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Factsheet for Finland

1. General facts

CountryFinland (FI)
Surface area338,145 Km²
Population (thousands)5310
Population density16
Persons per household2.1
GDP per capita PPS115.9
GDP per capita
Household characteristics63% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km²)
14% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km²)
23% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab./km²)
Gross value added26.3% Industry, including energy
6.1% Construction
22.3% Trade, transport and communication services
20.9% Business activities and financial services
21.9% Other services
2.5% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

Environmental protection already had a constitutional status in Finland before the country joined the EU in 1995. The constitutional status strengthens environmental legislation. Finland has had specialised waste legislation since the 1970’s (Waste Management Act 673/1978). The Finnish legislation has, like EU legislation, a definition for waste. The Waste Act defines waste to include all objects or substances which the holder discards, intends to discard, or is legally obliged to discard. It was only after the EEA agreement that the Finnish waste legislation was harmonised to match the EU legislation. The European level directive regarding to waste was passed in 1975 and renewed/amended thereafter, recently by the directive 2008/98/EC. The Waste Directive gives the opportunity for member states to establish tighter regulations. In Finland the harmonised legislation – the Waste Act (1072/1993) and Waste Decree (1390/1993) - came into force January 1st, 1994. These legislative acts implement the provisions of Council Directives on waste (75/442/EEC), on hazardous waste (91/689/EEC) and the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on shipments of waste (No 1013/2006). In accordance with the EU waste policy strategy, the present Finnish legislation puts more emphasis on preventive and recovery measures than Finland’s 1970’s Waste Management Act. In order to implement the recently accepted directive 2008/98/EC, Finnish Waste Act is currently being updated. The latest amendments of the Waste Act (411/2007, 747/2007 and 277/2008) concern responsibilities regarding municipal waste management and producer responsibility as well as transboundary shipments of waste.
Ministry of the Environment (MoE) formulates waste management policies, carries out strategic planning and makes decisions in its own sphere of interest. It is also responsible for preparing legislation and setting binding standards. According to Waste Act, MoE's task is to draw up a national waste plan. This strategic plan sets targets for the reduction of the amounts and harmful properties of waste, for waste recovery, for the prevention of risks to human health and the environment, for further development of waste management infrastructures and for supervision of waste transport. The national waste plan also presents the administrative and legal, economic and informative instruments to be used in implementation. It also includes a separate national waste prevention programme.
According to the Waste Act (1072/1993), The Finnish Environment Institute SYKE has to take part in preparing the national waste plan and regulations and directives to be issued under the Waste Act. SYKE also acts as the competent authority in relation to transfrontier shipments of waste. It handles the notifications and decisions related thereto; it also supervises and controls the shipments of waste in cooperation with the police and the Customs. According to the Waste Decree (1390/1993), SYKE's tasks are to conduct research on waste and waste management, arrange training, provide information and advice, make announcements, compile statistics, engage in monitoring and maintain a master register of waste data registers. The Environmental Protection Act (86/2000) sets a duty for SYKE to maintain an environmental protection database, which contains data on permits and notifications based on the Act. According to a bilateral contract between SYKE and Statistics Finland, the latter is in charge of compiling national waste statistics (State of the environment, Wastes).
The Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre PIR is a regional environment authority of the environmental administration. It also acts as a national supervision authority on producer responsibility, with the exception of the autonomous Åland Islands. PIR is supervised by the Ministry of the Environment. Producer responsibility applies to the following product types: batteries and accumulators; electronic and electrical appliances; tyres from motor vehicles, other vehicles and equipment; cars, vans and comparable vehicles; newspapers, magazines, copy paper, and other comparable paper products; and packaging. PIR keeps a producer data register of notifications made to them.
Finland’s 13 regional environment centres deal with issues related to environmental protection, construction and land use planning, nature conservation, the management of cultural landscapes, and the management and use of water resources, in their respective regions. According to the Waste Degree (1390/1993), regional environment centres have to conduct research on waste and waste management serving regional administration, arrange training, provide information and advice, make announcements, compile statistics and engage in monitoring. Furthermore, their task is to draw up regional waste plans concerning waste and waste management; municipalities have to provide necessary data for drawing up these plans (Waste Act). Regional waste management plans can be drawn by regional environment centres either separately covering their own area or in co-operation with other centres covering more extensive areas. The plans present data on wastes and the current state of waste management, the development targets set and the measures necessary to achieve them.
Environmental permits are needed for all activities that may lead to pollution of the air and water or contamination of the soil (Environmental Protection Act 86/2000). The Environmental Protection Act concerns Mainland Finland. The relevant authority in Finland giving environmental permit decisions is defined in the Environmental Protection Decree. The thirteen regional environment centres are the state permit authorities together with the environmental permit authorities. The centres are also state's supervisory authorities.
Finland’s three regional environmental permit authorities issue environmental permits for activities with significant environmental impacts (Environmental Protection Act), for activities covered by the Water Act, and for activities where the regional environment centre is directly involved, or has provided significant backing. Regional environment centres give permits, for example, to landfill sites as well as to recovery and disposal facilities treating hazardous waste or more than 5000 t/a of non-hazardous waste, whereas local municipal environment protection authorities give permits to those facilities recovering or treating less than 5000 t/a of non-hazardous waste. Decisions taken by environmental permit authorities may be appealed in the Administrative Court of Vaasa. The subsequent and highest appellate level is the Supreme Administrative Court.
According to the Environmental Protection Act, the regional environment centres have to maintain an environmental protection database, which contains data, e.g. on permits, monitoring and reporting on wastes and waste management. According to Waste Decree, regional environment centres have to keep a waste data register containing information on waste recovery or disposal carried out in a facility or on a commercial basis; transport of waste on commercial basis; operation as a broker or dealer in waste if the waste is intended for recovery or disposal outside Finnish territory; and producer corporations, together with information on operators. In practice, the waste data register is included in the environmental protection database.

Finland’s environmental administration is described at http://www.ymparisto.fi/download.aspωcontentid=80278&lan=en.

The Åland Islands is an autonomous region in Finland. The Parliament of Åland ("the Lagting") possesses the right to pass laws in Åland. In Åland environmental permits for disposal and recovery operations are issued by Åland miljøprøvninsnåmd.

