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Factsheet for Ireland

1. General facts

CountryIreland (IE)
Surface area70,273 Km²
Population (thousands)4449
Population density63
Persons per household2.9
GDP per capita PPS150.4
GDP per capita
Household characteristics34% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km²)
66% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km²)
-% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab./km²)
Gross value added26.1% Industry, including energy
10% Construction
17.2% Trade, transport and communication services
25.2% Business activities and financial services
19.5% Other services
2.1% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

For the most part, waste management is Ireland is regulated under the Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008. Amongst other things, the Acts
National policy on waste management is set out in the October 1998 policy statement on waste management - Changing our Ways. It outlines the Government's policy objectives in relation to waste management, and suggests some key issues and considerations that must be addressed to achieve these objectives. The policy is firmly grounded in an internationally recognised hierarchy of options, namely prevention, minimisation, reuse/recycling, and the environmentally sustainable disposal of waste which cannot be prevented or recovered.
 

Changing Our Ways (1998)

This document set the following targets for achievement over a fifteen year timescale:
There have been a number of documents published since 1998, which have progressed and strengthened the policy on waste.
 
Delivering Change – Preventing and Recycling Waste ( 2002)
This document points the way forward and provides for a range of actions to be taken which will affect the way in which we deal with goods and materials at all stages from production to disposal.
 
In particular, Delivering Change proposed the implementation of a National Waste Prevention Programme, see below for further details.

Waste Management – Taking Stock and Moving Forward (2004)
This document is a review of progress on waste management modernisation since 1998 and a programme of key points to underpin future progress.

National Overview of Waste Management (2004)
This document was published in association with “Waste Management – Taking Stock and Moving Forward “ and details for each of the 10 waste management planning regions/areas, the waste management plan’s projections for future waste arisings, the waste management plan’s objectives in terms of recycling, thermal treatment and landfill, and the potential implications of changes (e.g. demographic changes, revised waste projections) for the implementation of the waste management plan.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
no informationAll legislation is available at www.irishstatutebook.ie or at www.environ.ie/en/Legislation/

