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Factsheet for Poland

1. General facts

CountryPoland (PL)
Surface area312,685 Km²
Population (thousands)38112
Population density122
Persons per household2.8
GDP per capita PPS53.4
GDP per capita
Household characteristics
Gross value added25.1% Industry, including energy
6.6% Construction
27.6%Trade, transport and communication services
17.6% Business activities and financial services
18.7% Other services
4.4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

Some important waste legislation in Poland are described in  

The following acts are supplemented by

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Ustawa z 27 kwietnia 2001 r. Prawo ochrony środowiska (Dz. U. z 2008 r. Nr 25, poz. 150, z późn. zm.)
Act of 27th April 2001 - Environmental Protection Law (J. of L. of 2008 No. 25, item 150, with later amendments)
Introduction of general environmental principles, which are also relevant for waste management, such as principle of prevention, precautionary principle, environmental fees, integrated permissions, etc.
Ustawa z 27 kwietnia 2001 r. o odpadach (Dz.U. z 2007 r. Nr 39, poz. 251, z późn. zm.)
Act of 27th April 2001 on waste (J. of L. of 2007 No. 39, item 251, with later amendments)
The Act on waste is an important waste legislation. It is structured in 10 chapters:
1. General regulations
2. General waste management rules
3. Waste management plans
3.a. Tasks of local and regional self-government in municipal waste management.
4. Obligations of waste holders
5. Special rules of managing certain types of waste
6. Incineration of waste
7. Landfilling
9. Financial penalties
10. Final regulations
Ustawa z dnia 27 lipca 2001 r. o wprowadzeniu ustawy - Prawo ochrony środowiska, ustawy o odpadach oraz o zmianie niektórych ustaw (Dz. U. z 2001 r. Nr 100, poz. 1085, z późn. zm.)
Act of 27th July 2001 on the introduction of the act on the environmental protection law, the Act on waste and the Act amending certain Acts (J. of L. No. 100, item 1085, with later amendments)
Deadlines for enacting above mentioned Acts. Transitional regulations and regulations related to ecological reviews.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
LandfillingAct of 27th April 2001 on waste (J. of L. of 2007 No. 39, item 251, with later amendments) - Chapter 7 Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 24th March 2003 on the detailed requirements concerning the localisation, construction, operation, and closure of particular types of landfills (J. of L. No. 61, item 549, with later amendments) Regulation of the Minister of the Economy of 30th October 2002 on the types of waste which can be deposited in a non-selective way (J. of L. No. 191, item 1595) Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 9th December 2002 on the scope, time, manner, and conditions for monitoring landfills (J. of L. No. 220, item 1858) Regulation of the Minister of the Economy of 7th September 2005 on the requirements to be met by the waste to be deposited at particular landfills (J. of L. No. 186, item 1553, with later amendments) Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 14th October 2008 on environmental fees (J. of L. No. 196, item 1217)
IncinerationAct of 27th April 2001 on waste (J. of L. of 2007 No. 39, item 251, with later amendments) – Chapter 6 Regulation of the Minister of Economy of 21st March 2002 on the requirements for the waste thermal treatment process (J. of L. No. 37, item 339, with later amendments) Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 4th November 2008 on the specifications for scope of running measurement of the emission rate and measurement of quantity of taken water (J. of L. No. 206, item 1291) Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 20th December 2005 on the emission standards from plants (J. of L. No. 260, item 2181, with later amendments)