According to Finnish Waste Act (1072/1993, amendments), municipalities have to, either independently or using other corporations or private undertakings, organize the transport of household waste. They also have to organize the transport of non-hazardous waste that is comparable to household waste in its nature, composition and quantity and that has been generated as a result of public-sector administrative and service activities carried out by central and local government and parishes and by corporations and associations subject to public law (municipal waste transport scheme). The same applies to non-hazardous waste that is generated by business premises located in residential properties and is comparable to household waste in its nature, composition and quantity and that, with the property holder’s permission, is taken to a waste collection point located in the property. All waste generated by households, such as waste generated in permanent dwellings and holiday homes and waste generated in residential buildings on farms, irrespective of the category, quality and quantity of the waste, and including sludge in sealed gullies and septic tanks, is considered household waste.
According to the Waste Act, municipalities have to organize the recovery and disposal of household waste and other comparable non-hazardous waste referred above. They also have to organize the recovery and disposal of hazardous waste generated by households and in agriculture and forestry, unless excessive quantities are involved. The waste mentioned above must be delivered for recovery or disposal organized by the municipality. Municipalities have the right to collect a waste charge to cover the costs of waste management and related tasks organised by them. The charge must cover investments in treatment plants and their operation costs, besides waste collection. In addition, the charge must encourage waste producers to reduce the amount of waste, to produce less hazardous waste and to recycle waste. The waste charge is determined on the basis of the quantity of waste and differs according to the quality of the waste. Municipalities can issue local general waste management regulations concerning waste collection, sorting, storage, transport, dealing, recovery or disposal, and the technical requirements for them; measures required to prevent hazard or harm to health or the environment; and supervision of waste management.
According to Waste Act and Waste Decree, municipalities have to provide the regional environmental centres with the data necessary for drawing up regional waste plans concerning waste generated within the municipality, the organisation and supervision of waste management, and development targets. Furthermore, their task is to handle the advisory services, information and communications necessary to the implementation of waste legislation. According to the Environmental Protection Act (86/2000), in the municipalities, the municipal environment protection committees are the primary environmental permit authorities. They also have supervisory duties.
Planning is an important instrument in EC waste policy. In accordance with the Council Directive on waste (75/442/EEC, amended 91/156/EEC), Finland’s Waste Act (1072/93) stipulates (section 40) that the MoE draws up a national waste plan and the regional environment centres draw up regional waste plans in order to carry out and develop the tasks provided for or regulated in or under the Waste Act. When a national waste plan is drawn up, the authorities, parties, national associations or foundations whose interests or rights are affected must be given an opportunity to submit their opinions on the draft plan. The draft must be published in electronic form and members of the public must be given an opportunity to express their views at a sufficiently early stage. Provisions on participation in the preparation of regional waste plans are laid down in the Act on the assessment of environmental impacts of the plans and programmes drawn up by authorities (200/2005). Besides legislative provisions concerning waste management planning, there are also voluntary actions recommended to be made at local level. The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities recommends that every municipality draws up a waste policy program i.e. a waste management strategy, which the council approves (http://www.kunnat.net/k_perussivu.aspωpath=1;29;145;30546;38442;23939;39107;40637).
 

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
no informationFinnish waste legislation covers all wastes except certain special types of waste such as radioactive wastes, which are covered by separate laws. The waste legislation is largely based on EU legislation, but in some cases includes stricter standards and limits than those applied in the EU as a whole. Finland also has legislation on some issues related to wastes that have not yet been covered by EU legislation. The negative environmental impacts of wastes are addressed in legislation on environmental protection. Taxes and fees payable in relation to wastes are generally included in legislation on taxation, although some fees are included in waste legislation. Other statutes covering specific economic activities also include certain controls related to wastes.
(http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=235661&lan=en&clan=en).
Waste Management Act 673/1978The Act is repealed with Waste Act 1072/1993
Waste Act (1072/1993 in Finnish, in Swedish; amendments 1413/1994, …, 411/2007, 747/2007 and 277/2008); amendments up to 1063/2004 in English)The purpose of the Act is to support sustainable development by promoting the rational use of natural resources, and preventing and combating the hazard and harm to health and the environment arising from wastes. In general, it requires the recovery of waste if this is technically and economically feasible, primarily in the form of material and secondarily as energy. There are also assigned general duties for producers, manufactures, importers and authorities to minimise generation of waste in all activities and to ensure that waste doesn’t significantly hamper or complicate the organisation of waste management, or result in hazard or harm to health or the environment. The principle of producer responsibility is also an important instrument in Finland to minimise the generation of and to enhance recovery of certain types of wastes (Waste Act, chapter 3a). The MoE has set up a Commission to prepare the revision of the Finnish waste legislation in October 2007. The Commission will draft a proposal of the revision by 30.4.2010. The challenges of the revision are among others the implementation of the waste directive 2008/98/EC, legal instruments for waste prevention, organization of municipal waste management, regulation of waste management planning and the improvement of the provisions of the producers responsibility.
Waste Decree (1390/1993 in Finnish, in Swedish; amendments 1414/1994, …, 758/2007); amendments up to 988/2004 included In English)The decree gives further provisions on the scope of the Waste Act, for example for classifying wastes, for defining waste recovery and disposal operations, for general quality requirements for the organisation of waste management (collection, packaging, labelling, transportation, recovery and disposal), for approval procedures (notifications concerning transboundary shipments of waste, waste database, supervision tasks), etc.
Environmental Protection Act (86/2000, amendments …, 681/2008, In Finnish, In Swedish, up to 137/2006 In English)The objective of the Act is to prevent the pollution of the environment and to repair and reduce damage caused by pollution; to safeguard a healthy, pleasant ecologically diverse and sustainable environment; to prevent the generation and the harmful effects of waste; to improve and integrate assessment of the impact of activities that pollute the environment; to improve citizens' opportunities to influence decisions concerning the environment; to promote sustainable use of natural resources; and to combat climate change and otherwise support sustainable development.
Environmental Protection Decree (169/2000, amendments … 380/2008, In Finnish,In Swedish, In English)The decree gives further provisions on the scope of the Environment Protection Act, for example for environmental permit requirements, for permit procedures etc.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Directive 1999/31 Government Decision on landfills (861/1997, amendments … 1049/1999, 552/2001 and 13/2002) Gov.
Landfill Decision 33/03Government Decree for revising the Decision on landfills (202/2006, amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008). It concerns ia. restrictions on landfilling of biodegradable municipal waste as well as specifying the follow-up of these wastes. In addition, criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills were updated as a whole. It c
Waste taxWaste Tax Act (495/1996, amendments … 1066/2002)1996
Incineration Directive 76/00Government Decree on incineration of waste (362/2003)2003

