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Factsheet for Croatia

1. General facts

CountryCroatia (HR)
Surface area56,542 Km²
Population (thousands)4435
Population density78
Persons per household2.6
GDP per capita PPS63.1
GDP per capita
Household characteristicsPercentage living in rural areas: 41%
Percentage living in urban areas: 59%
Gross value added20.2% Industry, including energy
8.3% Construction
25.2% Trade, transport and communication services
22.9% Business activities and financial services
16.9% Other services
6.4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

According to the Croatian Waste Act, the state is responsible for hazardous waste management and for incineration of waste, while regional self-government units (counties and the City of Zagreb) are responsible for the management of all other types of waste. Local self-government units (municipalities and cities) are responsible for municipal waste management.

The Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction is a central body responsible for preparation of waste management legislation, national waste management strategy and waste management plan, as well as coordination of co-operation among all involved institutions in waste management in Croatia. 

Regional self-government units adopt county waste management plans, determine locations in physical plans, issue permits for non-hazardous and inert waste landfills, ensure conditions and implementation of measures for managing different waste streams, issue permits for municipal and non-hazardous waste management, and collect data on waste.

 

Municipalities and cities adopt their waste management plans, determine locations in physical plans, implement measures of municipal waste management, and with coordination from the county, ensure the implementation of prescribed measures for separate waste collection.

The control over the implementation of the legal regulations and prevention of uncontrolled environmental pollution, including Waste Act and by-laws, is conducted by the Environmental Protection Inspection at the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction.

The Croatian Environment Agency (CEA) is a public institution responsible for the collection and consolidation of waste data, developing and maintaining the Waste Management Information System, enabling and facilitating access to information on waste to decision-makers and general public, developing reports on the status of the waste sector.

Croatian Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (CEPEEF) is a state non-budget fund, established in order to ensure additional resources for financing projects, programmes and similar undertakings in the field of preservation, sustainable use, protection and improvement of the environment.

The main policy documents on national level are the Waste Management Strategy and the Waste Management Plan, both adopted pursuant to the Waste Act (Official Gazette No. 178/2004, 111/2006, 110/07, 60/08). On the basis of the Waste Management Strategy (Official Gazette No. 135/2005) the Croatian Government adopted the Waste Management Plan (Official Gazette No. 85/2007) as a document implementing the objectives set for the period of eight years (2007-2015).

Counties and City of Zagreb, town/municipality and also waste producers producing more than 150 tons of non-hazardous waste or more than 200 kilograms of hazardous waste per year are obliged to prepare a waste management plan.

The main act regulating waste management issues is Waste Act (Official Gazette No. 178/2004, 111/2006, 60/08, 87/09). More detailed provisions can be found in a number of ordinances on specific waste streams or certain waste management issues, adopted on the basis of Waste Act.

With the passing of these regulations, the transposition of the acquis communautaire (adopted by the end of 2008, not including the new Directive 2008/98/EC) in the area of waste management into the Croatian legislation has been completed.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Waste Act (Official Gazette No.
178/04, 111/06,, 60/08, 87/09)
Framework act regulating and setting the legal framework in the waste management sector. This Act regulates the methods of waste management: principles and aims of management, planning documents, authorities and responsibilities related to management, costs, information system, and requirements for facilities where waste management shall be carried out, method of performing activities, transboundary shipment of waste, concessions and supervision over waste management.
The following waste types are excluded from the scope of the Waste Act: radioactive waste, waste waters, gaseous substances released into the atmosphere, waste resulting from animals, faecal matter, and other natural non-hazardous substances used in agriculture and waste resulting from the search for, extraction, transporting, final treatment or destruction of mines or other lethal devices and explosives that are regulated by special laws.
Ordinance on waste management (Official Gazette No. 23/07, 111/07)Regulates methods of waste recovery and disposal, categories and technology conditions for waste storage facilities, professional qualification of employees in waste management system, and the modes of operation and delivery of information in waste management.
Regulation on categories, types and classification of waste with a waste catalogue and list of hazardous waste, (Official Gazette No. 50/05, 39/09)