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
BMW (Biodegradable municipal wasteAct of 27th April 2001 on waste (J. of L. of 2007 No. 39, item 251, with later amendments) – art. 16a The 2010 National Waste Management Plan
PackagingAct of 11th May 2001 on packaging and packaging waste (J. of L. No. 63, item 638, with later amendments) Act of 11th May 2001 on economic operators’ obligations in the scope of managing certain types of waste and on the Product and Deposit Charges (O.J. of 2007, No. 90, item 607, with later amendments) Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 14 June 2007 on annual levels of recovery and recycling of packaging waste and post-consumption waste (J. of L. No. 109, item 752)
Lubricating oils, tyresAct of 11th May 2001 on economic operators’ obligations in the scope of managing certain types of waste and on the product and deposit charges (J. of L. of 2007, No. 90, item 607, with later amendments) Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 14th June 2007 on annual levels of recovery and recycling of packaging waste and post-consumption waste (J. of L. No. 109, item 752)
Waste Electric and Electronic EquipmentAct of 29th July 2005 on waste electric and electronic equipment (J. of L. No. 180, item 1495 and J. of L. of 2008 No. 223, item 1464)
Batteries and accumulatorsAct of 24th April 2009 on batteries and accumulators (J. of L. No. 79, item 666)
Mining wasteAct of 10th of July 2008 on mining waste (J. of L. of 2008 No. 138, item 865)
End of life vehiclesAct of January 20th 2005 on recycling of end-of life vehicles (J. of L. of 2005 No. 25, item 202, with later amendments)

2.3 Regional waste acts

Poland has no Regional Waste Acts.

3. Waste management plans

3.1 National plan

The Polish Act of 27th of April 2001 on waste (J. of L. of 2007 No. 39, item 251, with later amendments) introduced obligation to prepare waste management plans which are subjected for an update at least in every 4 years.  Based on article 14, paragraph 4 of the Act on waste the first national waste management plan (NWMP) was approved by Resolution No. 219 of the Council of Ministers of Poland, of 29th October 2002 (Governmental Gazette of 2003, No. 11, Item 159).

In 2006 "The 2010 National Waste Management Plan" was prepared and approved by Resolution No. 233 of the Council of Ministers of Poland, of 29th December 2006 (Governmental Gazette of 2006, No. 90, Item 946).

The Plan covers full range of the tasks required to provide for an integrated waste management throughout the national territory in a manner securing protection of the environment, with regard to both the present and future economic opportunities and circumstances, and the technical development level of existing infrastructure. The Plan covers waste generated domestically, particularly municipal waste, hazardous waste, packaging waste and municipal sewage sludge, as well as waste imported into the national territory. The Plan takes into account trends in the contemporary economy worldwide, as well as the national circumstances of the economic growth. The objectives and tasks presented in the Plan relate to the period 2007-2010 and the 2011-2018 perspective.

 

Period of implementation

Main content

2007 – 2010

  • The National waste management plan includes:
  • Present legal and organisational state of waste management
  • Analysis of the current status of waste management
  • Prognosis of change in waste management
  • Waste management objectives and targets for the following waste streams:
    - municipal waste

    - hazardous waste

    - other waste, including en
    d-of-life tyres; waste from construction and demolition waste; urban waste water sludge; packaging waste; waste generated from industrial activities
  • Directions for activities to prevent waste and develop waste management system
  • The financial instruments serving implementation of the objectives in the scope of waste management
  • A system of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the objectives set in this Plan.

3.2 Regional plans

Region

Webside

Data of updating/ resolution

29th of April 2004

3rd of July 2008

31st of March 2008

27th of September 2008

15th of September 2003

24th of September 2007

15th of October 2007

31st of March 2008

26th of May 2008

3rd of March 2008

24th of September 2007

25th of August  2003

20th October 2007

26th of June 2007

31st of March 2008

30th of June 2003

Dolnoslaskie

http://umwd.dolnyslask.pl/

 

Kujawsko – Pomorskie

www.kujawsko-pomorskie.pl

 

Lodzkie

http://www.bip.lodzkie.pl/bip/podmiotowe/ urzad/programy/srodowisko/

 

Lubelskie

http://www.lubelskie.pl/czgo/index.php

 

Lubuskie

http://www.lubuskie.pl/pl/index.php

 

Malopolskie

http://www.malopolskie.pl/pgowm

 

Mazowieckie

http://www.mazovia.pl/?a=news&id=3748

 