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
BMW (Biodegradable municipal waste)Government Decision on landfills (861/1997 in Finnish, in Swedish, amendments 1049/1999 in Finnish, in Swedish, 552/2001 in Finnish, in Swedish,13/2002 in Finnish, in Swedish, 202/2006 In Finnish, In Swedish; 59/2008 In Finnish,In Swedish and 381/2008 in Finnish,In Swedish.
Packaging• Waste Act (1072/1993 in Finnish, in Swedish; amendments 1413/1994, …, 815/2005); amendments up to 1063/2004 in English), i.e. sections 8b, 18c, 18f , 18g, 18h, 18i, 18j and 18k • Waste Decree (1390/1993 in Finnish, in Swedish; amendments 1414/1994, …, 758/2007); amendments up to 1128/2001 in English) i.e. sections 5, 6 and 7. • Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997 In Finnish, In Swedish; amendments 987/2004 In Finnish, In Swedish, 817/2005 In Finnish, In Swedish and 1025/2000 In Finnish,In Swedish). • Ministry of the Environment Decision on derogations from limitation of heavy metal concentration levels in packaging 273/2000 (valid 1.4.2000 – 10.2.2009) • Government Decision on information to be provided on hazardous waste and on the packing and labelling of hazardous waste (659/1996) • Government Decree on refund systems of some packaging containers (180/2005 in Finnish, in Swedish ) • In addition, there are several acts that concern goods (incl. packaging), not precisely wastes (packaging waste): Act on Transport of Dangerous Goods (719/1994), Government Decree on the Conformity Assessment of Packaging and Tanks Used for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (302/2001), …
Wastes recovered in soil constructionGovernment Decree on the use of certain waste materials for soil construction (591/2006) In Finnish, In Swedish
Construction/ demolition wasteGovernment decision on construction waste (295/1997 in Finnish, in Swedish, in English)
Sewage SludgeCouncil of State Decision on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture (282/1994 in Finnish, in Swedish, in English)
Waste Tax Act (495/1996, amendments … 1066/2002, in Finnish, in Swedish, In English)The state tax has to be paid on waste deposited at landfills. The aim of the Act is to encourage waste prevention and to increase waste recovery. The payable sum of waste tax is determined on the basis of the amount of waste delivered to a landfill per taxation period. The party subject to pay waste tax is the operator of the landfill. The tax doesn't apply to such wastes as contaminated soil suitable for deposit in the landfill concerned; de-inking waste produced during the cleaning of waste paper; desulphurization waste and fly ash from power plants; waste that will be recovered at the landfill for structures or constructions essential for its foundation, use, closure or aftercare; and glass waste and concrete waste made up of pieces over 150 mm in diameter.
Waste PaperGovernment Decision on the collection and recovery of waste paper (883/1998 in Finnish, in Swedish, in English; amendment 584/2004 in Finnish, in Swedish)
Financial support (e.g. for developing waste recovery and disposal methods)Government Decision on general provisions for allowances granted for developing environmental protection (unofficial translation, in Swedish: Statsrådets beslut om de allmänna villkoren för understöd som främjar miljövården), (894/1996 in Finnish, in Swedish)

2.3 Regional waste acts

The Åland Islands is an autonomous region in Finland. The Parliament of Åland possesses the right to pass laws in Åland. In Åland environmental permits for disposal and recovery operations are issued by Ålands miljöprövningsnämd.
 
Waste legislation in Swedish (http://www.regeringen.ax/socialomiljo/miljo/lagstiftning.pbs):

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Period of implementation
Main features
Finland’s First National Waste Plan, 1998-2005 (The publication, in Finnish: Valtakunnallinen jätesuunnitelma vuoteen 2005. Ympäristöministeriö/ Ministry of the Environment. Suomen ympäristö/The Finnish Environment 260/1998. ISBN 951-37-2684-3)
The First National Waste Plan came into effect in August 1998.
It consisted of three parts:
  • Part A was a summary in Finnish, Swedish and English
  • Part B was an overall plan of guiding nature
  • Part C was binding regulations on transboundary shipments of wastes in Finnish and Swedish.
The Plan set targets for the reduction of amounts and harmful properties of waste; for waste recovery; for the prevention of risks to human health and the environment; for further development of waste management infrastructures and for supervision of waste transport. The Plan presented the administrative and legal, economic and informative instruments to be used in implementation. The Plan described the state of the waste management field in Finland, and set quantitative and qualitative targets both for various types of waste, and for different economic sectors. The targets were set for and the measures geared to the years 2000 and 2005. The plan sought to present solutions particularly for the following waste sector issues:
  • growing volumes of waste;
  • the low recovery rate of some types of waste;
  • inadequate waste disposal;
  • certain gaps in waste management infrastructure;
  • insufficient use of incentives and instruments; and
  • unsatisfactory waste sector monitoring and lack of coordination in the sector.
The 2002-Revised National Waste Plan for the period up to 2005
The first National Waste Plan was in its entirety revised and approved by the Finnish Government on 14 August 2002, and it came into effect on 1 September 2002. It remained effective until the new plan was enacted by the Finnish government in 10.4.2008. The revised plan replaced the earlier national waste plan for 1998-2005, although certain parts of the original plan remained in effect as follows:
  • Part B: Parts of Section 6.3, Packaging and packaging wastes, and parts of Section 6.5 Hazardous wastes remained in effect alongside the revised plan.
  • Part C: Binding legislation on transfrontier waste shipments remained in force until further notice.
Some examples of the targets set:
  • A volume of municipal waste in 2005 at least 15% less than that predictable on the basis of the volume of waste in 1994 and real growth in GPD
  • A waste recovery rate of municipal waste at least 70% in 2005
  • A volume of construction waste (building and demolition waste and surplus soil) in 2005 at least 15% less an average than that predictable on the basis of the volume of waste in 1995 and real economic growth in the sector
  • A construction waste recovery rate at least 70% in 2005.
  • A volume of waste from industrial operations in 2005 at least 15% less on average than that predictable on the basis of the volume of waste in 1992 and real economic growth in manufacturing industry.
  • A recovery rate for industrial waste of at least 70% in 2005.
  • A recovery rate for waste from energy production of at least 70% in 2005.
  • The recovery rate for mining waste should ideally be improved.
  • The recovery rate (incl. temporary storage) of manure resulting from agricultural operations to be 100% in 2005.
Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016
(The publication in Finnish: Kohti kierrätysyhteiskuntaa. Valtakunnallinen jätesuunnitelma vuoteen 2016. Suomen ympäristö 32/2008, Ympäristön-suojelu. Ympäristö-ministeriö. ISBN 978-952-11-3216-2 (PDF). ISBN 978-952-11-3215-5/ Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection, The Finnish Environment 32/2008, http://www.environment.fi/download.asp?contentid=91466&lan=fi)
The Government has approved the new national waste plan until 2016 http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=280989&lan=EN). This nationwide strategic plan includes the principles and objectives of waste management and waste prevention. For each goal and objective of the plan, the required policy instruments have been proposed and the responsible body for implementation has been identified. Finland’s waste policy is aimed specifically at waste prevention and decreasing the negative effects of waste on human health and the environment.
 