Establishes: categories, types and classification of waste depending on its properties and place of origin, and determines the waste catalogue, list of hazardous waste and list of waste for transboundary movement/shipment.
Ordinance on the register of legal and natural persons carrying out mediation activities in organising the recovery and/or disposal of waste and legal and natural persons carrying out the activity of export of non-hazardous waste, (Official Gazette No. 51/06)

no information
Regulation on the criteria, procedure and manner of determining compensation to real estate owners and local self-government units (Official Gazette No. 59/06)

no information
Municipal Economy Act (Official Gazette No. 26/03-consolidated version, 82/04 and 178/04)

Regulates principles, manner of performing of municipal services and financing. Municipal economy covers performing of municipal services that are identified as being of special interest for natural and legal persons, as well as activities related to construction and maintenance of facilities and municipal infrastructure on the territory of local self-government units (towns and municipalities).

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Ordinance on the methods and conditions for the landfill of waste, categories and operational requirements for waste landfills (Official Gazette No. 117/07)
Incineration Ordinance on methods and requirements for thermal treatment of waste (Official Gazette No.45/07)
Transboundary movement of wasteAct on ratification of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (Official Gazette IT, No. 3/94) Regulation on supervision of transboundary movement of waste (Official Gazette No. 69/06, 17/07, 39/09)

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
BMW (Bio-degradable waste)Ordinance on the methods and conditions for the landfill of waste, categories and operational requirements for waste landfills (Official Gazette No. 117/07)
PackagingOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste, (Official Gazette No. 97/05, 115/05, 81/08, 31/09) Decision on requirements regarding packaging labeling, (Official Gazette No. 155/05, 24/06, 28/06) Decision on National target of share of returnable packaging in 2008 (Official Gazette No. 82/07)
Construction & demolition wasteOrdinance on construction waste management (Official Gazette No. 38/08) Ordinance on the method and procedures for managing waste containing asbestos, (Official Gazette No. 42/07) Instruction on handling waste containing asbestos (Official Gazette No. 89/08)
Mining wasteOrdinance on managing waste from research and mining of mineral raw materials (Official Gazette No.128/08)
End-of-life vehicles Ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles, (Official Gazette No. 136/06, 31/09)
End-of-life tyres Ordinance on the management of waste tyres, (Official Gazette No. 40/06, 31/09) Decision on the allowed quantity of waste tyres to be used for energy purposes in 2006, (Official Gazette No. 64/06) Decision on the allowed quantity of waste tyres to be used for energy purposes in 2007, (Official Gazette No. 36/07)
Health-care wasteOrdinance on medical waste management (Official Gazette No.72/07)
Waste batteries and accumulators Ordinance on waste batteries and accumulators management, (Official Gazette No. 133/06, 31/09)
Waste oils Ordinance on waste oil management, (Official Gazette No. 124/06, 121/08, 31/09) Ordinance on management of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls (Official Gazette No. 105/08)
WEEEOrdinance on the management of waste electrical and electronic appliances and equipment (Official Gazette No.74/07, 133/08, 31/09)
Wastewater treatment sludgeOrdinance on management of wastewater treatment sludge when used in agriculture (Official Gazette No. 38/08)
Waste from the titanium dioxide industryOrdinance on management of waste from the titanium dioxide industry (Official Gazette No. 70/08)

2.3 Regional waste acts

No regional waste acts.

3. Waste management plans

The Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette No. 85/07) is the fundamental document on waste management in the Republic of Croatia for the period from 2007 to 2015. The framework for the preparation of the Plan includes the Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette No. 130/05), legislation in force and guidelines of the European Union. Documents are based on Articles 7, 8 and 9 of the Waste Act.

3.1 National plan

Legal reference and weblink (in Croatian language)

Overview of content

Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette No. 30/09)

http://www.mzopu.hr/doc/Strategy_for_Sustainable_Development.pdf

Strategy sets basic objectives and measures of economic sustainable development, social sustainable development and environmental protection and identifies key challenges in their realization. The analysis of the most important challenges provides a description of the current situation from the economic, social and environmental aspect, thereby contributing to sustainability. The Strategy also lists the institutions involved in its implementation and the method of implementation, responsibility for the implementation and the method of monitoring the implementation.

Waste Management Strategy (Official Gazette No. 135/05)

http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/289920.html

Provisional translation available at: http://www.mzopu.hr/doc/Waste_Management_Strategy_OG%20130-205.pdf

Strategy contains the evaluation of the current status in waste management, strategic and quantitative objectives and measures for achieving these objectives, guidelines, evaluation of investments and sources of financing.

