HOME



Search this website

Factsheet for Italy

1. General facts

CountryItaly (IT)
Surface area301,318 Km²
Population (thousands)59284
Population density197
Persons per household2.5
GDP per capita PPS101.5
GDP per capita
Household characteristics45% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km2)
39% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km2)
15% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab/km2)
Gross value added20.5% Industry, including energy
6.1% Construction
23% Trade, transport and communication services
27.1% Business activities and financial services
21.3% Other services
2.1% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The national waste framework legislation is included in the “Environmental Act”, Decree 152/06, which contains all the prescription for the waste management; it also defines the responsibilities among the actors of the national waste management system.

Regions hold the responsibility for drawing up waste management plans to integrate waste collection, treatment and disposal within optimal management areas (ATO, Ambito Territoriale Ottimale). At local level, concrete initiatives for waste prevention have been set up by public bodies like Municipalities, Provinces and Regions: waste tariffs, local voluntary agreements, development of domestic composting, information campaigns on waste prevention for citizens and economic operators, green public procurement, set up of networks for used objects exchange.

Local Authorities have the responsibility to organise municipal waste collection and management.

Legislative decree n.152 of 3 April 2006 entered into force on 29 April 2006. It repealed  decree 22/97 but includes all the abovementioned provisions related to waste management, and introduces some changes in the waste management sector. Decree 152/2006 was later modified by decree n. 4 of 16 January 2008.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Legislative Decree n.152 of 3 April 2006 as modified by Legislative Decree n. 4 of 16 January 2008Environment Act, it covers many environmental sectors, among which waste. It repealed the former National Waste framework Law, legislative decree 22/97, that transposed three of the main EU directives on waste: the European Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC, as modified by Directive 91/156/EEC, the Directive on Hazardous Waste 91/689/EC and the Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste 94/62/EC.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
IncinerationLegislative decree n. 133/05, transposition of directive 2000/76/EC no i
LandfillLegislative decree n. 36/03 of 13 January 2003, transposition of directive 1999/31/EC Ministerial Decree of 3 August 2005 (repealing ministerial decree of 13th march 2003) which establishes criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills, according to decision 2003/33/EC ) no i
IPPCLegislative decree n. 59 of 18th February 2005, transposition of IPPC directive 61/96/EC; Ministerial decree of 29th January 2007 which provides specific guidelines for waste treatment plants authorization under IPPC. no i
Recycling and/or recovery of hazardous and non hazardous wasteMinisterial Decree 5th february 1998 (as modified by ministerial decree n. 186/2007) which has introduced specific conditions, measures and options for the recycling and recovery of some typologies of non hazardous waste (included certain typologies of non hazardous C&D waste). Ministerial Decree 161/2002 which has introduced specific conditions, measures and options for the recycling of some typologies of hazardous waste (e.g some not ferrous metallic waste from thermal processes, some slags from thermal treatment of aluminium, some hazardous sludges, etc.) Ministerial Decree of 8 May 2003, n. 203 in application of the Law 448/2001 (public bodies and companies with prevailing public capital are required to buy at least 30% of their annual demand with products and goods made of recycled material) no i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Municipal wasteDecree 152/06 and Law n. 296 of 27th December 2006 establish specific set of targets for the separate collection of municipal waste (a set of targets for separate collection was already provided by previous framework waste act, legislative decree 22/97) Decree 152/06 establishes a tariff for municipal waste management (this instrument was already provided by decree 22/97). Presidential Decree n. 158/1999, laying down rules for the definition of a standard method for determining the tariff of service-cycle management of municipal waste
BMW (Biodegradable Municipal Waste)National Strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills Legislative decree n. 217/2006 which establishes specific physico-chemical characteristics for compost produced from selected biowaste in order to consider this compost as a product (soil improver).
Packaging wasteNational Waste framework Law (Decree 152/06) transposed directive 94/62/EC as modified by directive 2004/12/EC. Decree 152/2006 establishes a consortium (CONAI) for the management of packaging and packaging waste .
Waste from electric and electronic equipment/RohSLegislative decree 151/2005 transposed the WEEE and RoHS directives (2002/96/EC, 2002/95/EC and 2003/108/EC); Ministerial decree 185 of 25 September 2007 established the National WEEE Register
Batteries and accumulatorsLegislative Decree n.188 of 20th November 2008, which has transposed the Directive 2006/66/EC. Decree 152/2006 which establishes a specific consortium for collection and treatment of spent lead batteries and waste base on lead. Italian legislation has regulated this waste typology since 1988, with the Law 475/1988. This law has established a specific consortium for the collection and management of spent lead batteries. The law has been finally repealed and replaced by decree 188/2008.
Waste from human health care and/or related researchPresidential Decree n. 254 of 15th July 2003
End of life vehiclesLegislative Decree n. 209 of 24th June 2003, transposition of directive 2000/53/EC; article 231 of legislative decree 152/2006 for ELV not covered by decree 209/2003
Waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenylsLegislative decree n. 209 of 22nd May 1999, transposition of directive 96/59/EC; Ministerial decree of 11th October 2001 which regulates the management criteria of equipment containing PCB/PCT.
TiresArticle 228 of legislative decree 152/2006 identifies some requirements for the proper management of tires (except as provided by the Legislative Decree 209/2003 on ELV); Legislative Decree 36/2003: ban on the landfilling of tires with the exception of tires used as engineering material
Ship-generated waste and cargo residuesNational Waste framework Law (Decree 152/06) and legislative decree n. 182 of 24th June 2003 which transposed directive 2000/59/EC
spent vegetables and animal oils and fats National Waste framework Law (Decree 152/06) establishes a specific national consortium for the proper collection and treatment of this waste typology
Mineral spent oilsNational Waste framework Law (Decree 152/06) establishes a specific national consortium for the proper collection and treatment of this waste typology. Mineral spent oils was previously covered by legislative decree n. 95 of 27th January 1992. Some dispositions of this decree are still into force, pending the full implementation of decree 152/2006.
Waste consisting of polyethylene with the exception of packaging wasteArticle 234 of decree 152/2006 establishes a specific consortium for the proper collection and recycling of waste consisting of polyethylene