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
The Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008 This sets out the responsibilities and functions in relation to waste. Specific aspects of the legislation are then enacted through a series of Regulations which address particular requirements. Principal Act in 1996; amended in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2008. no i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Landfill and other waste management facilities, including recycling facilities and hazardous waste facilities and including facilities for such waste streams as WEEE, ELVs, batteries and packagingWaste Management (Licensing) Regulations 2004. Statutory Instrument No. 395 of 2004. These Regulations provide for the operation of the system of licensing by the Environmental Protection Agency of waste recovery and disposal activities under Part V of the Waste Management Act, 1996 . The Regulations set out procedures for the making of waste licence applications, reviews of licences and consideration by the Agency of objections, including the holding of oral hearings. Waste Management (Facility Permit and Registration) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 821 of 2007. Waste Management (Facility Permit and Registration)(Amendment) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 86 of 2008. These regulations update and revise existing procedures for the making of permit and registration applications. The regulations are implemented primarily by local authorities for the control of waste activities not governed by the Licensing Regulations (above). The regulations are also implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency in relation to certain waste activities carried out by local authorities. Waste Management (Certification of Historic Unlicensed Waste Disposal and Recovery Activity) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 524 of 2008 These Regulations provide for the certification of historic unlicenced waste disposal sites in operation between 1977 and 1996, when modern waste legislation came into effect. The regulations will provide for the registration of these facilities by the local authorities, the carrying out of a screening risk assessment of the sites and the determination of any remedial measures required (all of which will be the responsibility of the relevant local authority). These facilities will require a certificate of authorisation from the Environmental Protection Agency. This certificate will determine the adequacy of the risk assessment and may specify further necessary measures to ensure the protection of the environment.
IncinerationEuropean Communities (Incineration of Waste) Regulations 2003. Statutory Instrument No. 275 of 2003 These Regulations implement Directive 2000/76/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste. They apply to both incineration and co-incineration plants. The Directive specifies more stringent standards and other operational requirements to be applied in relation to these facilities and applies to new plants as from 28 December 2002 and existing plants from 28 December 2005. The Regulations provide for implementation of the Directive in the context of the licensing systems operated by the EPA in relation to facilities which fall to be licensed under the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1992 ( IPC activities) or the Waste Management Act 1996
Waste collectionWaste Management (Collection Permit) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 820 of 2007. Waste Management (Collection Permit) (Amendment) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 87 of 2008. These regulations update and revise existing regulations for the permitting and control of waste collection activities carried out by private sector operators. The regulations are implemented and enforced by local authorities. Waste Management (Registration of Brokers and Dealers) Regulations 2008, S.I. No. 113 of 2008 The purpose of these Regulations is to provide for a registration system of waste brokers and dealers who arrange for the shipment of waste to and from Ireland and also the passage of waste through the State. The regulations are necessary in order to comply with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste and Directive 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on waste.
Waste export and importWaste Management (Shipments of Waste) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 419 of 2007. These regulations set out the administrative arrangements necessary to implement Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste. A single competent authority is designated for the import, export and transit of waste to, from and through Ireland.
Landfill levyWaste Management (Landfill Levy) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 199 of 2008. These regulations revise and replace the original 2002 regulations and make provision for the continued operation of the landfill levy provided for under section 73 of the Waste Management Acts 1996 to 2008. The Regulations increase the landfill levy for waste disposed of at an authorised landfill facility from €15 per tonne to €20 per tonne with effect from 1 July 2008. A rate of €20 per tonne is also applicable where waste has been disposed of at an unauthorised landfill facility.
no information2.2.4 National legislation on specific waste streams (selected)
BMWNot in legislation, but in the National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste, April 2006. See below for more information. Regulations are proposed for 2009 obliging the segregation and separate collection of biodegradable waste from commercial premises.
PackagingWaste Management (Packaging) Regulations, 2007 (S.I. No. 798 of 2007) These regulations update the packaging code and are designed to promote the recovery and recycling of packaging waste. They are intended, in particular, to facilitate the achievement of the targets for the recovery of packaging waste established by Directive 94/62/EC so that by 31 December 2008: (a) A minimum of 60% of packaging waste by weight is recovered and (b) A minimum of 55% of packaging waste by weight is recycled in total, including material specific recycling targets as follows: • 60% by weight for glass • 60% by weight for paper and board • 50% by weight for metals • 22.5% by weight for plastics and • 15% by weight for wood. The regulations impose obligations on producers who supply packaging to the Irish market. An exemption from certain obligations is available to major producers who participate in a packaging waste recovery scheme operated by an approved body. At time of writing (January 2009), one approved scheme was in operation, Repak Limited. A producer may not supply packaging or packaged products to the Irish market unless the packaging concerned complies with specified essential requirements as to its nature and composition. The regulations also provide for limits on the concentration levels of certain heavy metals in packaging.
Hazardous wasteWaste Management (Hazardous Waste) Regulations, 1998. S.I. No. 163 of 1998. These regulations introduce certain controls on the movement, labelling and mixing of hazardous wastes.
Waste electrical and electronic equipmentWaste Management (Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 290 of 2005 Waste Management (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 340 of 2005 These two sets of Regulations implement the WEEE Directive and provide for producer responsibility for electrical and electronic equipment placed on the market. The regulations impost obligations on persons who supply EEE, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers. An exemption from these obligations is available to persons who participate in a scheme operated by an approved body (a collective compliance scheme) for the collection, treatment, recovery and disposal of WEEE in an environmentally sound manner.
Restriction on hazardous substancesWaste Management (Restriction on Hazardous Substances) Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. 341 of 2005 These Regulations implement the ROHS Directive.
End-of-Life VehiclesWaste Management (End-Of-Life Vehicles) Regulations 2006, S.I. No. 282 of 2006 These Regulations are designed to implement the provisions of Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on end-of-life vehicles. They are intended to facilitate the achievement of the – - 85% reuse/recovery with 80% reuse/recycling by average weight per vehicle and year, on and from the date of commencement of the Regulations, and - 95% reuse/recovery with 85% reuse/recycling by average weight per vehicle and year, by the 1 of January 2015. The Regulations place obligations on each producer to establish a national collection system for the collection of specified vehicles, of that producer’s brand or for which that producer has responsibility, which that producer anticipates will become end-of-life vehicles in the State and will require appropriate treatment and recovery. Each producer’s national collection system will comprise of at least one authorised treatment facility in the functional area of each local authority and must have sufficient capacity to treat the number of end-of-life vehicles, of that producer’s brand or for which that producer is responsible, that arise in any given year.
BatteriesWaste Management (Batteries and Accummulators) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 268 of 2008 Waste Management (Batteries and Accummulators)(Amendment) Regulations, 2008, S.I. No. 556 of 2008 These Regulations implement the Batteries Directive and will facilitate the achievement of the targets for thec ollection, treatment, recycling and disposal of waste batteries in an environmentally sound manner. The Regulations impose obligations on persons who supply batteries to the Irish market, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers. An exemption from these obligations is available to persons who participate in a scheme operated by an approved body (a collective compliance scheme) for the collection, treatment, recovery and disposal of waste batteries in an environmentally sound manner.
Farm plasticsWaste Management (Farm Plastics) Regulations, …, S.I. No. … of …. These Regulations place producer responsibility obligations on the suppliers of farm plastics, i.e. silage wrap.
Animal remediesAnimal Remedies Regulations, 2005, S.I. No. … of …. These Regulations implement the … Directive and provide for the return of unused or out of date animal remedies.
TyresWaste Management (Tyres and Waste Tyres) Regulations 2007, S.I. No. 664 of 2007 These Regulations impose obligations on persons who supply tyres to the Irish market, whether as retailers, importers or manufacturers and on persons who manage waste tyres. The Regulations are designed to maximise the reuse, recycling and recovery of waste tyres.

