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Factsheet for Romania

1. General facts

CountryRomania (RO)
Surface area238,391 Km²
Population (thousands)21458
Population density90
Persons per household
GDP per capita PPS42.2
GDP per capita
Household characteristicsPercentage living in rural areas: 45%
Percentage living in urban areas: 55%
Gross value added27.3 % Industry, including energy
7.2 % Construction
25.4% Trade, transport and communication services
16.7% Business activities and financial services
13.8% Other services
9.6 % Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The Ministry of Environment develops national policies in the waste management field. It is the state authority for the following functions: strategy, regulation, administration and representation. The Ministry develops strategies in the waste management field and initiates / approves legal standards and norms for waste management.

National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)
NEPA is the technical body subordinated to the Ministry of Environment, with the following functions: technical support for legal norms, strategies and policies, legislation implementation, coordination of the activities for strategies and policies implementation, representation and permitting.
The Directorate for Waste and Dangerous Chemicals within NEPA coordinates and monitors implementation of legislation in the waste management field. It assures technical support for the initiation of legal standards and norms.

 

8 Regional Environmental Protection Agency (REPA) are established.
REPAs are subordinated to NEPA. They accomplish at the regional level the NEPA’s responsibilities.

 

42 County Environmental Protection Agency
County EPAs are subordinated to NEPA. They collect primary information related to waste generation and management and accomplish at the county level NEPA’s responsibilities.


National Environmental Guard (NEG)

NEG is the specialised body of the Ministry of Environment, with responsibilities for inspection and control.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Ordonanţa de Urgenţă 78/2000 privind regimul deşeurilor, cu modificările şi completările ulterioare (Legea 426/2001, Ordonanţa de Urgenţă 61/2006, Legea 27/2007)

Emergency Ordinance No. 78/2000 on waste regime, modified and approved by Law No. 426/2001, modified by Emergency Ordinance 61/2006, approved by Law 27/2007

It transposes Directive 2006/12/EC.

It regulates waste management activities that need to ensure a high level of protection for human health and the environment.

It is structured in 7 main chapters, as follows:
1. General provisions
2. Waste management
- General conditions for waste management
- Permitting of the activities related to waste
- Control of the activities related to waste
- Waste collection, transport, treatment and disposal
3. Responsibilities for waste management
- Responsibilities of waste producers
- Responsibilities of waste transporters
- Responsibilities of operators in waste recovery and disposal
- Other responsibilities of natural and legal persons
4. International trade and transit with waste
Incentives
5. Responsibilities of the authorities of public administration - central and local
6. Penalties
7. Final provisions
Hotărârea Guvernului 1470/2004 privind aprobarea Strategiei Naţionale de Gestionare a Deşeurilor şi a Planului Naţional de Gestionare a Deşeurilor

Governmental Decision 1470/2004 on the approval of National Waste management Strategy and National Waste Management Plan
It approves National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) for 2003 – 2013 and National Waste Management Plan (NWMP) for 2004 – 2009.

It establishes the following responsibilities for waste management:
- local public administration (municipalities) is responsible for municipal waste management;
- industrial waste generators are responsible for the environmental sound management of their waste.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Governmental Decision No. 349/2005 on waste landfilling Ministerial Order No 95/2005 for the approval of waste acceptance criteria and national lists of waste accepted in each landfill class Ministerial Order No. 757/2004 for the approval of Technical norms regarding waste landfilling no i
Incineration Governmental Decision No. 128/2002 concerning waste incineration, modified and completed by Governmental Decision 268/2005 Ministerial Order No. 756/2004 for the approval of Technical Norms regarding waste incineration no i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Packaging wasteGovernmental Decision No. 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006 Ministerial Order No. 927/2005 regarding reporting procedure for packaging and packaging waste .

2.3 Regional waste acts

Not the case for Romania. National legislation is applied within the whole territory of Romania.