2.3 Regional waste acts

The waste management system requires a plurality of actions involving different institutional bodies (State, Regions, Provinces, Municipalities). Each  of them has a specific role in order to regulate and define an integrated management system.

National laws and general criteria are defined at central level while the territorial management plans of municipal waste and waste from economic activities (special waste) are issued by each region in conformity with the national laws.

Regarding to municipal waste (MW), the regional authorities have the task of defining waste management plans in order to organise and integrate waste collection, treatment and disposal within the “optimal management areas” (ATOs). Each optimal management area consists of certain number of municipalities. The targets on separate collection of municipal solid waste must be reached within the ATO. The area of each ATO is defined by Regions[1].

Each province integrated the regional plan on MW defining its own specific plan in order to achieve a proper municipal waste management within the ATO.

The regional authorities have also the responsibility to issue regional regulation on special waste; the criteria are generally different from those for municipal waste.

Regional authorities developed their own plans for the correct management of specific waste streams such as waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls and ship-generated waste and plans for the remediation of contaminated sites.

In some cases specific regional programmes for the management of packaging waste have been adopted. In other cases criteria for the management of these waste are included in the municipal waste and/or special waste management plans.

Moreover, each region had developed a specific program for the reduction of the landfilling of biodegradable waste, which integrated the regional waste management plan, in accordace with the provisions of decree 36/2003 on the landfill of waste.


[1] When the surface of ATO is not defined, its area corresponds to  province surface.

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Italy has not developed a national waste management plan, as the legislation provides that plans are developed at regional level. However, National Waste Framework Act gives general criteria for the implementation of regional plans. In particular these criteria are defined in article 199 of legislative decree 152/2006.

According to national criteria, regional plans on waste management must include several provisions, such as:

According to directive 1999/31/CE and decree 36/2003 of transposition, Italy has developed a national strategy regarding the reduction of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills. This strategy identifies some instruments to be implemented in order to achieve the targets. Each region has to establish its own plan for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfill, in order to ensure a suitable management of this kind waste within the regional territory.