2.3 Regional waste acts

Apart from bye-laws made by local authorities, there are no regional acts of legislation

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Hazardous waste
 
A revised (second) National Hazardous Waste Management Plan was published by the Environmental Protection Agency in September 2008. The objectives of the Plan are:
  1. To reduce the generation of hazardous waste by industry and society generally.
  2. To minimise unreported hazardous waste with a view to reducing the environmental impact of this unregulated waste stream.
  3. To strive for increased self-sufficiency in the management of hazardous waste and to reduce hazardous waste export.
  4. To minimise the environmental, social and economic impacts of hazardous waste generation and management.
 
The Plan makes 29 recommendations dealing with:
The recommendations will be implemented by a range of public bodies including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, local authorities, other Government departments and other public bodies.
 
The Plan is available at www.epa.ie/whatwedo/resource/hazardous/
 
Non-hazardous waste
There is no national waste management plan for non-hazardous waste. At national level, a series of policy documents (as listed above) set out the objectives to be followed by local authorities in their local and regional waste management plans for non-hazardous waste.
 

3.2 Regional plans

Waste management plans are prepared in accordance with the Waste Management (Planning) Regulations, 1997, S.I. No. 137 of 1997.
 
A total of 10 local and regional waste management plans have been prepared covering all 34 local authority areas. The following table lists the plans and a web link. Each of the plans will be revised in 2009/10.
Name of Plan
Local authority areas covered
Link (Some of the links have been artificially wrapped to fit in the table. Ensure you include all the text if using the links)
Dublin Region Waste Management Plan
Dublin City
South Dublin
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
Fingal
South East Waste Management Plan
Wexford
Carlow
Waterford county
Waterford city
Kilkenny
South Tipperary
www.wastenot.ie
Cork Regional Waste Management Plan
Cork city
 