The waste management goals, and the policy instruments that are required for reaching these goals, are described by eight main themes:
1.      Improving the materials efficiency of production and consumption
2.      Promoting recycling
3.      Decreasing hazardous chemicals in waste
4.      Reducing harmful effects on the climate from waste management
5.      Reducing risks to health and the environment from waste management
6.      Developing and clarifying the organization of waste management
7.      Improving waste management know-how
8.      Managing waste shipments safely.
 
A main numerical target is to stabilise the volume of municipal solid waste at the level it was at the beginning of 2000 and after that the volume of waste should start to decrease by 2016. Another target is that 50% of the municipal waste should be recycled, energy will be recovered from 30% and not more than 20% will be landfilled.
 
Additional targets are:
  • all manure from farming activity should be recovered
  • 90 % of sludge originating in sparsely populated areas should be treated in sewage treatment plants and 10% in biogas plants of farms
  • 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recovered by material or energy recovery
  • 5 % of the natural gravel and crushed rocks used in construction or other activities should be replaced with industrial and mining waste
  • 100 % of the municipal sewage sludge should be recovered
 
The plan suggests that industrial sectors should negotiate sector-specific agreements for promoting materials efficiency and, in these agreements, set targets for waste prevention and recycling. The national waste plan includes a separate national waste prevention program.
 
The plan's objective is to make Finland a "recycling society", in which:
  • materials efficiency of key products will increase,
  • lifecycle of buildings will be longer,
  • private consumption will be directed to eco-efficient products and services, and the amount of household waste will decrease,
  • materials efficiency in industrial production will improve,
  • the demand for secondary raw materials is high,
  • recycling rate of wastes from industry and construction will grow,
  • recycling of municipal waste will increase and
  • reuse and recycling of package waste will be more efficient.
 
The waste prevention program will promote waste prevention by the use of new steering methods to increase materials efficiency in production processes, construction and consumption, and by making the enforcement of current legislation more effective. Product eco-efficiency will be enhanced by promoting the use of materials efficiency and eco-efficiency criteria in product standards, in eco-labels and in the tendering for public procurement. Activities of the service centre for materials efficiency (http://www.motiva.fi/fi/toiminta/materiaalitehokkuus/, in Finnish) will be promoted to encourage materials efficiency in corporations, public administration and households. To further materials efficiency in industrial production, economic steering methods and possible subsidies that currently hinder the sustainable use of natural resources will be examined. Materials efficiency for specific sectors will be intensified via agreements (such as the energy conservation agreement between the State and industries). In the construction field, the renovation and maintenance of buildings will be improved.
 
Advice on waste prevention will be strengthened. Support services will be provided, for example, by the service centre for materials efficiency and the
Finnish Environment Institute. To encourage households to use repair services, ways and means of expanding tax deductions to more services, and
whether there is a need to do so, will be examined. The use of recycled materials in public civil engineering works will be increased. The use of applicable waste materials as fertilizer will be promoted. Landfilling of biodegradable waste will be restricted. The recovery of methane gas from landfills will be strengthened. The energy recovery of those wastes which are not suitable for materials recycling will be increased.
 
A special follow-up program will be developed during 2008-2009.The effectiveness of the plan will be estimated in 2010 and 2013.
National Biowaste strategy
Finland has a national strategy to reduce the amounts of biodegradable waste going to landfill, approved in 2004 by the Government. The strategy aims to reduce emissions of methane - a greenhouse gas. The biowaste strategy aims to reduce the amounts of biodegradable municipal waste ending up in landfill sites over the period 2006-2016. In 2006 the amounts of biodegradable wastes being disposed of in landfills should correspond to less than 75% of the 1994 level, while by 2016 the quantity should only amount to less than 35% of the figure for the benchmark year. Measures taken to help reach targets set will include more recycling, the wider use of biological waste treatment methods such as composting, and the increased use of wastes in energy production.
KULTU, the program for sustainable consumption and production
The Commission set up in 2003 by the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Trade and Industry proposed a National Programme for improving material and energy efficiency of products in all stages of the life cycle. (Publication in Finnish: http://www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=36844&lan=fi
Vähemmästä enemmän ja paremmin. Kestävän kulutuksen ja tuotannon toimikunnan (KULTU) ehdotus kansalliseksi ohjelmaksi. Ympäristöministeriö ja kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriö . Kestävän kulutuksen ja tuotannon toimikunta (KULTU) 2005. ISBN 951-37-4499-X. /
Getting more from less - Proposition for a National Programme on Sustainable Consumption and Production. Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Trade and Industry. Commission for Sustainable Consumption and Production (KULTU Commission). 2005).
 
The first follow-up report on the progress of the program was published in 2007 (http://www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=74875&lan=fi, in Finnish).
Examples of the results so far:
  • Service Centre for Materials Efficiency entered in March 2008 (established by the Finnish Government in 2007). The main duty of the centre is to enhance materials efficiency in Finland and to act as an independent distributor of information and services.  
  • A plan for action for public purchasing of merchandise regarding sustainable consumption and production, was formulated in 2008 (http://www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=80568&lan=fi, in Finnish)
  • Finland is contributing to the Marrakech process for Sustainable Consumption and Production by hosting a Task Force on Sustainable Building and Construction (SBC) (http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=244971&lan=en&clan=en). Main aim of this United Nations' project is to develop local and national policies and legislation to secure the sustainability of construction, and of the use, maintenance and refurbishment of the built environment.
  • Environmental impacts of material flows caused by the Finnish economy (ENVIMAT) –project is being carried out by a research team consisting of Finnish Environment Institute (in charge), Thule institute (University of Oulu), MTT Agrifood Research Finland and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.  The ENVIMAT project has started in June, 2006 and will be finished by the end of  2008. The aim of this project is to define the life cycle environmental impacts of  the material flows used for production and consumption in the Finnish economy allocated to different activity sectors and product groups. In the project, the focus is not restricted to domestic environmental loads. Impacts on the environment caused by imported raw materials and goods are also taken into account. The final objective of the project is to create a so called hybrid model by which the relationships between environmental impacts and economic effects caused by the use of natural resources in Finland can be assessed. In the environmental assessment, life cycle methodology and databases are connected to the national material flow accounts and input-output analysis (http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=195528&lan=EN).
UUMA inventory program concerning the use of alternative materials in soil construction
UUMA-inventory project
is a study for the development of product acceptance and usage control of alternative materials in soil construction. The Program was established in 2006, and ended in 2008. The purpose of the programme is to contribute to the use of alternative UUMA-materials in infrastructure construction with help of the development of UUMA-products, project delivery and product acceptance methodology, and markets.
UUMA-materials involve different types of alternative materials which nowadays are mainly deposited in landfills or used for secondary purposes like fills. UUMA-materials have been grouped into industrial by-products (like ashes, sludge, slag, gypsum), demolition waste and other materials of existing earth structures, different types of surplus soil materials from construction projects (including dredged mud), and contaminated soil.