More detailed analysis of this typology of waste will be carried out in Chapter 4.

3.2 Regional plans

In accordance to national framework legislation, regions have developed their own programmes in order to achieve a better waste management within the regional territory.

Regional legislation is very broad and refers to several types of waste, such as:

Regions have also developed their own plans for the remediation of contaminated sites.

Referring to municipal waste each province has integrated the regional plan defining its own specific plan in order to achieve a proper municipal waste management within the ATO.

The different kind of programmes, which have been approved in the 20 Italian regions are listed in the table below. More detailed information on the regulatory details of these programmes are available on the annual publication of the High Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, former APAT), Rapporto Rifiuti. The publication is available on the website www.apat.gov.it.

 

Region

Programme/plan

Municipal waste

waste from economic activities

(special waste)

Reduction of biowaste going to landfills

Specific programme for packaging waste(1)

Waste containing PCBs /PCTs

Ship-generated waste and cargo residues

Piemonte

x

x

x

x

x

 

Valle d'Aosta

x

x

 

 

x

 

Lombardia

x

x

x

x

x

 

Trentino Alto Adige(2)

x

x

x

 

x

 

Veneto

x

x

x

x

x

x

Friuli Venezia Giulia

x

x

x

x

x

x

Liguria

x

x

x

 

x

x

Emilia Romagna

x

x

x

 

x

x

Toscana

x

x

x

x

x

x

Umbria

x

x

x

x

x

 

Marche

x

x

x

 

x

x

Lazio

x

x

x

 

x

x

Abruzzo

x

x

x

x

x

x

Molise

x

x

x

 

x

x

Campania

x

x

x

 

x

x

Puglia

x

x

x

 

x

x

Basilicata

x

x

x

 

x

x

Calabria

x

x

 

 

x

x

Sicilia

x

x

x

 

x

x

Sardegna

x

x

x

x

x

x

Note: x –references of the approval of the plan are available; more detailed information are available in the pubblication ”Rapporto Rifiuti” - ISPRA (website: www.apat.gov.it)

(1)where there is not a specific programme, this typology of  waste is generally regulated by the plans related to municipal waste and/or special waste

(2)Trentino Alto Adige is composed by the two autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano; the waste management plans are set individually by each of these two provinces

Source: ISPRA

4. Waste prevention for Italy

4.1. Objectives

According to the European waste hierarchy, the Italian Waste Framework Law identifies waste prevention and waste minimization as priorities in the waste management system.

Article 179 of Decree 152/2006 provides that activities of public bodies must be primarily directed to promote waste prevention and waste minimization, through different measures, such as:

4.2. Targets

General waste prevention targets have not been set at national level, but the transposition of EU directives led to the identification of bans for specific waste streams (e.g. ELV, packaging waste, WEEE and RoHS).

Targets have been set for collection and/or recycling/recovery of different typologies of waste (municipal waste, biowaste, packaging waste, waste from ELV demolition, WEEE, etc.), also in accordance to EU directives.

For instance, targets concerning recycling and recovering of packaging waste, established by directive 94/62/EC as modified by directive 2004/12/EC, have been transposed by the Framework Waste Law. In Italy, there is traditionally a high level of recycling and recovery of certain materials, such as wood, paper and paperboard; therefore, Decree 152/2006 institutes higher targets for these materials, than those set by the Packaging Directive.

A comparison between recycling targets set by EU and Italian legislation is shown in the following table.

Recycling targets for each packaging material (% on weight)

Packaging material

Packaging Directive 

Decree 152/06

Glass

60 %

60 %

Paper and cardboard

60 %

60 %

Metals

50 %

50 %

Plastics

22,5 %

26 %

Wood

15 %

35 %

National legislation (legislative decree 152/2006 and law 296/2006) provides a set of targets for separate collection of municipal waste (targets are described in Chapter 4). To a certain extent, these targets must be viewed as instruments of prevention. In fact, the aim of the targets is to assure a proper management of the different typologies of waste, reducing, at the same time, the hazardousness of residual waste (for instance trough separate collection of oils, batteries, etc.). These measures are also directed to improve waste minimisation at source.