 
Cork County
ourservices/environment/wastemanagement/wastemanagementplan/
 
Limerick Clare Kerry Regional Waste Management Plan
Limerick county
Limerick city
Clare
Kerry
http://www.managewaste.ie/publications.asp
Connaught Regional Waste Management Plan
Galway County
Galway City
Mayo
Roscommon
Sligo
Leitrim
http://www.connachtwaste.ie/Downloads/
Midlands Regional Waste Management Plan
Longford
Offaly
Laois
Westmeath
North Tipperary
http://www.westmeathcoco.ie/servicesa-z/environment/wastemanagementplan/
North East Regional Waste Management Plan
Louth
Monaghan
Cavan
Meath
NorthEastRegionWasteManagementPlan2005-2010/
Wicklow Waste Management Plan
Wicklow
Environment/Waste/overview.aspx
Kildare Waste Management Plan
Kildare
WasteManagementPlans/
Donegal Waste Management Plan
Donegal
http://www.donegalcoco.ie/services/waterenvironmentemergency/
wastemanagement/wastemanagementplan.htm

4. Waste prevention for Ireland

4.1. Objectives

no information

4.2. Targets

no information

4.3. Strategy

A large number of projects are carried out by the Environmental Protection Agency or other bodies under the National Waste Prevention Programme, including:
 
 
Four annual reports have been prepared and presented to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. The latest report for the period 2007/8 is available at www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/waste/prevention/ and contains detailed information on all NWPP projects.
 

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year1998
Legal documentWaste Management (Hazardous Waste) Regulations 1998
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2007
Legal documentELV Regulations
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2005
Legal documentWEEE Regulations
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1997
Legal documentPackaging Regulations
Regulatory instrument
TitleVOC limitations in decorative paints
Waste streamDecorative
Year2007
Legal documentLimitation of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds due to the use of certain Paints, Varnishes and Vehicle Refinishing Products Regulations 2007 (S.I. No. 199 of 2007), implementing Directive 2004/42/EC on the Limitations of Emissions due to the use of organic solvents in certain Paints, Varnishes and Vehicle Refinishing Products, (Decorative Paints Directive).

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year1997
Transition periodno information
Objectives- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum - Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationPackaging Regulations
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectives- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated. - Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationWEEE Regulations
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2007
Transition periodno information
Objectives- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars, - consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars, - increased use of secondary raw materials
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationELV Regulations
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

Waste Management (Environmental Levy) (Plastic Bag) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 2007

These regulations provide for an increase in the amount of the levy on plastic bags from 15 cent to 22 cent per bag with effect form 1 July 2007. The objective is to reduce the use of plastic bags.

Landfill levy – see legislation table above. The levy was increased to €20 per tonne of waste disposed in 2008. New policy and legislation to further increase the levy has been proposed.

A visible environmental management cost (vEMC) is payable as a contribution to a Producer Recycling Fund upon purchase of electrical and electronic equipment. Details of vEMC rates are at http://www.weeeregister.ie/categories.html. This instrument is designed to fund the recycling of historic WEEE – it is not a prevention instrument per se.

 

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information
Target group
Waste stream
-    Capacity (life span of products)
-    higher content of heavy metals
-    the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
Final consumer
Batteries, Ac­cumula­tors
Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Final consumer
ELV
Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Disassembling companies
ELV

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

no information

Examples

TitleDescription
Green Hospitality Award (www.ghaward.ie)Targeted at hotels and hospitality sector – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food)

Programme originally introduced in Cork in 1999, relaunched in 2004, national funding commenced in 2008.

This is now a major nationally funded programme to bring about resource efficiency and waste prevention in the hotels and hospitality sector. To date, over 200 hotels are participating nationally. Over 8% of all Irish hotels have achieved an award (see below).

At least 30 prevention or resource efficiency case studies will be generated from the GHA project in 2009.