3.2 Regional plans

The first regional waste plans were prepared in 1996 by 13 regional environment centres. The plans have been revised between the years 2001 – 2004. New regional waste plans, which are currently being drafted, are drawn by regional environment centres either separately covering their own area or in co-operation with other centres covering more extensive areas. Altogether, five regional waste plans are drafted at the moment; they cover Mainland Finland. For the first time, each regional waste plan focuses on selected themes or problems typical for that region. This is expected to make the plans more concrete and the stakeholders more active in implementing the plans. The new plans will be drawn up by the end of the year 2009.

 

The Government of Åland adopted the first waste plan for the Åland Islands on 31st of December 1998 (Avfallsplan för landskapet Åland. Åländsk utredningsserie 1998:5. December 1998. ISSN 0357-753X). A new waste plan is being drawn up during 2008. A special 'environmental acts program for the years 2005-2008' (Miljöhandlingsprogram för Åland 2005-2008 http://www.regeringen.ax/.composer/upload//socialomiljo/Miljohandl.program_for_Aland_2005-2008.pdf, in Swedish) also includes actions concerning wastes and waste management.

4. Waste prevention for Finland

4.1. Objectives

Waste Act (1072/1993, amendments):
The purpose of the Act is to support sustainable development by promoting the rational use of natural resources, and preventing and combating the hazard and harm to health and the environment arising from wastes. Section 4 contains general duties of care concerning prevention of waste generation and reduction of its quantity and harmfulness. The Waste Act also contains the waste hierarchy. In general, it requires the recovery of waste if this is technically and economically feasible, primarily in the form of material and secondarily as energy. The principle of producer responsibility is an important instrument in Finland to minimise the generation of and to enhance recovery of certain types of wastes. It is required, for example, that the producer uses raw material sparingly in production and substitutes the use of raw material with waste to the extent possible. The manufacturer of a product has to take care, and an importer likewise ensure, that the product is durable, reparable or reusable, or recoverable as waste, and that the product does not, as waste, result in any hazard, harm, or complication referred to above. Also, the authorities have to, in their own activities, promote fulfilment of these obligations, and use recyclable products or products manufactured from recycled materials.
 
The Environmental Protection Act (86/2000; amendments):
One of the objectives of the act is to prevent the generation and the harmful effects of waste.
Environmental permits are needed for all activities that may lead to pollution of the air and water or contamination of the soil. The permit application has to include, insofar as is applicable, an account of proposed measures to reduce the amount of waste or its hazard level. The permits have to contain necessary regulations on wastes and reduction of their generation and harmfulness.
 
Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016:
The national waste plan includes a separate national waste prevention program (see section 3.1).
 
Waste Tax Act (495/1996, amendments):
The state tax has to be paid on waste deposited at landfills. The aim of the act is to encourage waste prevention and to increase waste recovery.
 

4.2. Targets

Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016:
·        The volume of municipal waste will be stabilised and then reduced to the level at the beginning of 2000 until the year 2016.
·        The target is that 50% of municipal solid waste will be recycled, energy will be recovered from 30% and a maximum of 20% will be landfilled until the year 2016.
·        All manure from farming activity should be recovered
·        90 % of sludge originating in sparsely populated areas should be treated in sewage treatment plants and 10% in biogas plants of farms
·        70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recovered by material or energy recovery
·        5 % of the natural gravel and crushed rocks used in construction or other activities should be replaced with industrial and mining waste
·        100 % of the municipal sewage sludge should be recovered

4.3. Strategy

The general aim of the Waste Act:
As far as possible, care has to be taken in all activities to minimize generation of waste and to ensure that waste does not result in hazard or harm to health or the environment. Specifically:
  1. the producer has to use raw material sparingly in production and substitute waste for raw material used;
  2. the manufacturer of a product has to take care, and an importer likewise ensure, that the product is durable, reparable or reusable, or recoverable as waste, and that the product does not, as waste, result in any hazard, harm, or complication referred to above; and
  3. the authorities have to promote fulfilment of the obligations referred to above, and use recyclable products or products manufactured from recycled materials in their own activities.
More specifically:
Waste has to be recovered if this is technically feasible and does not entail excessive additional costs compared with some other form of waste management. The first priority has to be given to recovery of the material contained in waste, and the second priority to recovery of the energy contained in waste. Waste or waste management may not cause hazard or harm to health or the environment. Waste management has to employ the best economically available technology and the best possible practice of combating harm to health and the environment.
The provisions of the Waste Act are further specified in the Waste Decree.
 
Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016:
The policy instruments that are required for reaching the goals set in the plan, are described by eight main themes (see section 3.1)
 
1.      Improving the materials efficiency of production and consumption
 
2.      Promoting recycling
 
3.      Decreasing hazardous substances in waste
 
4.      Reducing harmful effects on the climate from waste management
 
 
5.      Reducing risks to health and the environment arising from waste management
 
6.      Developing and clarifying the organization of waste management
 
7.      Improving waste management know-how
 
8.      Managing waste shipments safely

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2008
Legal documentGovernment Decree on batteries and accumulators (422/2008) In Finnish, in Swedish
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2004
Legal documentGovernment Decree on constricting use of hazardous substances in electric and electronic equipment (853/2004, amendments 12/2006, 476/2006, 969/2006, 396/2008) In Finnish, In Swedish
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1997
Legal documentGovernment decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997, amendments 1025/2000, 987/2004, 817/2005) In Finnish, In Swedish, In English
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2003
Legal documentGovernment Decree restricting the use of certain hazardous materials in vehicles (572/2003, amendments , 635/2008, 880/2005,745/2005) In Finnish, In Swedish

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year1997
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionPackers have to prevent the generation of packaging waste. Packers must see to it that packaging meets the essential requirements laid down concerning composition, reusability and recoverability:

1. Requirements concerning the manufacture and composition of packaging:
- Packaging shall be manufactured so as to be as small and as light as possible. It shall, however, be manufactured so that the required standards of safety, hygiene and acceptability are protected, both concerning the packed product and the consumer.
Packaging shall be designed, manufactured and sold in such a way that it can be reused or recovered, including recycling, and that its environmental impact is as insignificant as possible when packaging waste or residues from the management of packaging waste are finally disposed of.
- When packaging is manufactured, it shall be ensured that the concentrations of harmful substances and materials and of other dangerous substances in the packaging materials and components are as low as possible, so that placing residues from the management of packaging waste or from packaging in landfills or incinerating them is not harmful to the environment.