In coherence with European directive on landfill, decree 36/2003 established specific targets for the reduction of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills. However, it was decided to adopt a set of targets based upon the quantity of BMW per capita, instead to simply transpose the targets based on percentages as stated in the Landfill Directive. The reason of this choice will be explained in the following Chapter 4.

European targets regarding WEEE and waste arising from ELV dismantling and demolition have been transposed into Italian legislation.

Moreover, according to Ministerial Decree of 8th of  May 2003, n. 203, in application of the Law 448/2001, public bodies and companies with prevailing public capital, 30% of annuall procurement must consist of products and goods made of recycled material.

4.3. Strategy

In order to enhance general waste prevention and to prevent/reduce the production of specific waste flows, different instruments have been set. These instruments are described in the other sections of this chapter.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

Different measures have been introduced in order to promote waste prevention and waste minimisation. According to EU directives some substances have been banned with the aim to reduce waste hazardousness.

As mentioned above, specific targets have been set for collection and/or recycling of specific waste streams.

In order to rationalize the management of some typologies of waste the Italian legislation has provided for the establishment of specific consortia (e.g. packaging waste, spent vegetable/animal oils and fats, spent mineral oils, waste consisting of polyethylene with the exception of packaging waste, spent lead batteries, etc). Among the main actions that must be carried out by consortia, there is the promotion of effective measures to ensure waste minimisation (for instance the promotion of reuse).

Furthermore, in order to reduce waste production and to achieve a better management system, voluntary agreements can be used, according to the national framework law.

Some measure have been introduced in order to replace some non-biodegradable materials (e.g. plastics) with biodegradable ones. For instance, article 183 of decree 152/2006 prescribes the use of biodegradable bags or reusable boxes for the separate collection of household biowaste, while law 296/2006 requires replacement of on-biodegradable shoppers with biodegradable ones from the 1st of January 2010.

Another important factor is the introduction of economic instruments  that can certainly have an effect on the overall management of municipal waste, and therefore also on prevention and minimisation of waste production.

Among the economic instruments, the developing of the municipal waste tariff should be highlighted. This instrument was already introduced by the former waste framework act (legislative decree 22/97) and it was renewed by legislative decree 152/2006.

At the moment, however, most of the municipalities still apply a waste management tax based only on the dimension of the building (proportional to the m2) but some municipalities (935 in 2006) are currently developing the tariff. This tariff is proportionate to the number of persons in the building and to the quantity of waste actually produced. Furthermore, it must be properly commensurate to the results of the separate collection reached.

The structure of the tariff includes:

The tariff should enhance waste prevention, reduce disposal of municipal waste and aid compliance with the separate collection targets. The tariff system encourages the municipality’s administrations to introduce a system of industrial accounting for the management of waste, with the aim to ensuring efficiency. At the moment the application of the tariff is still on a phase of implementation and development.

At regional or local level prevention has been promoted in different ways, through:

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury (concentration above 0,0005%) and cadmium (concentration above 0,002%)
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2008
Legal documentlegislative decree n. 188 of 20 November 2008 transposing directive 2006/66/EC which repealed directive 1991/157/EC.
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2003
Legal documentlegislative decree n. 209 of 14 July 2003, which transposed directive 2000/53/EC
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2006
Legal documentlegislative decree n. 151 of 25 July 2005 transposing directive 2002/95/EC, 2002/96/EC and 2003/118/EC
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1997
Legal documentthe provisions of directive 94/62/EC were previously contained in legislative decree 22/97 (former Italian waste framework act) which was repealed and replaced by legislative decree 152/2006. This decree transposed directives 94/62/EC as modified by directive 2004/12/EC

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectives- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated. - Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationlegislative decree n. 151 of 25 July 2005 transposing directive 2002/95/EC, 2002/96/EC and 2003/108/EC
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2003
Transition periodno information
Objectives- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars, - consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars, - increased use of secondary raw materials
Targetsno information
Description
no information
Implementationlegislative decree n. 209 of 14 July 2003, which transposed directive 2000/53/EC
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year1997
Transition periodno information
Objectives- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum - Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationthe provisions of directive 94/62/EC were previously contained in legislative decree 22/97 (former Italian waste framework act) which was repealed and replaced by legislative decree 152/2006.