Waste Management Plan (Official Gazette No. 85/07)

http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/299087.html

Provisional translation available at: http://www.mzopu.hr/doc/WASTE%20MANAGEMENT%20PLAN%20OG%2085-207.pdf

Document implementing the objectives set in the Waste Management Strategy for the period of eight years (2007-2015). The Waste Management Plan contains the following:

  • types, quantities and origin of waste for which management must be ensured,
  • the requirements for managing special categories of waste,
  • distribution of locations (networks) of facilities and devices for the recovery and disposal of waste and the deadlines for their construction,
  • general technical requirements for waste management facilities and devices and
  • estimate and assess possible sources of funding needed for implementing waste management goals.

3.2 Regional plans

Waste management plans (WMP) on the regional or local level (of counties, The City of Zagreb, cities and municipalities) must be in line with the Waste Management Strategy, Waste Management Plan Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia and the respective Environmental Program(s) on the regional/local level.

The waste management plan of a county and of The City of Zagreb shall be adopted by the county assembly and the city assembly of The City of Zagreb for a period of eight years, while the competent office of the county and the City of Zagreb shall monitor its implementation. Two or more counties may develop joint WMP. The County WMP contains:

The waste management plan of a city or municipality shall be adopted by the city/municipal assembly for a period of eight years, while the competent office shall monitor its implementation.

The municipal/town WMP contains:

Adopted county or municipality/town Waste management Plans can be found on the internet (Croatian language only): http://dokumenti.azo.hr/Pretrazivanje.aspx

4. Waste prevention for Croatia

4.1. Objectives

The Waste Management Strategy has been structured, particularly as to measures to be taken for implementation of the envisaged waste management system, in compliance with general principles set by the EU, and in keeping with appropriate legal requirements contained in the Waste Act, and brought into harmony with the said principles. The Waste management hierarchy is defined as follows:

Article 5 of the Waste Act as the first objective of the waste management sets:

„ avoiding and reducing the generation of waste and reducing the hazardous properties of waste, particularly through:

- the development of clean technologies that exploit less natural resources,

- technical development and promotion of products that do not contribute or minimally contribute to the increase of adverse effects of waste and the risk of pollution,

- the development of appropriate methods for the disposal of hazardous substances contained in waste intended for recovery,“

The Waste Act also promulgates the obligation that waste management plans should contain measures for avoiding and reducing the generation of waste.

Furthermore, the Waste Management Strategy as the first strategic waste management objective sets:

Avoidance of waste generation and reduction of its quantities at the source, as well as reduction of the quantities of waste that have to be disposed of, with a simultaneous increase in the material and energy-based recovery of waste:

a) avoidance of waste generation and reduction in the quantity of waste at the place where it is generated, and this through cleaner production, education and training, economic instruments, waste management plans, implementation of positive regulations, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC Directive), investment in modern technologies, etc.

b) separate collection of waste at the source.

c) construction of subsystems for the separate collection and use or recovery of significant types of waste (packaging waste, end-of-life vehicles, household appliances, e-waste, etc.).“

4.2. Targets

(Waste Management Strategy)

(Ordinance on packaging and packaging waste)

(Article 26)

The Minister shall set for each year by decision the targets for collection, recovery and disposal of packaging waste in the current year as national targets. The decision shall be published in the Official Gazette.

In case there is a need for harmonization with achieved results, the Minister may set new targets in the course of the calendar year.

 National targets of shares of returnable packaging per products are as follows:

Type of products

Annual targets shares of returnable packaging in % (2009-2013)

Wine

25

Other alcoholic drinks

25

Beer

65

Juice and other drinks

25

Mineral water carbonated and noncarbonated

25

(Article 27)

The framework target (until entering into EU) shall be:  recovery (material or energy) of 60% of mass of packaging waste, recycle 55%-80% mass of collected packaging waste, recycling by materials:

– 60% mass for glass;
– 60% mass for paper/cardboard;
– 50% mass for metals;
– 22,5% mass for plastics, counting materials recycled to plastics;

– 15% mass for wood.