2. Requirements concerning the reusability of packaging
Packaging shall at the same time fulfil the following requirements:
- The physical properties of a packaging shall be such that it withstands numerous trips and rotations in normal conditions;
- It shall be possible to handle used packaging in compliance with labour health and safety requirements; and
- When a packaging is no longer reused and it becomes waste, the requirements of recoverability shall be observed.

3.Requirements concerning the recoverability of packaging. Recyclable packaging:
- Packaging shall be manufactured in such a way that a certain percentage by weight of the materials used can be recycled and used as raw material in the manufacture of goods to be placed on the market in compliance with current standards in the European Community. This percentage can vary, depending on the type of material used to manufacture the packaging.

Packaging suitable for energy recovery:
-Packaging waste delivered for use as an energy source shall have a certain minimum inferior calorific value for optimal energy recovery.

Packaging suitable for composting:
-Packaging materials delivered for composting shall be biodegradable enough to have no harmful effect on the separate collection of compost waste, the composting process or the activity in which the compost is used.

Biodegradable packaging:
-Biodegradable packaging waste shall decompose physically, chemically, thermally or biologically so that most of the generated compost ultimately decomposes into carbon dioxide, biomass and water.
ImplementationGovernment decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997, amendments 1025/2000, 987/2004, 817/2005)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description1.Electrical and electronic equipment shall be designed and manufactured in such a way that:
- The use of dangerous substances is minimized;
- The disassembly, reuse and recycling or other recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipment is as easy as possible;
- Recycled materials are used as much as possible;
- When the product becomes waste, it presents no danger or harm to health or the environment nor any hindrance or difficulty for the organization of waste management.

2.No method may be used in the design or manufacture of a product that deliberately prevents the reuse of waste electrical and electronic equipment, unless this presents overriding advantages with regard to environmental protection and safety.
ImplementationGovernment Decree on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (852/2004)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionManufacturer of a vehicle has to design and product the vehicle in a way that:
- Hazardous substances are used as preciously as possible
- Dismantlement of ELV, reuse and recycling of its components, or other recovery operation is as easy as possible
- Recycled materials are used as much as possible
ImplementationGovernment Decree restricting the use of certain hazardous materials in vehicles (572/2003, amendments 635/2008, 880/2005, 745/2005)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeEnergy-using products
Year2009
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe aim of the Government proposal for a law on setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products is to standardize provisions for ecological designing of these products as well as for supplying information regarding their energy usage aspect.
Its aim is also to ensure that these products have a free movement in Internal Market. The essential goal of it is to combine environmental aspects and lifespan analysis in the phase of designing a product.
The law will promote the sustainable development by improving energy efficiency and environmental impacts as well as the security of the energy supply. The law will implement the directives 2005/32/EC, 92/42/EEC, 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC.
ImplementationGovernment Proposal to the Parliament on setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products (given to the Parliament on 10 Oct. 2008; under process)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

Government Decree on refund systems of some packaging containers (180/2005 In Finnish, In Swedish)
 
Government Decree on the subsidy for wrecking end-of-life vehicles (582/2004 In FinnishIn Swedish).
 
Council of State Decision on the recovery and disposal of discarded tyres (1246/1995 in Finnish, in Swedish, in English), amendment 583/2004 in Finnish, in Swedish):

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Information-based instrument
TitleFinland's national strategy for sustainable development: Towards sustainable choises.
ScopeAll citizens, public and private sectors and actors,
Consumption & production --> all waste streams
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionNationally and globally sustainable Finland
- Includes principles of the commitments approved in the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002.
- The target is a dynamic information society that takes advantage of opportunities and has efficient production in terms of the environment.
- The importance of sustainable development will be strengthened in educational policy and in
the basic and in-service education for teachers. Sustainable development must be made a priority in the strategies concerning the basic and early education, and a support for education is needed in the strategies of other administrative
sectors and actors.
- Changing inventions that
support sustainable development into successful products on the market will be promoted and strong investment in research and product development will
continue.
ImplementationTowards sustainable choices. Nationally and globally sustainable Finland. The national strategy for sustainable development
Prime Minister’s Office Publications 7/2006. http://www.environment.fi/download.asp?contentid=57597&lan=en
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleConsumer Policy Programme for the years 2008–2011
ScopeConsumers
Consumption –> all waste streams
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- The Program contains a review of the operating environment, consumer policy objectives and practical consumer policy measures for the years 2008–2011.
- Consumer policy promotes sustainable production and consumption methods.
- Information, communication and campaigns on material and energy efficiency, targeted at consumers, shall be promoted.
ImplementationConsumer Policy Programme for
the years 2008–2011
http://www.tem.fi/files/20019/TEMjul_23_2008_konserni.pdf

Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleProgramme for ecologically sustainable building, 1998
ScopeConstruction sector and actors
Construction Waste
Year1998
Transition periodno information
Objectives- Aims at establishing environmental considerations as an integral part of decision-making processes in building. - Aims to promote the use of eco-effient construction materials, products and systems. - Enhances the use and availability of products made of recycled waste materials by improving information and storage systems of them.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe programme is based on voluntary participation and was drafted jointly with the building and property sector.
ImplementationProgramme for ecologically sustainable building, 1998
(Ekologisesti kestävän rakentamisen ohjelma 1998), In Finnish
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleNational Construction Policy Program 2003
ScopeConstruction sector and actors
Construction Waste
Year2003
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationNational Construction Policy Program 2003
(Kansallinen rakennuspoliittinen ohjelma, Valtioneuvoston kanslian julkaisusarja
2002/1) In Finnish and
In Finnish, In Swedish;
Ympäristöministeriön moniste: Kansallinen rakennuspoliittinen ohjelma. Seuranta-ryhmän väliraportti, 2005 In Finnish
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleStrategy on renovating buildings for the years 2007-2017.
ScopeConstruction sector and actors
Construction waste
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationStrategy on renovating buildings for the years 2007-2017.
(Korjausrakentamisen strategia 2007-2017.
Linjauksia olemassa olevan rakennuskannan ylläpitoon ja korjaamiseen) In Finnish
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleKULTU, the national program for sustainable consumption and production
ScopeConsumers, production sectors

Consumption and Production -> All waste streams
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationThe national program for sustainable consumption and production (Vähemmästä enemmän ja paremmin. Kestävän kulutuksen ja tuotannon toimikunnan (KULTU) ehdotus kansalliseksi ohjelmaksi) In Finnish
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleA proposal for a plan of action for purchasing of goods in a sustainable way, 2008.
ScopeConsumers, public and private actors in charge of purchasing of goods.