This decree transposed directives 94/62/EC as modified by directive 2004/12/EC
Resultno information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

Specific market base instruments are not developed at national level although there are some some measures which can affect specific waste streams.  These are specific  economic instruments like the environmental fees/contributions which must be paid by the producers in order to ensure the proper management of waste deriving from their products (e.g. packaging, lead batteries, mineral oils, tires, waste consisting of polyethylene, etc.).

Special economic instruments, such as financial facilities (subsidies and special funding), can be available for companies that modify their production cycles reducing the quantity and the hazardousness of waste, and/or enhancing the material recovery, according art.181 of decree 152/06.

Some market instruments are introduced by ministerial decree 203/2003. According to this decree public bodies and companies with prevailing public capital must meet at least 30% of their annual need through the purchase of products and goods made of recycled material.

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
TitleInformation of Batteries and Accumulators
ScopeFinal consumer
Batteries, Ac­cumula­tors
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionBatteries and accumulators producers have to ensure that end-users are fully informed of:

- the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators;

- the obligation of not disposing of waste batteries and accumulators as unsorted municipal waste and of participating in their separate collection;

- the collection and recycling schemes available to them;

- the treatment and recycling options for all the waste batteries and accumulators;

- their role in contributing to the recycling of waste batteries and accumulators;

- the meaning of the symbol of the crossed-out wheeled bin shown in Annex IV and the chemical symbols Hg, Cd and Pb.

Distributors must inform end-users about the possibility of discarding waste portable batteries or accumulators at their sales points.
Implementation

legislative decree n. 188 of 20 November 2008 transposing directive 2006/66/EC which repealed directive 1991/157/EC (these waste were previously regulated by law 475/88)
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Title Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
ScopeFinal consumer
ELV
Year2003
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationlegislative decree n. 209 of 14 July 2003, which transposed directive 2000/53/EC
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeDisassembling companies
ELV
Year2003
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description

- Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Implementationlegislative decree n. 209 of 14 July 2003, which transposed directive 2000/53/EC
Resultno information

Additional info

According to decree 152/06, public administrations and producers have to promote life cycle analysis, information campaigns and “every further useful tool”, in order to enhance reuse, recycling and recovery.

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

Voluntary agreements are also a viable way to favour the recovery of materials, (according to art. 181 and 206 of decree 152/06), among public administrations and stakeholders (trade associations, sector organisations), allowing administrative and economic incentives. Agreements can be signed by the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Productive Activities, together with local authorities and public bodies, private and public stakeholders and sector organisations.

Voluntary agreements, thanks to their flexibility, can approach a specific issue/problem and improve the relationships among the actors involved (public administrations/privates), allowing the diffusion of the best practices and enhancing to achieve relevant results in the recovery of materials.

They have been widely used at local level, mostly provincial and regional, regarding many different waste types (waste from agriculture, certain packaging materials, compost, C&D waste, etc.).

Some examples of agreements signed at national level regarded specific waste streams such as telephone poles, wooden railway poles, automobile shredder residues, and sludges from aluminium industry. Among the most effective agreements there is the one signed between the National Packaging Consortia (CONAI) and the Association of Italian Municipalities (ANCI) for the development of the separate collection of packaging waste, in order to enhance recycling and recovery of these waste.

The agreements can involve:

Because their implementation occurs mostly at local level, a complete evaluation can not be carried out at national level.

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

As reported in previous chapter some measures are under development in various Italian regions.