(Ordinance on waste tyres management)

Objective is to reach 70% recycling of waste tyres quantities. Until the conditions are fulfilled, the minister sets the Decision on annual basis on the permitted quantity of waste tyres which could be used for energy purposes. (for year 2007 - 30% of collected quantities).

(Ordinance on waste batteries and accumulators management)

(Article 2)

a)      collection rates of at least 25 % by 26. September  2012

b)      collection rates of at least 45 % by 26. September  2016

(Annex)

The recycling of battery and accumulator content to produce similar products or for other purposes has to reach the following levels:

·         at least 65% by average weight of lead-acid batteries and accumulators, including the recycling of the lead content to the highest degree that is technically feasible;

·         75% by average weight of nickel-cadmium batteries and accumulators, including the recycling of the lead content to the highest degree that is technically feasible;

·         at least 50% by average weight of other battery and accumulator waste.

(Ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles)

After 1 January 2009 ensure the rate of re-use and recovery to 85% in terms of average weight per collected vehicle/year, and the rate of re-use and recycling over the same period to at least 80% respectively in terms of average weight per vehicle/year.

After 1 January 2015 ensure the rate of re-use and recovery to 95% in terms of average weight per collected vehicle/year, and the rate of re-use and recycling over the same period to at least 85% respectively in terms of average weight per vehicle/year.

(Ordinance on the management of waste electrical and electronic appliances and equipment)

(1) The target for separate collection of EE waste is four kilograms per inhabitant per year by 31 December 2008 with an appropriate increase in the following years.

(2) Recovery targets for EE waste by 31 December 2008 are:

a) for EE waste generated from EE equipment falling under categories 1 and 10 from Annex IA of this Ordinance

- the rate of recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 80 % by weight of collected EE waste, and

- the rate of reuse and recycling for components, materials and substances shall be increased to a minimum of 75 % by weight of collected EE waste;

b) for EE waste generated from EE equipment falling under categories 3 and 4 of Annex IA of this Ordinance

- the rate of recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 75 % by weight of collected EE waste, and

- the rate of reuse and recycling for components, materials and substances shall be increased to a minimum of 65 % by weight of collected EE waste;

c) for EE waste generated from EE equipment falling under categories 2, 5, 6, 7 and 9 of Annex IA of this Ordinance

- the rate of recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 70 % by weight of collected EE waste, and

- the rate of reuse and recycling for components, materials and substances shall be increased to a minimum of 50 % by weight of collected EE waste;

d) for gas discharge lamps, the rate of reuse and recycling for components, materials and substances shall be increased to a minimum of 80 % by an average weight per lamp.

(Article 7)

(1) EE equipment falling under categories 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 from Annex IA of this Ordinance, as well as light bulbs and household luminaries placed on the market of the Republic of Croatia shall not contain lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium Cr6+, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).

Reduction in the Share of Biodegradable Waste (Ordinance on the methods and conditions for the landfill of waste, categories and operational requirements for waste landfills)

In order to reduce gaseous effluents emitted into the environment resulting from the disposal of waste containing a high share of biodegradable components, the following objectives are set:

• By 2012 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 75 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997;

• By 2015 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 50 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997;

• By 2020 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 35 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997.

(Ordinance on construction waste management)

Construction waste should be recovered or recycled in full (or to the maximum extent possible), avoiding any permanent deposition to natural environment, as determined by the Waste Act and the Strategy. The objective to recover 80 per cent of the construction waste amount by 2015, as set by the Strategy, must be attained gradually.

4.3. Strategy

Objectives, measures and activities by which the objectives of waste prevention should be achieved are stated in Chapter on Sustainable production and consumption of the Strategy of Sustainable Development (Official Gazette No. 30/09), Waste Management Strategy (Official Gazette No.135/05) and Waste Management Plan (Official Gazette No. 85/07).

Examples of measures: Integrate cleaner production programmes in production processes, products and services; promote and encourage the use of the environmental label; Implement national economic measures that force economic subjects to pay charges for burdening the environment, preparation and implementation of action plan for education and promotion of waste prevention and minimization options for all stakeholders, subsidizing and financing project of cleaner production, waste recycling and recovery and so on).