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Period of implementation

Main features

2004 - 2009

The National Waste Management Plan was elaborated based on the European and national legal provisions in this field – Framework Council Directive 75/442/EEC on waste, amended by Council Directive 91/156/EEC, Council Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, transposed in the Romanian legislation through the Governmental Emergency Ordinance 78/2000 regarding the waste regime, approved with modification and amendments through the Law No. 426/2001.

The National Waste Management Plan has as aim to establish the necessary frame to develop and implement an integrated waste management system, efficient from economic and ecologic point of view.

National Waste Management Plan deals with all types of waste that are covered by Directive 2006/12/EC – municipal and industrial (hazardous and non-hazardous).

National Waste Management Plan is structured as follows:

Part I - General presentation

Principles, strategic objectives and targets

Legislative framework

Part II - Municipal waste

Existing situation

Prognosis

Alternatives in objectives achievement

Action plan

Financing

Implementation monitoring

Part III - Production waste

Existing situation

Non-hazardous waste production

Hazardous waste production

Contaminated area administration

Annexes

Annex No. 1- List of the economic agents recycling glass, paper and cardboard waste, plastics

Annex No. 2 – List of the economic agents authorized to recover paper/cardboard wastes

 

The English version of the National Waste Management Plan can be found on the web page of the Ministry of Environment (http://www.mmediu.ro/departament_mediu_en/waste_management.htm).

3.2 Regional plans

According to the provisions of Emergency Ordinance 61/2006 (that modifies Emergency Ordinance 78/2000 on waste regime) 8 Regional Waste Management Plans (1 for each region) are to be prepared by the County Councils within the region, together with the County Environmental Protection Agencies and under the coordination of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency.

According to the Romanian legislation, the responsibility for the collection and management of municipal waste belongs to the municipalities.

Regional Waste Management Plans have been prepared by the end of 2006 and they have been approved by Joint Ministerial Order of MEWM and Ministry of Integration 1364 / 1499 from 2006. Based on the specific situation within each region (and within each county from the region), these plans establish the optimum municipal waste management flows, as well as the necessary capacities for waste collection, treatment and disposal, in order to develop integrated systems for municipal waste management at regional levels.

Regional Waste Management Plans deal with municipal waste.

 

4. Waste prevention for Romania

4.1. Objectives

Emergency Ordinance 78/2000 on waste regime, with its amendments, provides waste hierarchy, by establishing priority objectives for waste management, as follows:

-           waste prevention or reducing waste quantity and the hazardous characteristics of waste;

-           waste reuse, recycling and energetic recovery.

4.2. Targets

No waste prevention targets for specific waste streams have been established, excepting certain requirements from specific European Directives (ex: WEEE Directive).

4.3. Strategy

General rules for waste prevention are set in the Emergency Ordinance 78/2000, with its amendments, as follows. Products’ producers and the companies with activities that generate waste are obliged to:

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
TitleBan of using certain hazardous substances in EEE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2005
Legal documentGovernmental Decision 992/2005 regarding the limit of use of certain hazardous substances in EEE
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan of using certain hazardous substances in vehicles
Waste streamELVs
Year2006
Legal documentGovernmental Decision 2406/2004 on ELVs management, modified by Governmental Decision 1313/2006
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan of using certain hazardous substances in packaging
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year2005
Legal documentGovernmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan of using certain hazardous substances in batteries and accumulators
Waste streamBatteries and accumulators
Year2008
Legal documentGovernmental Decision 1132/2008 on batteries and accumulators and waste of batteries and accumulators

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionReuse and recycling targets for components, materials and substances from WEEE
Implementation

Governmental Decision 448/2005 on WEEE
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionVehicle manufacturers have to take the necessary measures to assure design and construction of new vehicles taking into account dismantling and reuse.

Producers and dismantlers have to develop methods for reuse, recycle and recover ELVs and their components

Reuse and recycling / recovery targets for components and materials from ELVs
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 2406/2004 on ELVs management, modified by Governmental Decision 1313/2006
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopePackaging waste
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionOne of the main objectives of packaging management is packaging reuse

Certain requirements for the producers that put on the market reusable packaging
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum

- Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that dismantling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.

- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 448/2005 on WEEE
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELVs
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description

- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,

- consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,

- increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 2406/2004 on ELVs management, modified by Governmental Decision 1313/2006
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

- Deposit refund scheme for reusable packaging – provided by Governmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management

- Deposit refund scheme for car batteries – provided by Governmental Decision 1132/2008 on batteries and accumulators and waste of batteries and accumulators

- Tax to Environmental Fund for non-biodegradable selling packaging put on the market – provided by Emergency Ordinance 196/2005 on the Environmental Fund, with its amendments

 

Environmental Fund Administration analyses, selects and finances projects for environmental protection, including projects for waste prevention and management.

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
TitleInformation on Disposal of WEEE
ScopeFinal Consumers
WEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Obligation for not disposing WEEE as unsorted municipal waste
- Available collection systems
- The users’ role in WEEE reuse, recycling, recovery
- Effects on environment and human health of hazardous substances within WEEE
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 448/2005 on WEEE
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleInformation on reuse and treatment of WEEE
ScopeDismantling companies,
WEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 448/2005 on WEEE
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleELV component and material coding standards
ScopeDismantling companies,
ELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionUse of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 2406/2004 on ELVs management, modified by Governmental Decision 1313/2006
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal Consumer
ELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionWaste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 2406/2004 on ELVs management, modified by Governmental Decision 1313/2006
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleConsumer information on betteries and consumers
ScopeFinal Consumer
Batteries and Accumulators
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- The potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
- Obligation for not disposing waste of batteries and accumulators as unsorted municipal waste
- Available collection systems
- The users’ role in batteries and accumulators recycling
ImplementationGovernmental Decision 1132/2008 on batteries and accumulators and waste of batteries and accumulators
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

The legal framework is established, but no voluntary agreements have been set until now.

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

The measures are still under development, so no results are available for the moment.

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Romania

5.1. Objectives

There are no specific objectives for C&D waste. Only general requirements for waste management are applied.

5.2. Targets

No specific recycling / recovery targets for C&D waste have been set.

5.3. Strategy

National Waste Management Plan provides specific objectives for C&D waste, as follows:

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

Ministry of Environment has prepared a draft for a Governmental Decision regarding C&D waste management.

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No market instruments for the moment.

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

No information based instruments for the moment.

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

No voluntary instruments and voluntary agreements for the moment.

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Romania

6.1. Objectives

General objectives according to the Directive 1999/31/CE on the landfill of waste and to the Directive 1994/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste.

6.2. Targets

Specific targets for diverting biodegradable waste from landfilling – provided by Governmental Decision 349/2005 on the landfill of waste:

For the attainment of targets foreseen in art. 5(2) (a) and (b) of the Directive 1999/31/CE, Romania will apply the provisions of paragraph 3 of art. 5(2) of the Directive on the possibility of postponing the attainment of targets by a period of 4 years, by 16.07.2010 and by 16.07.2013, respectively.

The third target will be attained by the date set out in the Directive - 16.07.2016.

Specific targets for paper packaging waste recycling - 60% – provided by Governmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006

6.3. Strategy

Romanian strategy for diverting biodegradable waste from landfilling is contained into the National Waste Management Plan.

Measures for the Reduction of biodegradable waste are planned, as follows:

Reduction of biodegradable waste by separate collection of organic matter (especially green waste) from waste (in less dense urban areas,)

Demonstrative facilities will be developed (pilot projects):

Results of the pilot projects will be used to extend the system.

At this moment there are under preparing and approval County Waste Management Plans that will detail measures and actions at each county level, in order to achieve the targets from the legislation and from the national and regional waste management plans.

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

- Governmental Decision 349/2005 on the landfill of waste

- Governmental Decision 621/2005 on packaging and packaging waste management, modified by Governmental Decision 1872/2006

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No market based instruments for the moment.

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

No information based instruments for the moment.

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

No voluntary instruments and voluntary agreements for the moment.

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

no information

Construction and demolition waste

No results for C&D waste for the moment.

Waste prevention

The measures are still under development, so no results are available for the moment.

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information