For instance, some instruments, concern:

 

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Italy

5.1. Objectives

As already mentioned, Italian legislation provides a set of measures finalized to reach a proper waste management, promoting waste prevention, waste recovering and assuring a correct disposal of non recoverable waste. Landfill must be considered as a residual waste management tool, in cohernece with to European hierarchy.

5.2. Targets

Specific national target has not been set for C&D waste.

5.3. Strategy

Italian legislation provides measures regarding different types of waste.

In order to ensure a better management of C&D waste some local administrations have developed voluntary agreements.

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

Some important references may be found in ministerial decree 5th February 1998 which identifies specific measures and options for the recovery of certain non hazardous C&D waste. This decree deals with a wide range of non hazardous waste, including those from C&D sector.

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

The tax on waste landfilling, described in Chapter  4, has an effect on C&D waste management.

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

No specific information are available

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

Voluntary agreements are typically used at local level, mostly provincial and regional. They cover many different waste types including C&D waste.

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Italy

6.1. Objectives

The planning of waste management is carried out at regional level and specific measure shall be put in place at this level.

National legislation should establish general criteria, complying with European legislation, while the specific criteria shall be established by each regions. As previously said, each region must achieve self-sufficiency in the municipal waste management.

It is clear that the targets set at national level (e.g. targets for separate collection of municipal solid waste, targets of reduction of BMW sent to landfills) have a direct impact on the measures to be implemented at the regional level. In order to achieve the targets, the implementation of a set of measures is required. These measures inevitably include the development of prevention instruments.

National targets of separate collection must be considered, to a certain extent, as instruments of prevention by themselves, as explained in previous Chapter 3.

The gradual spread of home composting in various Italian regions shall be considered an important prevention measure. This measure is specifically provided in some regional plans while, in other cases, it is regulated at a more local level (for example, provincial or municipal level).

6.2. Targets

Coherently to European legislation, decree 36/2003 sets specific targets for the progressive reduction of BMW going to landfills.

The targets to be achieved are the following:

As previously said, it was decided to adopt a set of targets based upon the quantity of BMW per capita, instead to simply transpose the targets set by directive 1999/31/EC.

There are two mains reasons for this approach: the lack of reliable data regarding the total amount of BMW landfilled in year 1995, and the necessity of implementing a better monitoring at local level. The targets must be achieved at local level (at ATO level, or at provincial level in case the area of ATO is not already defined by regions). Per capita reduction, measured at local level, ensures a more efficient controlling and monitoring activity, and it is also more restrictive rather than targets established at national level.

For instance, if targets were set at national level, when highly populated regions achieve the targets, this result could “hide” the performances of some smaller regions, which are not reaching the targets.

A further target set by decree 36/2003, which involves BMW, concerns the ban on the landfilling of waste with a net calorific value over 13.000 kJ/kg. The ban will be effective starting from 31th December 2009.

Also targets for separate collection of municipal solid waste have a direct impact on BMW management. In fact, BMW (kitchen and garden waste, paper and paperboard, textiles and wooden fractions) accounts for about 60% of the total municipal waste produced in Italy. Therefore, it is clear that the collection systems should intercept the highest possible amount of this typology of waste in order to ensure the achievement of targets set by law.

6.3. Strategy

Italy developed a national strategy regarding the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills, according which all Regions have to elaborate and approve a specific programme in order to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled within the regional territory. This programme must integrate the Regional municipal waste management plan.

The strategy identifies the following instruments to be implemented in order to achieve the targets:

Each region has to establish its own plan for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfill, in order to ensure a suitable management of this kind waste.

