|Surface area||70,273 Km²|
|Persons per household||2.9|
|GDP per capita PPS||150.4|
|GDP per capita|
|Household characteristics||34% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km²)|
66% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km²)
-% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab./km²)
|Gross value added||26.1% Industry, including energy |
17.2% Trade, transport and communication services
25.2% Business activities and financial services
19.5% Other services
2.1% Agriculture, hunting and fishing
Changing Our Ways (1998)
|no information||All legislation is available at www.irishstatutebook.ie or at www.environ.ie/en/Legislation/|
|The Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008||This sets out the responsibilities and functions in relation to waste. Specific aspects of the legislation are then enacted through a series of Regulations which address particular requirements. Principal Act in 1996; amended in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2008.||no i|
|Landfill and other waste management facilities, including recycling facilities and hazardous waste facilities and including facilities for such waste streams as WEEE, ELVs, batteries and packaging||Waste Management (Licensing) Regulations 2004. Statutory Instrument No. 395 of 2004. These Regulations provide for the operation of the system of licensing by the Environmental Protection Agency of waste recovery and disposal activities under Part V of the Waste Management Act, 1996 . The Regulations set out procedures for the making of waste licence applications, reviews of licences and consideration by the Agency of objections, including the holding of oral hearings. Waste Management (Facility Permit and Registration) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 821 of 2007. Waste Management (Facility Permit and Registration)(Amendment) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 86 of 2008. These regulations update and revise existing procedures for the making of permit and registration applications. The regulations are implemented primarily by local authorities for the control of waste activities not governed by the Licensing Regulations (above). The regulations are also implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency in relation to certain waste activities carried out by local authorities. Waste Management (Certification of Historic Unlicensed Waste Disposal and Recovery Activity) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 524 of 2008 These Regulations provide for the certification of historic unlicenced waste disposal sites in operation between 1977 and 1996, when modern waste legislation came into effect. The regulations will provide for the registration of these facilities by the local authorities, the carrying out of a screening risk assessment of the sites and the determination of any remedial measures required (all of which will be the responsibility of the relevant local authority). These facilities will require a certificate of authorisation from the Environmental Protection Agency. This certificate will determine the adequacy of the risk assessment and may specify further necessary measures to ensure the protection of the environment.|
|Incineration||European Communities (Incineration of Waste) Regulations 2003. Statutory Instrument No. 275 of 2003 These Regulations implement Directive 2000/76/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste. They apply to both incineration and co-incineration plants. The Directive specifies more stringent standards and other operational requirements to be applied in relation to these facilities and applies to new plants as from 28 December 2002 and existing plants from 28 December 2005. The Regulations provide for implementation of the Directive in the context of the licensing systems operated by the EPA in relation to facilities which fall to be licensed under the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1992 ( IPC activities) or the Waste Management Act 1996|
|Waste collection||Waste Management (Collection Permit) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 820 of 2007. Waste Management (Collection Permit) (Amendment) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 87 of 2008. These regulations update and revise existing regulations for the permitting and control of waste collection activities carried out by private sector operators. The regulations are implemented and enforced by local authorities. Waste Management (Registration of Brokers and Dealers) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 113 of 2008 The purpose of these Regulations is to provide for a registration system of waste brokers and dealers who arrange for the shipment of waste to and from Ireland and also the passage of waste through the State. The regulations are necessary in order to comply with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste and Directive 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on waste.|
|Waste export and import||Waste Management (Shipments of Waste) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 419 of 2007. These regulations set out the administrative arrangements necessary to implement Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste. A single competent authority is designated for the import, export and transit of waste to, from and through Ireland.|
|Landfill levy||Waste Management (Landfill Levy) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 199 of 2008. These regulations revise and replace the original 2002 regulations and make provision for the continued operation of the landfill levy provided for under section 73 of the Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008. The Regulations increase the landfill levy for waste disposed of at an authorised landfill facility from €15 per tonne to €20 per tonne with effect from 1 July 2008. A rate of €20 per tonne is also applicable where waste has been disposed of at an unauthorised landfill facility.|
|no information||2.2.4 National legislation on specific waste streams (selected)|
|BMW||Not in legislation, but in the National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste, April 2006. See below for more information. Regulations are proposed for 2009 obliging the segregation and separate collection of biodegradable waste from commercial premises.|