Consumption -> all waste streams
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationA proposal for a plan of action for purchasing of goods in a sustainable way, 2008. (Kestävien hankintojen toiminta-ohjelmaehdotus 2008) In Finnish
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleNational Waste Plan until 2016:
ScopeTechnology sector, Enterprises, Waste management sector

All waste streams
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesOne of the goals is to improve waste management know-how
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
ImplementationTowards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016
http://www.environment.fi/download.asp?contentid=91466&lan=fi)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

Motiva Oy is a company that provides expertise and project services to promote more efficient energy use and to accelerate the uptake of renewable energy sources (http://www.motiva.fi/en/Service Centre for Materials Efficiency' was entered (established by the Finnish Government in 2007). Its target groups are companies, public administration and households. The main duty of the unit is to enhance materials efficiency in Finland and to act as an independent distributor of information and services. Its task is to develop and co-ordinate materials efficiency audits, agreements and sector-specific programs. The aim of the activity is to impact pre-emptively on planning and procurements. Another premise is identification of factors impairing materials efficiency. Its partners in cooperation are research institutes, companies, communities, public administration, business organizations and NGOs.. Motiva implements the Finnish government's decisions on energy conservation and promotion of renewable energy sources. It also operates in the field of materials efficiency.
 

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

Tuotewiki-project:

     
  • A tool to connect producers with consumers; a "Wiki" or internet-based encyclopedia for tracing the ecological footprint of products used daily.
  • Anyone can easily add and check information on Tuotewiki. Producers, users, consumers – all of us - can become Tuotewiki content producers. Even a slight revision or a hint of information from the field is valuable and enlarges our understanding of the world and the products that we make and we use. In order to move towards a carbon-neutral planet, everyone, especially in the rich North, have to be able to change their ways of life and their consuming habits for more sustainable ones. For this change to take place we need information and tools. Tuotewiki is an easy way to discuss and share knowledge. It is an open database for everyone and for many different kinds of information about products. Although the main language of Tuotewiki is Finnish, there exists a few example pages in English as well' http://www.tuotewiki.fi/wiki/Tuotewiki:Tuotewiki_%28in_English%29
  • The system is set and maintained by Dodo, which is an environmental organisation (http://www.dodo.org/english/).
  • Tuotewiki-project is carried out mostly by volunteers. In the streering group of the project, there are representatives from ia. the Ministry of the Environment, The Finnish Standards Association SFS, Finland Futures Research Centre, the Finnish Grocery Trade Association, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland etc.
  • The yearly budget is 5000 EUR. The project gets financial support ia. from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs/development area policy.
  • Tuotewiki has been in use since 2007.




An information package for enterprises to help improve materials efficiently in their operation:
examples on how to introduce materials efficiency in practise:
 
Outokumpu Stainless Steel plant in Tornio aims at minimizing negative impacts of its operations on the surrounding environment as much as economically and technically possible (http://www.outokumpu.com/pages/Page____37209.aspxtransforming slag into a product the amount of wastes deposited at landfills has diminished notably.). Stainless steel itself is recyclable; almost all environmental impacts arise during the production, manufacturing and reprocessing stages of the material's lifecycle. The company uses recycled steel as a raw material to save natural resources. One of the side-products generated by the steel industry is slag. In order to reduce the amount of wastes, slag is turned into a product. Steel slag products are used as construction materials in buildings and roads. By developing a method to
 
The agriculture and forestry machine manufacturer John Deere Forestry Oy has developed a harvesting machine that gathers up the logging wastes and slashes, feeds them into a bailing machine and produces compressed 'logs of twigs'. Due to their compressed form they don't rot easily, and their storage in the woods can be longer than in conventional harvesting. This also means less losses of material in storaging.
 
Stora Enso is an integrated paper, packaging and forest products company http://www.storaenso.com/Documents/annual-report-2007-eng.pdf.
The company is committed to sustainability. A unique method developed by Stora Enso and Chematur Engineering makes it possible to reuse the fillers, which are part of the residues from recover of used paper. Instead of being a problem and sent to landfills, fillers now have become valuable raw material for new paper.
http://www.storaenso.com/research/production-excellence/recycling/Pages/more-recycling-and-less-waste-to-landfills.aspx.
 
Kemira's production plant for titanium dioxide pigments in Pori has developed a new technology to make raw material and new products from material previously discarded. (http://www.kemira.com/en/responsibility/environmentalresponsibility/pages/default.aspx)
Ferrosulphate is a by-product of titanium dioxide production. Its uses include application in water treatment and the cement industry, fertilizers, soil enrichment etc.
 
Kenno Tech Oy (http://www.kennotech.fi/en.php?k=10785) is a company that has developed a method for reducing use of steel in supporting structures. By this sandwich-structure laser welding method, up to 50 % weight savings is achieved. The method is fast and enables high quality joining of thin sheets. Compared to traditional welded structures, sandwich structures Enable steel savings and therefore weight saving (in moving applications enables lower energy consumption, provides easier assembly etc.). Lower weight may also make derived benefits possible (such as lighter support structures or operating mechanisms), high stiffness and low thickness. All-metal sandwich structures are recyclable.
 
Durat (http://www.durat.com/) is a privately owned Finnish company. The leading principle of it is to unite design and recycling. The company collects plastic waste material in Scandinavia and turns it into high quality DURAT products using modern technology and flexible moulding systems. Continuous development work is done to expand recycling of plastic into new innovative products. New designs and patterns are created with possibilities of recycling. DURAT Design collection contains over 40 standard products for bathrooms. Architects and designers can also create their own customized surfaces for projects using DURAT sheet material, DURAT sinks and the DURAT colour palette. DURAT is a solid polyester based material used for custom made surfaces in public and private interiors. It contains recycled plastics and is itself 100% recyclable. DURAT is extremely durable and can be renewed by slight sanding. The material is very resistant to wear, humidity, and various kinds of chemicals.
 