A Green Hospitality Award scheme has been developed based on previous work done by EPA/ERTDI on the Cleaner Greener Production Programme project “Greening Irish Hotels”. The original programme involved 56 hotels (3 to 5 star) ranging in size from 30 to 255 beds around the country. Environmental reviews, training, environmental management, best practices and cleaner production plans were developed. Quantified actual savings included diversion of 1,113 tonnes of waste from landfill, reduction of 5,000 tonnes of water consumption and 3,000 tonnes of carbon emissions. If extrapolated across the entire sector the economic benefit could amount to €81.4 million in cost savings, diversion of 56,000 tonnes of waste from landfill, 4.5 million tonnes reduction in water consumption and 162,000 tonnes of carbon. It is clear that there is very significant scope for cost savings in the sector in relation not just to waste, but also to water and energy. Greening the industry will not only help with their competitiveness, but also improve visitor perception of the sustainability of the tourism product in Ireland.

The Clean Technology Centre and Hospitality Solutions Consulting have now been appointed to develop this project even further. Almost 200 hotels were recruited throughout the country in 2008. A range of award and assessment criteria were developed to underpin the project. Audits, training and guidance are provided to each hotel to enable them to engage in their own prevention programme and to prepare for the different levels of award. These start at an entry bronze award leading stepwise up to silver, gold and platinum levels – the latter being close to the EU Flower level of environmental performance. The awards are based on independent inspections and an awards ceremony is planned for successful businesses. An Advisory Group for the project has met on a number of occasions to review project outputs and progress.

There are already many examples of hotels that have realised annual recurring cost savings by applying a systematic approach to prevention:

* Systematically reducing waste, increasing recycling and composting food waste saved one establishment alone €35,000 per annum.
* An in-vessel composting machine installed in one hotel is currently diverting over 150 tonnes of food waste per year and realising them cash savings of €30,000 each year.
* Another hotel is saving €30,000 per annum by reducing water consumption by 15 thousand tonnes by fixing leaks in their distribution system.
* Installing a rainwater harvesting system for public toilets saved 2,600 tonnes of water and €6,000 per year for one hotel.
* Fitting low flow taps and shower heads is saving water and energy (worth €23,000 per annum) in another hotel.
* Two hotels are now saving €60,000 per annum each through reduced electrical consumption (430 kWh or 270 tonnes carbon) by installing energy efficient lighting.

These, and many other examples, are being used to spread the message that prevention pays across the hotel sector. In time, this sector–based approach to Green Business will be extended according as suitable case studies, sector information and resources become available. Health-care organisations, retail and construction activities are currently being considered in this regard.

There is as yet no legislation supporting the project. It is, as the heading to this section suggests, voluntary. There may be scope for seeking statutory support for “general binding rules” for the sector and this will be considered.

The objectives are to support the hotels and hospitality industries with grants and a long-term technical advisory service to enable them bring about improvements in their resource efficiency and waste generation. A target of 150 hotels for 2008 was achieved. A target of a further 40 hotels, 30 contract caterers and 20 private hospitals/nursing homes has been agreed for 2009.

The Green Hospitality Award has been benchmarked against all major European awards, including EU Flower. The GHA platinum award compares well against EU Flower and exceeds the requirements of EU Flower in several categories. The Green Hospitality Award is acknowledged as a legitimate route to EU Flower.

The Green Hospitality Award is funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and is supported by all of the major national tourism bodies including Fáilte Ireland, Irish Hospitality Institute and the Irish Hotels Federation. It also features on the publicity of several hotels and hotel groups, including:

* Radisson SAS Dublin Airport (http://www.airport.dublin.radissonsas.com/)
* Rezidor Group (http://www.rezidor.com/cs/Satellite/Page/Rezidor/Page/defaultRezidor/1165588170639/en/)
* Carlton Hotels (http://www.carlton.ie/awards_and_achievements.html)
* Westport Woods Hotel (http://www.westportwoodshotel.com)

See www.ghaward.ie for more information.
Greenbusiness.ie (www.greenbusiness.ie)


Targeted at all businesses and other organisations – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food)

Programme introduced as a pilot in September 2008. Launched in early 2009.