|Packaging||Waste Management (Packaging) Regulations, 2007 (S.I. No. 798 of 2007) These regulations update the packaging code and are designed to promote the recovery and recycling of packaging waste. They are intended, in particular, to facilitate the achievement of the targets for the recovery of packaging waste established by Directive 94/62/EC so that by 31 December 2008: (a) A minimum of 60% of packaging waste by weight is recovered and (b) A minimum of 55% of packaging waste by weight is recycled in total, including material specific recycling targets as follows: • 60% by weight for glass • 60% by weight for paper and board • 50% by weight for metals • 22.5% by weight for plastics and • 15% by weight for wood. The regulations impose obligations on producers who supply packaging to the Irish market. An exemption from certain obligations is available to major producers who participate in a packaging waste recovery scheme operated by an approved body. At time of writing (January 2009), one approved scheme was in operation, Repak Limited. A producer may not supply packaging or packaged products to the Irish market unless the packaging concerned complies with specified essential requirements as to its nature and composition. The regulations also provide for limits on the concentration levels of certain heavy metals in packaging.|
|Hazardous waste||Waste Management (Hazardous Waste) Regulations, 1998. S.I. No. 163 of 1998. These regulations introduce certain controls on the movement, labelling and mixing of hazardous wastes.|
|Waste electrical and electronic equipment||Waste Management (Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 290 of 2005 Waste Management (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 340 of 2005 These two sets of Regulations implement the WEEE Directive and provide for producer responsibility for electrical and electronic equipment placed on the market. The regulations impost obligations on persons who supply EEE, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers. An exemption from these obligations is available to persons who participate in a scheme operated by an approved body (a collective compliance scheme) for the collection, treatment, recovery and disposal of WEEE in an environmentally sound manner.|
|Restriction on hazardous substances||Waste Management (Restriction on Hazardous Substances) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 341 of 2005 These Regulations implement the ROHS Directive.|
|End-of-Life Vehicles||Waste Management (End-Of-Life Vehicles) Regulations 2006, S.I. No. 282 of 2006 These Regulations are designed to implement the provisions of Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on end-of-life vehicles. They are intended to facilitate the achievement of the – - 85% reuse/recovery with 80% reuse/recycling by average weight per vehicle and year, on and from the date of commencement of the Regulations, and - 95% reuse/recovery with 85% reuse/recycling by average weight per vehicle and year, by the 1 of January 2015. The Regulations place obligations on each producer to establish a national collection system for the collection of specified vehicles, of that producer’s brand or for which that producer has responsibility, which that producer anticipates will become end-of-life vehicles in the State and will require appropriate treatment and recovery. Each producer’s national collection system will comprise of at least one authorised treatment facility in the functional area of each local authority and must have sufficient capacity to treat the number of end-of-life vehicles, of that producer’s brand or for which that producer is responsible, that arise in any given year.|
|Batteries||Waste Management (Batteries and Accummulators) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 268 of 2008 Waste Management (Batteries and Accummulators)(Amendment) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 556 of 2008 These Regulations implement the Batteries Directive and will facilitate the achievement of the targets for thec ollection, treatment, recycling and disposal of waste batteries in an environmentally sound manner. The Regulations impose obligations on persons who supply batteries to the Irish market, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers. An exemption from these obligations is available to persons who participate in a scheme operated by an approved body (a collective compliance scheme) for the collection, treatment, recovery and disposal of waste batteries in an environmentally sound manner.|
|Farm plastics||Waste Management (Farm Plastics) Regulations, …, S.I. No. … of …. These Regulations place producer responsibility obligations on the suppliers of farm plastics, i.e. silage wrap.|
|Animal remedies||Animal Remedies Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. … of …. These Regulations implement the … Directive and provide for the return of unused or out of date animal remedies.|
|Tyres||Waste Management (Tyres and Waste Tyres) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 664 of 2007 These Regulations impose obligations on persons who supply tyres to the Irish market, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers and on persons who manage waste tyres. The Regulations are designed to maximise the reuse, recycling and recovery of waste tyres.|
Apart from bye-laws made by local authorities, there are no regional acts of legislation
Name of Plan
Local authority areas covered
Link (Some of the links have been artificially wrapped to fit in the table. Ensure you include all the text if using the links)
Dublin Region Waste Management Plan
South East Waste Management Plan
Cork Regional Waste Management Plan
Limerick Clare Kerry Regional Waste Management Plan
Connaught Regional Waste Management Plan
Midlands Regional Waste Management Plan
North East Regional Waste Management Plan
Wicklow Waste Management Plan
Kildare Waste Management Plan
Donegal Waste Management Plan
|Title||mercury and cadmium|
|Waste stream||Batteries, Accumulators|
|Legal document||Waste Management (Hazardous Waste) Regulations 1998|
|Title||lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium|
|Legal document||ELV Regulations|
|Title||lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE|
|Legal document||WEEE Regulations|
|Title||lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium|
|Waste stream||Packaging waste|
|Legal document||Packaging Regulations|
|Title||VOC limitations in decorative paints|
|Legal document||Limitation of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds due to the use of certain Paints, Varnishes and Vehicle Refinishing Products Regulations 2007 (S.I. No. 199 of 2007), implementing Directive 2004/42/EC on the Limitations of Emissions due to the use of organic solvents in certain Paints, Varnishes and Vehicle Refinishing Products, (Decorative Paints Directive).|
|Transition period||no information|
|Objectives||- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum - Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible|
|Transition period||no information|
|Objectives||- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated. - Construction and production must not interfere with reusability|
|Transition period||no information|
|Objectives||- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars, - consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars, - increased use of secondary raw materials|
These regulations provide for an increase in the amount of the levy on plastic bags from 15 cent to 22 cent per bag with effect form 1 July 2007. The objective is to reduce the use of plastic bags.