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleMSW separate collection targets
ScopePaper & Cardboard, Glass, Plastics, Metals, Kitchen waste, Garden waste, Wooden waste, Textiles, WEEE, Batteries, oils, etc.
Year1997
Transition periodStep by step implementation (see targets)
Objectivesenhance quantity and quality of the different types of waste sent to recycling and recovery; reduce the amount and hazardousness of residual waste and simplify its management
TargetsSeparate collection within the ATO should reach the following targets:
• at least 35% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2006
• at least 40% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2007
• at least 45% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2008
• at least 50% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2009
• at least 60% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2011
• at least 65% (w/w) of total MW production within 31December 2012
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
ResultThe results are shown in the following section 4.5.
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling
ScopeWaste not suitable for landfilling; see typologies under “Description of the instrument”
YearFirs
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesTo divert certain waste streams from landfill, and to decrease the amount of waste landfilled
Targetsno information
DescriptionBan on the landfilling of:
• Liquid waste
• Explosive and/or combustible waste
• Waste with a flashpoint <55°C
• Corrosive waste
• Sanitary waste, infectious as defined in category H9, annex I, DM141/98
• Waste arising from the production of medical or pesticides compounds
• Waste containing or contaminated by PCBs, PCTs, monomethyltetrachlorodiphenylmethane, monomethyldichlorodiphenylmethane, monomethyldibromodiphenylmethane, with concentration > 25 ppm;
• Waste containing or contaminated by PCDD or PCDF, with concentration > 10 ppb
• Waste containing Ozone layer depleting substances
• Waste containing substances from research activities, with unknown effects on human health and the environment
• Waste with a Calorific Value > 13,000 kJ/kg, from 1/1/2007.
• Whole used tires
ImplementationLegislative Decree n. 36 of 13 January 2003
Ministerial decree 3th August 2005
ResultProgressive yearly reduction of the amount of waste going to landfill
Regulatory instrument
TitleTargets for the reduction of BMW sent to landfill
ScopeKitchen and garden waste, paper and paperboard, textiles, wooden waste
Year2003
Transition periodStep by step implementation (see targets)
Objectivesto divert BMW from landfill, increasing recycling and recovery and simplifying the management of disposed waste (lower biogas production, lower volumes, etc.)
TargetsTargets to be achieved, within the ATO, are the following:
• below 173 kg per capita within 27 March 2008,
• below 115 kg per capita within 27 March 2011
• below 81 kg per capita within 27 March 2018
Descriptionno information
ImplementationLegislative Decree 36/2003
ResultISPRA estimated the ratio of biodegradable waste over the total of the waste landfilled per capita, on the basis of specific analysis on waste accepted to landfills, and keeping into consideration the different schemes and performances of separate collection of MW.
Data are reported in section 4.5

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleTax on Waste Disposal
ScopeAll waste
Year1996
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesThe aim of the instrument is the prevention of waste production and the development of waste recycling and material and energy recovery.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThis tax, commonly known as “landfill tax”, must be paid for any kind of waste landfilled. Law establishes that the tax must be paid to Region, that provides an amount equal to 10% to the provinces.
20% of the remaining amount goes into a special fund used to finance environmental project regarding in particular:
• waste prevention;
• project on waste recycling and material and energy recovery;
• remediation of polluted sites and dismissed industrial sites;
• financing regional environmental protection Agencies;
• institution and maintenance of protected natural areas
The aim of the tax is to stimulate investments in environmental sector, with particular regard to waste management sector.
The detailed definition of the tax is delegated to the competent regional administrations, which have the possibility to deliberate on three important elements:
1. the tax level;
2. the waste typologies to which apply the tax;
3. the destination of use of the tax revenue.
Law 549/1995 established a minimum and maximum amount of the tax for waste acceptable to landfill for inert waste and for waste acceptable to landfill for non hazardous and hazardous waste.
ImplementationLaw n. 549 of 28 December 1995
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

As previously stated, each region shall develop a set of programmes in order to assure a proper management of municipal and special waste, including plans regarding specific flows such as BMW, packaging waste, ship-generated waste, etc.

These plans generally contain specific sections regarding actions to promote a proper communication and instruments to assure a correct information to citizens. These activities are generally carried out at local level.

Moreover, Italian legislation provides different consortia for the management of specific types of waste. Within each consortium system some information campaigns could be carried out.

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

As previously said, voluntary agreements are typically used at local level, mostly provincial and regional. They regard many different waste typologies such as: waste from agriculture, certain packaging materials, C&D waste, etc.

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

In 2006 the total production of MW in Italy reached 32,5 million tonnes.