Instruments already introduced in Croatia:

- promotion of cleaner-production projects and practices (mainly through activities of Croatian Centre for Cleaner Production and by co-financing activities by Environment Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund),

- education in the field of waste management  (preschool, school, higher education programs, scientific journals, international symposia),

- construction/improvement of the separate waste collection and recycling systems for certain waste streams,

- economic instruments introduced for certain waste streams management or for burdening the environment,

- waste management plans (national, regional, local level and selected waste producers) and

- Croatian waste exchange (within Croatian Chamber of Economy).

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Title(Article 20) Ban (from 1.6.2007)- batteries and accumulators, whether or not incorporated in appliances, containing more than 0.0005% by weight of mercury (except for button cells, which must have a mercury content of less than 2% by weight) Ban (from 26.9.2008) - portable batteries and accumulators, including those incorporated in appliances, with a cadmium content by weight of more than 0.002%
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2006
Legal documentOrdinance on the management of waste batteries and accumulators, (Official Gazette No. 133/06, 31/09)
Regulatory instrument
Title(Article 5) Ban of Import of vehicles and spare parts containing lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year1997
Legal documentOrdinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles, (Official Gazette No. 136/06, 31/09)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE (except some concrete exceptions)
Waste streamWEEE
Year2007
Legal documentOrdinance on the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment and devices (Official Gazette No.74/07 133/08, 31/09)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium not banned but limited to 100mg/kg
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year2005
Legal documentOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste, (Official Gazette No. 97/05

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopePackaging waste
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionRequirements for the composition and nature of packaging, its reusability, recoverability, including recyclability
Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste, (Official Gazette No. 97/05, 115/05, 81/08, 31/09) – Annex IV

Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopeWEEE
Year2007
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionArticle 6
(1) The producer shall ensure that EE equipment placed on the market is manufactured in such a way:
– that the use of dangerous substances is reduced to the minimum;
– that dismantling and recovery are made possible, in particular the reuse and recycling of
their components and materials;
– that the use of recycled materials is maximised;
– that once the product becomes waste, it poses no risk or harm to human health and the environment, and presents no obstacle or difficulty for waste management.
(2) The producer shall not prevent reuse of EE equipment through manufacturing processes,
unless such manufacturing processes present overriding advantages with regard to the
protection of the environment and/or safety requirements.

EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.
Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationOrdinance on the management of waste electrical and electronic appliances and equipment (Official Gazette No.74/07, 133/08, 31/09)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco design
ScopeELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description
Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,
consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,
increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationOrdinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles, (Official Gazette No. 136/06, 31/09) – Article 8
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (EPEEF), established in 2003 and operating since the beginning of 2004, is an extra-budgetary institution owned by the Republic of Croatia, the purpose of which is to finance environmental protection programmes and projects. Among other, it co-finances the projects on waste prevention and projects for improving separate collection of certain waste types.

The EPEEF collects different environmental charges as its own revenue, which includes charges for burdening the environment with hazardous and non-hazardous industrial waste, prescribed by Regulation on unit charges, corrective coefficients and detailed criteria and benchmarks for determination of charges for burdening the environment with waste (Official Gazette No. 71/04)

Moreover, the Fund collects or pay charges within specific waste streams collection/recovery schemes, prescribed in detail by different ordinances, presented in chapter 1.1.3.

Further information (Croatian only): www.fzoeu.hr

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal consumer
Batteries, Accumulators
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description-potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
-separate collection issues
ImplementationOrdinance on the management of waste batteries and accumulators, (Official Gazette No. 133/2006) – Article 6
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeDisassembling companies
ELV
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionUse of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
ImplementationOrdinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles, (Official Gazette No. 136/06, 31/09) – Article 6
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal consumer / disassembling companies
WEEE
Year2007
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description-labeling
-the potential effect on the environment and human health of the substances used
-separate collection issues
ImplementationOrdinance on the management of waste electrical and electronic appliances and equipment (Official Gazette No.74/07, 133/08, 31/09) – Articles 8,9
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFinal consumer
Packaging
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionRequirements for the composition and nature of packaging, its reusability, recoverability, including recyclability/ Numeration and abbreviation system for labelling packaging materials

ImplementationOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste, (Official Gazette No. 97/05, 115/05, 81/08, 31/09)