This is a nationally funded programme to provide tools and resources for organisations to bring about resource efficiency and waste prevention. To date, over 100 businesses have registered at greenbusiness.ie and are using its tools.

Green Business “dot ie” (www.greenbusiness.ie) is the name given to a web-centred project aimed at enabling any business or organisation to assess their environmental performance particularly in relation to waste and water resource use efficiency. Direct links are provided also to the assessment tools on energy resource use efficiency available from Sustainable Energy Ireland (e.g. Energy MAP at www.sei.ie). The self-audit tools are being piloted during 2008 with a range of companies being actively targeted across different sectors. To support organisations using the tools, active telephone, e-mail and site visits are available at no cost to advise them on how to make net cost savings through resource use efficiency measures. The intention is to provide the tools to enable any business that wants to voluntarily make savings by improving their own resource use efficiency. An active marketing and outreach programme will be implemented to recruit as many businesses as possible to enable them to prevent waste and save money. As appropriate, case studies from the EPA Cleaner, Greener Production Programme or other sources will be promoted to relevant businesses and organisations.

The policy document, Delivering Change, proposes the introduction of a programme of mandatory waste audits for organisations incorporating waste reduction plans. The idea of the self-audit tool is to give effect to this policy aspiration initially in a voluntary form. However, it is hoped that many different sectors will co-operate with the prevention initiatives on a voluntary basis obviating the need for legislative mandatory requirements. The Core Prevention Team will closely monitor this policy objective and will make recommendations as appropriate. Independent auditing against EPA guideline requirements by Accredited Inspection Contractors (AIC) is already obligatory for operators covered by the Solvent and Deco-paints Regulations.

A number of tools are provided at greenbusiness.ie, including:

* WAT – waste audit tool – waste generation, management and cost.
* WAVE – water consumption and cost audit tool.

A simple energy calculator is also provided. Major energy users or those in need of more specialised advice on energy consumption and conservation are referred to an expert Sustainable Energy Ireland advisor.

Registered users of greenbusiness.ie can request free on-site Resource Efficiency Visits (REVs). Expert advisors will help organisations to interpret their waste, water and energy statistics and prepare introductory waste reduction plans.

At least 20 prevention or resource efficiency case studies will be generated from the greenbusiness.ie project in 2009.
Local Authority Prevention Demonstration Programme (www.lapd.ie and www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd)
Targeted at local authorities to build their capacity in the promotion of waste prevention in their own organisation and with local businesses and communities – all waste streams, and use of resources (water, energy, food).

This is a nationally funded programme to build capacity in local authorities. To date, approximately €1,250,000 has been committed as grant aid to 14 local authorities. Phase 1 was introduced in 2006 and Phase 2 in 2008. Fourteen (of 34) local authorities are participating.

The next phase, Local Authority Prevention Network, is in preparation. Fourteen local authorities have already applied for funding to support their local prevention officers.

Details

To date, there are 14 local authorities participating in the Local Authority Prevention Demonstration (LAPD) Programme, which was launched in July 2006. The aim of LAPD is to assist local authorities to design and implement local integrated waste prevention programmes and projects. Assistance is provided by way of direct technical expertise (from the Clean Technology Centre, Cork Institute of Technology) and grant monies to increase capacity in waste prevention locally. In many instances, local authority staff have been specifically seconded to work on prevention projects. In total, 27 local authority staff have been directly involved in the projects. The idea is to develop capacity in local authorities such that their staff can in turn enable organisations, including their own, to prevent waste. This should be done on a systematic audit/review-plan-act-review iterative cycle. Further information is available at www.lapd.ieand www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd.

Ongoing projects include prevention in community, commercial and business organisations such as shopping centres, a regional airport, construction, farms, university, public organisations and schools. Other projects underway include prevention initiatives in a town centre, at three public swimming pool facilities, public buildings, an offshore island, a major retail outlet, on four farms and a university campus. Best practice case studies and prevention data/know-how are now emerging from each project for dissemination and implementation throughout the country. Overall, over 153 businesses have been contacted and 96 engaged with directly on prevention. Over 295 waste audits have been completed and 1,300 people attended over 20 different events organised to discuss the prevention projects. Prevention themed posters were developed to promote the message widely.