Opolskie

www.umwo.opole.pl

 

Podkarpackie

http://www.wrota.podkarpackie.pl/pl/bip/wojewodztwopodkarpackie /programy/plan_gosp_odpad  

 

Podlaskie

http://www.wrotapodlasia.pl/pl/ochrona_srodowiska/programy_plany/

 

Pomorskie

www.woj-pomorskie.pl

 

Slaskie

http://www.silesia-region.pl/ 

 

Swietokrzyskie

http://bip.sejmik.kielce.pl/bip_admin/zdjecia_art/4525/WPGO.pdf

 

Warminsko – Mazurskie

www.warmia.mazury.pl

 

Wielkopolskie

www.umww.pl

 

Zachodniopomorskie

http://www.um-zachodniopomorskie.pl/

 

4. Waste prevention for Poland

4.1. Objectives

The Act on waste contains rules for waste management in Poland. Article 5 mentions that anyone who undertakes actions which cause or may cause the production of waste shall plan, project and carry out such actions as to:

1) Prevent the production of waste or limit the volume of waste and its negative environmental effect whilst manufacturing products, during and after the completion of the usage thereof

2) Provide for the recovery compliant with the environmental protection regulations, if it has not been possible to prevent the production of waste

3) Provide for the disposal of waste compliant with the environmental protection regulations, the production of which could not have been prevented or which could not have been subject to recovery.

Avoidance and minimisation of generation of waste are the priorities in the hierarchy of waste management as established in the Community law that forms at the same time the objectives to Member States including Poland. Achieving these objectives depends on many factors which do not refer to waste management directly, but relate, for instance, to the economic growth, the implementation rate of the best available techniques (BAT) by industries, or the wealth of the society. Decisions to avoid generation of waste are undertaken already in the product design phase and also during its manufacturing and use phase, and are related to final disposal of waste originated from this product at the end of its life-cycle.

4.2. Targets

General rules for waste management prevention such as waste hierarchy and objectives are set in the 2010 National Waste Management Plan. According to the 2010 National Waste Management Plan the following principal activities are undertaken with regard to the national level:

4.3. Strategy

In the scope of the limitation of waste production, Poland supports innovative integrated solutions which make possible to prevent the generation of waste and to ensure the reduction of the pollutants of the different elements in the environment, particularly through the implementation of modern and low- or no-waste technologies which may contribute to the production and consumption of goods in a manner ensuring the achievement of high economic profitability and environmental protection. The environmental management system consistent with the EMAS requirements, registered under ISO 14001, is promoted based on the “Plan-Implement-Check-Act” model, which encourages identification of environmental problems and plan the relevant measures to reduce the adverse environmental impact. The Republic of Poland supports technological progress through certain exemptions afforded to the undertakings which participate in the aforementioned environmental management systems.

A system of product and deposit charges has also been implemented. The system imposes on producers and importers an obligation to recover and recycle packaging and post-consumption wastes. To date, the product charges have been imposed on:

-       
packaging
-       
electrical and electronic equipment
-       
batteries and accumulators
-       
lubricating oils
-       
tyres
The product charge creates a system which limits the generation of harmful waste and encouraging waste recycling. Other financial instruments are also used, including the raising the charges for the landfill of waste and the introducing the charges for plastic bags. At the same time, the research and promotion of new products, with greater durability and lower hazardous contents, are supported in order to facilitate their recycling.


The Act of 29 January 2004 on the Public Procurement Law (J. of L. of 2008, No. 171, Item 1058, with later amendments) allows for the application of environmental criteria when describing the object of procurement and when setting out the criteria for offer evaluation; they include in particular the quality, functionality, technical
parameters and the use of the best available techniques in terms of environmental impacts. The functioning of “green public procurement” allows for the creation of a policy within the framework of which public entities incorporate ecological criteria and requirements into the purchase processes (the procedures for the award of public orders) and seek solutions which would limit the adverse impacts of products/services on the environment and take into account the entire life cycle of products, thereby fostering the development and dissemination of low-waste technologies.