Decision on requirements regarding packaging labeling, (Official Gazette No. 155/05, 24/06, 28/06)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

no information

Examples

TitleDescription
Croatian Cleaner Production CentreSince its establishment in 2000 the Croatian Cleaner Production Centre offered, among other, interactive training courses, which was structured from theoretical training and implementation of CP methodology in industrial companies. Demonstration projects implemented had significant environmental benefits.
Info: http://www.cro-cpc.hr/about_us_eng.htm
Croatian Waste Materials Exchange The Croatian Waste Materials Exchange is a database of offers and demands for all types of waste materials from production. It was created with the goal of connecting potential business partners who offer or seek waste materials and secondary raw materials for further production. The Croatian Waste Materials Exchange was created by the Croatian Chamber of Economy as an ecological project within the framework of the national waste management strategy.
Available at: http://www1.biznet.hr/Burza/do/language?code=en_GB&langChange=true&appParam=O
Co-financing of the Environment Protection and Energy Efficiency FundAmong other, the Fund is co-financing projects in the field of cleaner production, avoidance/minimisation of waste and harmful emissions into air, in amount of 52 million kunas. Further, for the projects of recovery and separate collection and recovery, the Fund has approved co-financing in amount 47 million kunas.
www.fzoeu.hr
Separate collection The island of Krk, total surface of of 409,9 km2, and population around 18.000 in 68 settlements
Within project EKO Krk, implemented by the communal company Ponikve d.d. 18.3% of waste was separately collected in 2006 and even more in subsequent years. Krk eventually achieved the strategic goal for the year 2015 which is set to 23% of recycled waste on the territory of Croatia.
On the island Krk, on 1300 locations there are 4 containers for separate collection of waste and one for mixed municipal waste. Besides these waste bins there are 7 collection points for old furniture, car tyres, accumulators and other types of waste. Each household is equipped with 4 bins for separate collection of waste, which is a ratio 10 times higher (1 bin per 3 inhabitants) than the national target (30-50 bins per 1000 inhabitants).

4.5 Waste prevention examples

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Croatia

5.1. Objectives

The construction sector in Croatia produces 2 million tones of construction and demolition waste annually. Due to lack of adequate recycling facilities and organized and economically sustainable waste management system, only a minor part is properly disposed, while under 5% is either recyced or re-used. The main objectives of construction and demolition waste management are:

5.2. Targets

Construction waste should be recovered or recycled in full (or to the maximum extent possible), avoiding any permanent deposition to natural environment, as determined by the Waste Act and the Strategy. The objective to recover 80 per cent of the construction waste amount by 2015, as set by the Strategy, must be attained gradually.

5.3. Strategy

By the Waste Act (OG 178/04, 111/06 and 60/08) the obligation is prescribed to recover waste; the valuable features of which can be used. By the publication of the Ordinance on construction waste management (OG 38/08) the obligation is prescribed to separate construction waste, and construction waste can only be deposited in cases when its recovery for material and/or energy purposes is not possible or when its re-use through separation of construction waste at its point of generation cannot be ensured. It is estimated that, through separation of construction waste, the quantities of waste deposited at landfills will be significantly reduced.

The following guidelines have been defined for improvement of the construction waste management system:

·     educate and inform all participants in the construction waste management process,

·     prevent uncontrolled disposal of construction waste in municipal landfills and elsewhere,

·     establish full control over construction waste streams, from the place of waste generation to the place of final use/disposal, including improvement of the information system,

·     introduce recovery systems for all types of construction waste and for up to 80 percent of total quantities,

·     encourage use of construction materials that are environment-friendly,

·     regulate construction waste management through implementation regulations and namely:

  ·     specify the obligation to plan construction waste management in the period following removal of a built facility, and

  ·     specify the obligation to also plan such management for other construction waste situated on the same lot,

·     inspect, at the county level, all landfills in which construction waste is disposed of; based on the analysis of data about all landfills, use appropriate landfills for the disposal of inert waste, while other landfills must be improved and closed down,

·     make sure that maximum quantities of construction waste are submitted to recovery and/or recycling so as to obtain new construction materials which are, by their quality, equal to other construction materials,

·     inert landfill sites will be opened in individual counties and in the City of Zagreb - either as separate sites or next to municipal waste landfills; as a rule, they will be organized in the scope of waste management centres and will have mobile or stationary treatment facilities; in the transition period, portions of municipal landfills may be used for sorted and recovered construction waste as needed for some parts of landfills (subject to approval by the competent authority),

·     advance and improve the system for the separate collection and recycling of individual types of construction waste, and establish centres for the recovery and disposal of construction waste.