Landfill levy – see legislation table above. The levy was increased to €20 per tonne of waste disposed in 2008. New policy and legislation to further increase the levy has been proposed.
A visible environmental management cost (vEMC) is payable as a contribution to a Producer Recycling Fund upon purchase of electrical and electronic equipment. Details of vEMC rates are at http://www.weeeregister.ie/categories.html. This instrument is designed to fund the recycling of historic WEEE – it is not a prevention instrument per se.
- Capacity (life span of products)
- higher content of heavy metals
- the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
|Green Hospitality Award (www.ghaward.ie)||Targeted at hotels and hospitality sector – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food)|
Programme originally introduced in Cork in 1999, relaunched in 2004, national funding commenced in 2008.
This is now a major nationally funded programme to bring about resource efficiency and waste prevention in the hotels and hospitality sector. To date, over 200 hotels are participating nationally. Over 8% of all Irish hotels have achieved an award (see below).
At least 30 prevention or resource efficiency case studies will be generated from the GHA project in 2009.
A Green Hospitality Award scheme has been developed based on previous work done by EPA/ERTDI on the Cleaner Greener Production Programme project “Greening Irish Hotels”. The original programme involved 56 hotels (3 to 5 star) ranging in size from 30 to 255 beds around the country. Environmental reviews, training, environmental management, best practices and cleaner production plans were developed. Quantified actual savings included diversion of 1,113 tonnes of waste from landfill, reduction of 5,000 tonnes of water consumption and 3,000 tonnes of carbon emissions. If extrapolated across the entire sector the economic benefit could amount to €81.4 million in cost savings, diversion of 56,000 tonnes of waste from landfill, 4.5 million tonnes reduction in water consumption and 162,000 tonnes of carbon. It is clear that there is very significant scope for cost savings in the sector in relation not just to waste, but also to water and energy. Greening the industry will not only help with their competitiveness, but also improve visitor perception of the sustainability of the tourism product in Ireland.
The Clean Technology Centre and Hospitality Solutions Consulting have now been appointed to develop this project even further. Almost 200 hotels were recruited throughout the country in 2008. A range of award and assessment criteria were developed to underpin the project. Audits, training and guidance are provided to each hotel to enable them to engage in their own prevention programme and to prepare for the different levels of award. These start at an entry bronze award leading stepwise up to silver, gold and platinum levels – the latter being close to the EU Flower level of environmental performance. The awards are based on independent inspections and an awards ceremony is planned for successful businesses. An Advisory Group for the project has met on a number of occasions to review project outputs and progress.
There are already many examples of hotels that have realised annual recurring cost savings by applying a systematic approach to prevention:
* Systematically reducing waste, increasing recycling and composting food waste saved one establishment alone €35,000 per annum.
* An in-vessel composting machine installed in one hotel is currently diverting over 150 tonnes of food waste per year and realising them cash savings of €30,000 each year.
* Another hotel is saving €30,000 per annum by reducing water consumption by 15 thousand tonnes by fixing leaks in their distribution system.
* Installing a rainwater harvesting system for public toilets saved 2,600 tonnes of water and €6,000 per year for one hotel.
* Fitting low flow taps and shower heads is saving water and energy (worth €23,000 per annum) in another hotel.
* Two hotels are now saving €60,000 per annum each through reduced electrical consumption (430 kWh or 270 tonnes carbon) by installing energy efficient lighting.