Gradual increase of the charge rates for landfilling of waste, in particular mixed municipal waste, biodegradable waste and those subject to recovery processes, including recycling.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

4.5 Waste prevention examples

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Poland

5.1. Objectives

The quantity of waste generated depends on the growth or recession of economy sectors, particularly in building and construction, road engineering and railway engineering sectors. Anticipated growth of waste generated by 2018 to about 2 400 thousand Mg. The quantity of C&D waste stored on landfills must be reduced by achieving recovery targets.

5.2. Targets

According to the 2010 National Waste Management Plan in period between 2007 and 2018, the overall objective is to expand by the recovery processes the scheme for selective collection of waste from construction and demolition waste, so as the following recovery levels are achieved: 50% in 2010, and 80% in 2018.

5.3. Strategy

Implementation of the following activities is required in order to achieve the objectives assumed for management of construction and demolition wastes:

- expand technical infrastructure for selective collection, treatment and recovery, including recycling of these waste streams,

- control adequate handling of these waste streams.

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of Construction and Demolition Waste
ScopeConstruction and Demolition Waste
Year2006
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesSeparate collection for recovery
Targetsrecovery levels: 50% in 2010, and 80% in 2018
DescriptionSelective collection of construction and demolition waste
ImplementationThe 2010 National Waste Management Plan, Resolution No. 233 of the Council of Ministers of 29 December 2006 on the 2010 National Waste Management Plan
ResultThe development of the recovery level is growing.

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleMarket based instruments
ScopeLandfilling of waste
Year2005
Transition periodno
ObjectivesReduced quantity of C&D waste going to landfills
Targets
DescriptionIncrease of fee for the landfilling of waste that waste producer must pay
ImplementationRegulation of the council of Ministers of 14th October 2005 - on fee on landfilling of waste (J. of L. No. 260, item 2176 and J. of L. of 2007. No. 106, item 723)
ResultReduced quantity of C&D waste going to landfills. More C&D waste underwent recovery and disposal processes.

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

None.

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Poland

6.1. Objectives

In accordance with the 2010 National Waste Management Plan, the objective of biodegradable municipal waste management is to reduce the quantity of waste of such nature.

6.2. Targets

The following targets are adopted for management of municipal waste:

reduce the quantity of municipal biodegradable waste subject to deposition on waste landfills so that the following deposition percentage targets are achieved:

·       in 2010  more than 75%,

·       in 2013  more than 50%,

·       in 2020  more than 35%

of the mass of the waste generated in 1995,

- by the end of 2014, reduce the mass of municipal waste deposited to maximum 85% of waste generated.

 

Guarantee recovery and recycling of packaging waste in order to achieve the following levels:

-         paper and cardboard packaging - the recycling level - at least 54% in the year 2010 and at least 60% in 2014;

-         wooden packaging - the recycling level - at least 15% in the year 2010 and at least 15% in 2014.

6.3. Strategy

According to the targets established in the scope of waste recovery and recycling:

·         selective collection and taking of the following fractions of municipal waste is required:

-         garden and park wastes

-         paper and cardboard (including packaging, newspapers, journals, etc.)

-         kitchen waste

·         development of selective collection and sorting of municipal waste. The activities in the scope of establishment of supra-municipal and municipal schemes for recovery and disposal of municipal waste with special regard to biodegradable waste;

·         well organised waste collection system and proper financial incentives (lower payments for separated waste);

·         the implementation of a system of waste collection with the use of “at the source” method and deliveries to a composting plant.

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Results

Construction and demolition waste

Waste from construction and demolition works undergo recovery and disposal processes in installations and by other means, for instance, for levelling the ground, reclamation of post-excavation pits (total about 1.2 million Mg), and also disposal processes (about 0.3 million Mg).

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information

No information