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeConstruction waste
Year2008
Transition periodCounties and the City of Zagreb are obliged to identify locations for management of construction waste on their territory 6 months after the adoption of this Ordinance. Since this deadline already past, it is expected that new deadline will be proposed.
ObjectivesEstablishment of integral waste mgmt. system that would enable 80% recycling.
Targetsno information
Description(1) owner of the construction waste is obliged to ensure conditions for separate collection and temporarily storage of construction waste.
(2) owner of the construction waste can recycle construction waste at the place of origin, in the facilities for material recovery of waste
(3) when it is not possible to materially/energetically recover or reuse construction waste, disposal is
(4) Counties and the City of Zagreb are obliged to identify locations for management of construction waste on their territory 6 months after the adoption of this Ordinance
ImplementationOrdinance on construction waste management
(Official Gazette No. 38/08)

Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeWaste containing asbestos
Year2007
Transition periodno information
Objectivesestablishment of measures to collect, transport, temporarily store and finally treat or dispose asbestos waste
Targetsno information
Description(1) obligatory protection of the asbestos waste during transport, storage and disposal in order to minimize the emission of asbestos into environment
(2) obligatory labelling of storages of waste asbestos
(3) treated asbestos waste mainly containing organic substances may be incinerated
(4) disposal of asbestos waste is possible at separate places
ImplementationOrdinance on the method and procedures for managing waste containing asbestos, (Official Gazette No. 42/07)

Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeWaste containing asbestos
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesinstructions for safe disposal of asbestos waste
Targetsno information
Descriptionspecific instructions on management of locations for disposal of asbestos waste
ImplementationInstruction on handling waste containing asbestos
(Official Gazette No. 89/08)

Resultno information

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeFee on burdening the environment with municipal or non-hazardous industrial waste
Year2004
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesPolluter pays principle and reduction of landfilled waste
Targetsno information
DescriptionLegal or physical persons that dispose off municipal or non-hazardous industrial waste are obliged to pay fee based on the waste mass, and paid annually. The fee is paid to EPEEF and re-invested into environmental protection activities.
ImplementationRegulation on unit fees, correction coefficients, criteria and measures on identifying fees for burdening the environment with waste, (Official Gazette No. 71/2004)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

The article 118 of the Environmental Act prescribes the possibility for specific reliefs and incentives for organisations obtaining EMAS.

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Croatia

6.1. Objectives

For   biodegradable   waste,   specific   solutions   within   the   waste   management system are foreseen in accordance with the Waste Management Strategy, Waste Management Plan, the Waste Act, Ordinance on the methods and conditions for the landfill of waste, categories and operational requirements for waste landfills (Official Gazette No. 117/07), as well as other ordinances of Croatia regulating this area.

At present, separate collection of packaging paper waste is regulated by Ordinance on packaging and packaging waste.

The maximum possible reduction in the share of biodegradable waste in the municipal waste will be achieved by applying waste treatment technologies within the framework of the regional/county Waste Management Centres (WMC).

There are three foreseen approaches to management of biodegradable waste in the WMP:

Analyses of municipal waste composition were not performed on regular basis in the past. The average percentage of biodegradable waste is ~70% (~42%kitchen and biowaste, ~20%paper and cardboard). 

6.2. Targets

In order to reduce gaseous effluents emitted into the environment resulting from the disposal of waste containing a high share of biodegradable components, the following objectives are set:

• By 2012 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 75 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997;

• By 2015 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 50 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997;

• By 2020 the share of biodegradable municipal waste deposited to landfills must be reduced to 35 per cent of the mass share of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 1997.

6.3. Strategy

The procedure of reducing biodegradable waste will commence with primary separation at the waste generation point and by increasing the share of organized collection of biodegradable waste, as prescribed by the Waste Act (OG 178/04, 111/06 and 60/08).

A part of biodegradable waste is already separated pursuant to the ordinances regulating special waste categories (e.g. paper and wood packaging materials, oil, certain medical and construction waste).