These, and many other examples, are being used to spread the message that prevention pays across the hotel sector. In time, this sector–based approach to Green Business will be extended according as suitable case studies, sector information and resources become available. Health-care organisations, retail and construction activities are currently being considered in this regard.
There is as yet no legislation supporting the project. It is, as the heading to this section suggests, voluntary. There may be scope for seeking statutory support for “general binding rules” for the sector and this will be considered.
The objectives are to support the hotels and hospitality industries with grants and a long-term technical advisory service to enable them bring about improvements in their resource efficiency and waste generation. A target of 150 hotels for 2008 was achieved. A target of a further 40 hotels, 30 contract caterers and 20 private hospitals/nursing homes has been agreed for 2009.
The Green Hospitality Award has been benchmarked against all major European awards, including EU Flower. The GHA platinum award compares well against EU Flower and exceeds the requirements of EU Flower in several categories. The Green Hospitality Award is acknowledged as a legitimate route to EU Flower.
The Green Hospitality Award is funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and is supported by all of the major national tourism bodies including Fáilte Ireland, Irish Hospitality Institute and the Irish Hotels Federation. It also features on the publicity of several hotels and hotel groups, including:
* Radisson SAS Dublin Airport (http://www.airport.dublin.radissonsas.com/)
* Rezidor Group (http://www.rezidor.com/cs/Satellite/Page/Rezidor/Page/defaultRezidor/1165588170639/en/)
* Carlton Hotels (http://www.carlton.ie/awards_and_achievements.html)
* Westport Woods Hotel (http://www.westportwoodshotel.com)
See www.ghaward.ie for more information.
Targeted at all businesses and other organisations – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food)
Programme introduced as a pilot in September 2008. Launched in early 2009.
This is a nationally funded programme to provide tools and resources for organisations to bring about resource efficiency and waste prevention. To date, over 100 businesses have registered at greenbusiness.ie and are using its tools.
Green Business “dot ie” (www.greenbusiness.ie) is the name given to a web-centred project aimed at enabling any business or organisation to assess their environmental performance particularly in relation to waste and water resource use efficiency. Direct links are provided also to the assessment tools on energy resource use efficiency available from Sustainable Energy Ireland (e.g. Energy MAP at www.sei.ie). The self-audit tools are being piloted during 2008 with a range of companies being actively targeted across different sectors. To support organisations using the tools, active telephone, e-mail and site visits are available at no cost to advise them on how to make net cost savings through resource use efficiency measures. The intention is to provide the tools to enable any business that wants to voluntarily make savings by improving their own resource use efficiency. An active marketing and outreach programme will be implemented to recruit as many businesses as possible to enable them to prevent waste and save money. As appropriate, case studies from the EPA Cleaner, Greener Production Programme or other sources will be promoted to relevant businesses and organisations.
The policy document, Delivering Change, proposes the introduction of a programme of mandatory waste audits for organisations incorporating waste reduction plans. The idea of the self-audit tool is to give effect to this policy aspiration initially in a voluntary form. However, it is hoped that many different sectors will co-operate with the prevention initiatives on a voluntary basis obviating the need for legislative mandatory requirements. The Core Prevention Team will closely monitor this policy objective and will make recommendations as appropriate. Independent auditing against EPA guideline requirements by Accredited Inspection Contractors (AIC) is already obligatory for operators covered by the Solvent and Deco-paints Regulations.
A number of tools are provided at greenbusiness.ie, including:
* WAT – waste audit tool – waste generation, management and cost.
* WAVE – water consumption and cost audit tool.
A simple energy calculator is also provided. Major energy users or those in need of more specialised advice on energy consumption and conservation are referred to an expert Sustainable Energy Ireland advisor.
Registered users of greenbusiness.ie can request free on-site Resource Efficiency Visits (REVs). Expert advisors will help organisations to interpret their waste, water and energy statistics and prepare introductory waste reduction plans.
At least 20 prevention or resource efficiency case studies will be generated from the greenbusiness.ie project in 2009.
Local Authority Prevention Demonstration Programme (www.lapd.ie and www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd)
Targeted at local authorities to build their capacity in the promotion of waste prevention in their own organisation and with local businesses and communities – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food).
This is a nationally funded programme to build capacity in local authorities. To date, approximately €1,250,000 has been committed as grant aid to 14 local authorities. Phase 1 was introduced in 2006 and Phase 2 in 2008. Fourteen (of 34) local authorities are participating.
The next phase, Local Authority Prevention Network, is in preparation. Fourteen local authorities have already applied for funding to support their local prevention officers.