Examples of projects include:

* Dundrum Shopping Centre has reduced waste charges by an estimated €168,000 annually following a waste audit and the introduction of improved practices. Food waste is the next target here (30% reduction) with trials on an on-site composter already commenced.
* Hospitals in Monaghan are saving over €21,000 each year after improving waste management practices and avoiding mixing hazardous with non-hazardous waste. An additional €8,300 is being saved annually after significant water losses, which only came to light during the waste audit, were stemmed.
* Cost savings were realised at Kerry Airport where avoidable water losses were also identified amounting to over €5,000 per annum.
* A survey of seven municipal buildings in Roscommon showed that almost 146 thousand kWh of electricity (costing €24,192 and equivalent to 93,655 tonnes carbon) could be saved by switching off non-essential computers, printers, monitors, photocopiers and lights after-hours.
* One farmer is saving €37,000 per annum by installing a rainwater harvesting system while another is saving €1,800 per year simply by changing to bulk buying of feed (also avoiding the disposal of 244 Kg/year of plastic bags). On the basis of prevention work carried out at a number of farms in Monaghan/Longford, a best practice guide was published in August 2008 for widespread dissemination in the sector in collaboration with the Irish Farmers Association and Teagasc. This publication received widespread coverage in the print media and was the subject of a broadcast radio interview.

Regional Plenary Meetings involving all participants in the LAPD programme have been held to share learning and experiences with the implementation of prevention projects. A two-day National Conference to highlight emerging prevention case studies and the achievements of the programme was held in February 2008. A customised and accredited training programme on waste prevention has been developed for dissemination to all local authorities. The programme commenced in November 2007 and to date 17 local authority personnel have undertaken this training. These ongoing activities should ensure that prevention learning and techniques emerging from the pilot projects will be applied widely in Ireland. A lively website has been developed by the Clean Technology Centre to promote and support the project including an intranet section for the use of participants (see www.ctc-cork.ie/lapd).

The next phase of work has begun with the introduction of the Local Authority Prevention Network. Grant aid and technical support will continue to be available to local authorities and a self-supporting network will be formed around a Network Steering Group and a number of formal structures and working groups.

4.5 Waste prevention examples

no information

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Ireland

5.1. Objectives

no information

5.2. Targets

There are no quantitative targets for the prevention of C&D waste. Recycling targets were imposed in 1998 for the achievement of at least 50% recycling by 2003 (achieved) and 85% recycling by 2013.

5.3. Strategy

no information

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

Guidelines for the preparation of waste management plans for construction projects were introduced in 2007. These are implemented through the planning code and monitored by local authorities. No data from these plans has been collated at national level.

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

The National Construction and Demolition Waste Council was formed in 2001. It constitutes a voluntary approach, endorsed by the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, to achieving the recycling of C&D waste. Membership of the Council includes all the industry sectoral and professional bodies as well as Government, local government and regulatory authorities.
 
A number of initiatives have been undertaken by or on behalf of the Council including:

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Ireland

6.1. Objectives

no information

6.2. Targets

The National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste of 2004, which is to be implemented until 2014, contains the following targets for 2013:
 

6.3. Strategy

Policies included the following instruments:

Pay-as-you-throw schemes:  Local authorities will be encouraged to implement pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) schemes for household waste. PAYT schemes can increase waste prevention as well as increase levels of source separation. Most commercial waste collection is already based on a volume or frequency related charge. Businesses are also encouraged to relate waste costs to the quantity produced.

