are both positive developments from an environmental perspective.  Although the treatment of the waste has improved, the quantity of municipal solid waste grows, in average by approximately 2% per year.

 The quantities of industrial waste are much larger, but it is difficult to investigate how they change over time.

 The total quantity of Swedish waste is uncertain and depends on the method for defining and recording the waste. The quantity of municipal solid waste  grows steadily, however.

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information