To date, there are 14 local authorities participating in the Local Authority Prevention Demonstration (LAPD) Programme, which was launched in July 2006. The aim of LAPD is to assist local authorities to design and implement local integrated waste prevention programmes and projects. Assistance is provided by way of direct technical expertise (from the Clean Technology Centre, Cork Institute of Technology) and grant monies to increase capacity in waste prevention locally. In many instances, local authority staff have been specifically seconded to work on prevention projects. In total, 27 local authority staff have been directly involved in the projects. The idea is to develop capacity in local authorities such that their staff can in turn enable organisations, including their own, to prevent waste. This should be done on a systematic audit/review-plan-act-review iterative cycle. Further information is available at www.lapd.ieand www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd.
Ongoing projects include prevention in community, commercial and business organisations such as shopping centres, a regional airport, construction, farms, university, public organisations and schools. Other projects underway include prevention initiatives in a town centre, at three public swimming pool facilities, public buildings, an offshore island, a major retail outlet, on four farms and a university campus. Best practice case studies and prevention data/know-how are now emerging from each project for dissemination and implementation throughout the country. Overall, over 153 businesses have been contacted and 96 engaged with directly on prevention. Over 295 waste audits have been completed and 1,300 people attended over 20 different events organised to discuss the prevention projects. Prevention themed posters were developed to promote the message widely.
Examples of projects include:
* Dundrum Shopping Centre has reduced waste charges by an estimated €168,000 annually following a waste audit and the introduction of improved practices. Food waste is the next target here (30% reduction) with trials on an on-site composter already commenced.
* Hospitals in Monaghan are saving over €21,000 each year after improving waste management practices and avoiding mixing hazardous with non-hazardous waste. An additional €8,300 is being saved annually after significant water losses, which only came to light during the waste audit, were stemmed.
* Cost savings were realised at Kerry Airport where avoidable water losses were also identified amounting to over €5,000 per annum.
* A survey of seven municipal buildings in Roscommon showed that almost 146 thousand kWh of electricity (costing €24,192 and equivalent to 93,655 tonnes carbon) could be saved by switching off non-essential computers, printers, monitors, photocopiers and lights after-hours.
* One farmer is saving €37,000 per annum by installing a rainwater harvesting system while another is saving €1,800 per year simply by changing to bulk buying of feed (also avoiding the disposal of 244 Kg/year of plastic bags). On the basis of prevention work carried out at a number of farms in Monaghan/Longford, a best practice guide was published in August 2008 for widespread dissemination in the sector in collaboration with the Irish Farmers Association and Teagasc. This publication received widespread coverage in the print media and was the subject of a broadcast radio interview.
Regional Plenary Meetings involving all participants in the LAPD programme have been held to share learning and experiences with the implementation of prevention projects. A two-day National Conference to highlight emerging prevention case studies and the achievements of the programme was held in February 2008. A customised and accredited training programme on waste prevention has been developed for dissemination to all local authorities. The programme commenced in November 2007 and to date 17 local authority personnel have undertaken this training. These ongoing activities should ensure that prevention learning and techniques emerging from the pilot projects will be applied widely in Ireland. A lively website has been developed by the Clean Technology Centre to promote and support the project including an intranet section for the use of participants (see www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd).
The next phase of work has begun with the introduction of the Local Authority Prevention Network. Grant aid and technical support will continue to be available to local authorities and a self-supporting network will be formed around a Network Steering Group and a number of formal structures and working groups.
Guidelines for the preparation of waste management plans for construction projects were introduced in 2007. These are implemented through the planning code and monitored by local authorities. No data from these plans has been collated at national level.
|Title||Tax on the landfill of waste|
|Scope||All producers of waste, waste management enterprises|
|Transition period||no information|
|Objectives||Encourage the diversion of waste away from landfill towards alternative treatments, such as recycling and biological treatment options|
|Description||A landfill tax of 15 Euro per tonne. The levy generates revenue for the Environment Fund that is ring-fenced to support waste minimisation and recycling initiatives|
|Title||Pay as you throw schemes|
|Scope||Household waste (If the local authorities are forced to implement PAYT, the instrument should be moved to the regulatory instruments.)|
|Transition period||no information|
|Objectives||Incentive to reduce waste going into landfill|
|Description||Local authorities will be encouraged to implement pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) schemes for household waste. PAYT schemes can increase waste prevention as well as increase levels of source separation. Most commercial waste collection is already based on a volume or frequency related charge. Businesses are also encouraged to relate waste costs to the quantity produced.|
(Source: National Waste Report 2007 – this and annual reports back to 2001 at http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/waste/stats/)