PAYT charges can be implemented through levying the frequency of collection, the volume of waste collected or the weight of waste presented. Examples include:
 

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

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6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleTax on the landfill of waste
ScopeAll producers of waste, waste management enterprises
YearJune
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesEncourage the diversion of waste away from landfill towards alternative treatments, such as recycling and biological treatment options
Targetsno information
DescriptionA landfill tax of 15 Euro per tonne. The levy generates revenue for the Environment Fund that is ring-fenced to support waste minimisation and recycling initiatives
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

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6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

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6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitlePay as you throw schemes
ScopeHousehold waste (If the local authorities are forced to implement PAYT, the instrument should be moved to the regulatory instruments.)
YearJanu
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesIncentive to reduce waste going into landfill
Targetsno information
DescriptionLocal authorities will be encouraged to implement pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) schemes for household waste. PAYT schemes can increase waste prevention as well as increase levels of source separation. Most commercial waste collection is already based on a volume or frequency related charge. Businesses are also encouraged to relate waste costs to the quantity produced.
Implementationno information
Resultno information

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Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

Diversion of biodegradable municipal waste from landfill did not progress well up to 2007 (see the table). However, in 2008, the roll-out of brown bins (for household organic – food and garden – waste) accelerated and this has continued in 2009. In 2009, a regulation requiring the segregation and separation collection of food waste from commercial premises will be introduced. Landfill licences will be reviewed to ensure that the landfills will not accept more biodegradable municipal waste than is allowable under the Landfill Directive’s diversion targets. A monitoring programme for the first target year, 2010, will be developed in 2009 to allow all waste operators to closely track their own and national progress in the landfilling of biodegradable municipal waste.

Targets for Municipal waste diversion from landfill (per directive 1999/31/EC)

(Source: National Waste Report 2007 – this and annual reports back to 2001 at http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/waste/stats/)

Construction and demolition waste

The National Waste Report 2007 illustrates the latest situation regarding the management of construction and demolition waste. C&D waste quantities continued to grow up to 2007. Reporting of waste management data remains poor. The reported recycling of soil and stones decreased in 2007. However, the reported recycling of other C&D waste increased significantly in 2007. The following text is taken from the National Waste Report 2007 - http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/waste/stats/.
 
The total quantity of construction and demolition waste collected in 2007 is estimated at 17,791,745 tonnes, an increase of 5.8% since 2006. During 2007, a reported 12,774,774 tonnes (71.8%) of construction and demolition waste was recovered and 974,934 tonnes (5.4%) was disposed at authorised landfills and at waste permitted facilities.
There continues to be a large discrepancy between the reported collection of construction and demolition waste and its reported disposal and recovery. In 2007, there was a gap of 4,042,037 tonnes. Local authorities have stated that of 3,686 collection permit holders active in their areas, only 2,414 provided an annual environmental report for 2007, a 65% reporting rate. Local authorities estimate that non-reporting collection permit holders collected up to 633,000 tonnes of construction and demolition waste. Of active permitted (recovery) sites, only 770 reported from a total 1,688 active sites, a reporting rate of 45%. Local authorities estimate that non-reporting facility permit holders handled over 1,300,000 tonnes. This still leaves a gap of over 2,000,000 tonnes of waste and this in all likelihood represents a general lack of attention by the construction and demolition industries, and elements of the waste industry serving it, of the need to keep good records and provide reports to local authorities.
Table 19 shows that the reported recovery rate for construction and demolition waste decreased to 71.8% in 2007 (from 79.5% in 2006 and 86.9% in 2005). Construction and demolition waste is comprised largely of soil and stones (approx. 76%) and detailed information on this fraction is presented in Table 20. A total recovery rate of 80.5% of soil and stones is reported, down from 89% in 2006 and 95% in 2005.
Excluding soil and stones, the remainder of construction and demolition waste consists of material such as concrete and rubble, wood, glass, metal and plastic. Table 21 shows that the reported recovery of general construction and demolition waste increased from 1,051,647 tonnes in 2006 to 1,861,441 tonnes in 2007. The reported recovery rate also increased substantially from 36% in 2006 to 44% in 2007.

 

Waste prevention

no information

7. Bibliography

No information

8. Country links to national waste information