The most significant reduction in the biodegradable waste share in municipal waste will be achieved by applying waste treatment technologies in Waste Management Centres, i.e. by constructing MBT plants within Waste Management Centres (50% of the envisaged MBT plants within WMCs are planned to be built in the 2013-2015 period). For the City of Zagreb, a waste to energy incineration plant is planned, which will additionally contribute to the reduction of the share of biodegradable waste.

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitlePackaging waste
ScopePackaging waste
Year2005
Transition period
ObjectivesEstablishment of the separate collection, recycling/recovery and treatment of waste packaging according to types (PET, Al/Fe, glass, wood, other polymers, paper/cardboard, multilayer packaging)
TargetsUntil the EU accession of Republic of Croatia, the following targets are set:
a) recycled (materially) or recovered (waste to energy) 60% mass of packaging waste;
b) recycled between 55% and 80% mass of collected packaging waste;
c) the content of recycled materials contained in packaging waste:
– 60% mass for glass;
– 60% mass for paper and cardboard;
– 50% mass for metal;
– 22,5% mass for plastics,(exclusively recovered to plastic);
– 15% mass for wood.
DescriptionThe Ordinance on Packaging and Packaging Waste has set up an integrated system for packaging and packaging waste management. The Ordinance lays down the packaging and packaging waste management method, or specifically:
• obligations of manufacturers, importers, packagers and sellers when producing,
• marketing and using packaging and packaging waste;
• providing manufacturers and consumers with information about essential properties of
• the product and packaging;
• method of collecting charges for packaging and packaging waste, collection and
• management of packaging and packaging waste;
• return of used products and packaging respectively for reuse, payment of the charge for
• recoverable waste after the product has been used;
• purpose and use of charges paid for packaging and packaging waste.
In accordance with the 'polluter pays' principle, waste disposal costs are borne by manufacturers and importers of packaging through payment of the charge into the EPEEF when placing the product on the market.

ImplementationOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste, (Official Gazette No. 97/05, 115/05, 81/08, 31/09)
ResultCollected in 2008 Treated/recovered in 2008
1.353,066 kg – wooden packaging 1.353,066 kg – wooden packaging
5.694,60 kg – other polymers packaging 8.573,50 kg – other polymers packaging
176.263,71 kg – cardboard packaging 180.260,183 kg – cardboard packaging
4.925,43 kg - multilayer packaging 5.846,61 kg - multilayer packaging
26.615,02 kg – glass packaging 60.091,87 kg – glass packaging
1.191,373kg – Al/Fe packaging 1.163,12 kg – Al/Fe packaging
19.503,32 kg – PET packaging 21.688,76 kg – PET packaging

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
Title
ScopeFee on burdening the environment with municipal or non-hazardous industrial waste
Year2004
Transition period
ObjectivesPolluter pays principle and reduction of landfilled waste
Targets
DescriptionLegal or physical persons that dispose off municipal or non-hazardous industrial waste are obliged to pay fee based on the waste mass, and paid annually. The fee is paid to EPEEF and re-invested into environmental protection activities.
ImplementationRegulation on unit fees, correction coefficients, criteria and measures on identifying fees for burdening the environment with waste, (Official Gazette No. 71/2004)
Result

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

As stated in 4.4.3 for Packaging waste.

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

Generation of municipal waste per capita in Croatia is increasing, and further significant increase is to be expected, due to anticipated development in the economy and tourism, increasing consumption and collection coverage.

Out of the total amount of municipal waste generated, still small amount is separately collected and sent to recovery. Data on the waste flows still confirms the reliance on landfilling of municipal waste.

Separate collection of municipal waste started to develop in Croatia in the second half of the eighties using containers (paper, glass, PET, tin cans) and recycling yards. Adoption of ordinances on specific waste streams (packaging, oils, batteries, ELVs, WEEE etc) already influence the increase of separately collected waste amounts and diversion of it from landfills. However, the system for further decreasing of biodegradable waste deposited on landfills is not fully operational yet.

Construction and demolition waste

The system is not fully operational yet.

Waste prevention

Information about the amount of fee collected or paid within the specific waste streams management schemes are available in the annual reports of the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (www.fzoeu.hr )

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information