Recently there has been a gradual increase in separate collection of municipal waste. In 2006, the national percentage is about 25,8%, as shown in the following table.

Area

Percentage of separate collection in different years

2003

2004

2005

2006

North

33,5

35,5

37,9

39,9

Centre

17,1

18,3

19,2

20,0

South

6,7

8,1

8,8

10,2

Italy

21,1

22,7

24,2

25,8

Source: ISPRA

Northern regions reach a percentage near to 40%, achieving one year ahead the target set by law.

The percentages of separate collection reached in central and southern regions are quite lower (20% and 10,2% respectively).

Data on the management of municipal waste shown a gradual reduction in the landfilling of waste, alongside and increase of the other options (e.g composting of biowaste from separate collection, mechanical biological treatment, incineration, etc.).

During the last period, as shown in the following figure, landfilling has decreased from about 60% in  2002 to 49% in 2005.

 

Note: *”other forms of material recovery” includes slags from incineration of municipal waste recovered in cements kilns and some fractions from separate collection which are sent to recovery (minus the discard from selection facilities): packaging waste, textiles and bulky waste.

Source: ISPRA

In 2006 the per capita amount of municipal biowaste (kitchen waste + green waste) sent to composting plants for selected fractions has reached, at national level, 38.2 kg/inhabitant per year.

The situation is quite diversified among the different parts of the country reflecting a strong difference between North and South (see the following table).

Area

per capita amount of municipal biowaste treated in composting plants (year 2006)

(kg/inhab.*year)

North

65.6

Centre

28.7

South

8.1

Italy

38.2

Source: ISPRA

 

http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/it/eea/wastepolicies/envsbu4tg/italy_diag_2.JPG

Construction and demolition waste

Data on the production of non-hazardous C&D waste is estimated by ISPRA. Data on the production of hazardous C&D waste come from annual declarations of producers (MUD).

The table below shows the total C&D waste production in 2005, while the trend for production of non hazardous C&D waste for the years 2000-2005, is shown in the figure.

More detailed informations are available on Rapporto Rifiuti published by ISPRA

Typology of C&D waste generated in year 2005

Quantity

(1 000* tons)

non hazardous waste*

45 851.5

hazardous waste

803.4

Total

46 654.9

Note: *estimated data

Source: ISPRA

 

Production of non-hazardous C&D waste during the period 2000-2005

 

Note: estimated data

Source: ISPRA

 

Waste prevention

Results of prevention policies in place can not currently be quantified. Indeed, the measures have been implemented fairly recently, which means comprehensive impact assessment are impossible. Certain provisions are yet to be put into practice.

For instance, the introduction of home composting should reduce the total amount of biowaste produced by households. Similarly, a reduction of total municipal waste production is expected following the introduction of the door-to-door collection. All these practices are quite recent and are not equally implemented throughout the entire territory. Furthermore, they typically take place at regional level, co their effectiveness should be evaluated at regional level.

More consistent results should be expected in the coming years, when it will be possible to assess, more effectively, the impact of current prevention measures. However, these evaluations are not easy undertakings, as they require the analysis of each specific context.

Some data related to the implementation of prevention measures provided by the legislation are available for the reuse of packaging. Coherently to EU directives, Decree 152/2006 promotes the production of reusable packaging and their correct use. Some data about reuse of packaging are reported in the following table. These data refer to year 2006.

Material

packaging

Quantity (year 2006)

Packaging used in food and beverage sector

Other uses

(tons)

(tons)

Wood

bottles

209.850

-

boxes

2.900

-

Paper and paperboard

boxes

-

-

drums

-

-

Aluminium

boxes <= 50 l

-

-

drums > 50 l e >= 300 l

-

-

Steel

boxes <= 50 l

17.300

-

drums > 50 l e >= 300 l

-

12.600

Wood

Fruit boxes

423.542

-

Industrial containers

-

701.700

Pallets

-

1.097.885

Plastic

Bags

-

-

Bottles

1.300

-

Pallets

-

11.194

Drums

-

11.500

Boxes

675.673

233.356

Others

-

-

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information