Powerflute Oyj is a company which, through its wholly-owned subsidiary Savon Sellu Oy, operates a semi-chemical paper mill in Kuopio. It manufactures a specialised, high-quality grade of fluting called Nordic semi-chem fluting ("Powerflute™"). The fluting is made primarily from birch wood sourced from Finland and Russia and is used mainly to manufacture boxes for fresh and frozen produce. Other applications include packaging of electrical goods and agricultural products and heavy duty packaging for automotive products. Powerflute packaging products persevere with humid conditions keeping their inflexibility and strength properties. Therefore the packaging are of high-standard and durable, and they can be made lighter with less material. http://www.powerflute.fi/pages/home/corporate-information/environment.php.
 
The Finnish company Nokia (http://www.nokia.com/A41041089) aims to minimise the environmental impact of their products throughout their operations, beginning with the extraction of raw materials and ending with recycling, treatment of waste, and recovery of used materials. To achieve this is by better product design, close control of the production processes, and greater material reuse and recycling. The environmental efforts focus on:
 
Since 2001 Nokia has provided eco declarations of all its products. The Eco Declaration provides basic information on the environmental attributes of the product covering material use, energy efficiency, packaging, disassembly and recycling. Nokia works to minimise its environmental impact by thinking about the kind of material they use in packaging, by reducing the volume of material they use and by considering what happens to it after it’s no longer needed. The weight and size of packaging affects not only materials but the energy required to transport and store the products. The company has saved energy in logistics by reducing the amount of printed material inside the sales packages. Examples of innovative packaging include: Letterbox and Small Compact http://www.nokia.com/A41039025. In 2007, Nokia saved 15 000 tonnes of material by using smaller packaging. This also saved water. Over the years Nokia has been replacing plastic with paper-based material. They're also using more recycled packaging material. The Nokia Evolve 3110 pack in Europe uses 60 percent recycled content.  Packaging is an area where savings are not only for the environment, but also for the company. From February 2006, when they first created smaller packaging until the end of 2007 they had shipped 250 million phones using this new compact packaging. This resulted in 5000 fewer trucks being needed to distribute Nokia's  products around the world and created financial savings of 100 million euros.
 
Valtatie Oy is an asphalt construction company, which uses a technology that recycles the torn down old asphalt material (http://cat.teho.net/software/valtatie/e-site/recycling/, in Finnish). The technology is called Remix. By using the new technology, the amounts of asphalt wastes that were earlier landfilled can now be recycled in the construction process. This also diminishes the need for new material. In the process, the torn down asphalt can either be used at the site it was generated or making recycled asphalt at a station. In the Remix- technology the torn down asphalt is heated up, milled, transferred to a mixer to be mixed with new material, and spread back and compacted on the road.
 
In demolishion projects, the construction companies Skanska (http://www.skanska.fi/fi/Utility-menu/In-English/)and NCC (http://ncc.navigo.fi/en_GB/) have succeeded in diminishing construction wastes to be landfilled by thorough preplanning at the site, accurate operations at the site and regular monitoring of the operations.
10% of the wastes generated were recycled as energy. Such wastes were ia. roofing felts, insulating materials, non-impregnated wooden materials, and electrical motors. Wastes that couldn't be recycled were ia. hazardous wastes (asbestos and PCB wastes) and mixed wastes.  An example of a successful demolishing project took place in Espoo where a large commercial center was demolished. Almost all of the demolishing wastes generated were recycled. 75% of the concrete waste could be recycled at the site as soil construction material. The façade elements, construction bars and fluorescent lamps were recycled.
 

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Finland

5.1. Objectives

no information

5.2. Targets

According to the new national waste plan (Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016, the Ministry of the Environment), 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recovered by material or energy recovery, and 5 % of the natural gravel and crushed rocks used in construction or other activities should be replaced with industrial and mining waste.

5.3. Strategy

  1. Programme for ecologically sustainable building, 1998: The program aims at establishing environmental considerations as an integral part of decision-making processes in building. It is based on voluntary participation and was drafted jointly with the building and property sector. It aims to promote the use of eco-effient construction materials, products and systems. It enhances the use and availability of products made of recycled waste materials by improving information and storage systems of them.
  2. National Construction Policy Program 2003.
  3. Strategy on renovating buildings for the years 2007-2017.
  4. UUMA inventory program concerning the use of alternative materials in soil construction
 

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

Government decision on construction waste (295/1997 in Finnish, in Swedish, in English):
The purpose of the Decision is to reduce the quantity and harmfulness of construction waste and increase its recovery. The indicative target to be aimed at is that an average of at least 50 per cent of all construction waste, except for soil, rock, and dredging waste, will be recovered in the year 2000. The Decision applies to construction planning and to construction and waste deriving from it.
It does not apply to construction sites where the quantity of resulting construction waste other than soil, rock and dredging waste is not more than 5 tonnes, or where the quantity of soil, rock and dredging waste deriving from it is not more than 800 tonnes. Similarly, it does not apply to packaging waste and contaminated soil waste.
The main implementer must, in cooperation with the planners, contractors and other parties to the construction project, plan and implement the construction in accordance with the Waste Act, taking particular care to:
  1. minimize the generation of construction waste and separate useable objects and substances from it, reusing them as far as possible;
  2. use construction materials sparingly, replacing them as far as possible with waste suitable for construction purposes; and
  3. ensure that construction waste generated does not result in hazard or harm to health or the environment, or does not significantly hamper or complicate the organization of waste management.
Construction must be so planned and implemented and the construction waste so collected and transported that the recoverable waste and the following waste types are kept separate, or are separated from each other and other construction waste:
  1. concrete, brick, mineral tile, ceramic and gypsum wastes;
  2. non-impregnated wood wastes;
  3. metal wastes; and
  4. soil, rock and dredging wastes.
The construction waste holder must see to it that the construction waste is recovered if this is technically feasible and does not entail excessive additional cost compared with waste management organized otherwise. 
 
Government Decree on the use of certain waste materials in soil construction (591/2006) In Finnish, In Swedish:
A permit or notification is required for the use of mineral wastes by establishments and undertakings in earth constructions. The notification procedure is based on Government Decree (591/2006) concerning the recovery of certain wastes in earth construction (crushed concrete, fly and bottom ashes from power plants using coal, peat or wood).
 

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

no information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Finland

6.1. Objectives

no information

6.2. Targets

According to the new national waste plan (Towards a recycling society. National Waste Plan until 2016, the Ministry of the Environment), a main target is to stabilise the volume of municipal solid waste at the level it was at the beginning of 2000 and after that the volume of waste should start to decrease by 2016. Another target is that 50% of the municipal waste should be recycled, energy will be recovered from 30% and not more than 20% will be landfilled. Also all manure from farming activity should be recovered, 90 % of waste water sludge originating in sparsely populated areas should be treated in sewage treatment plants and 10% in biogas plants of farms, 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recovered by material or energy recovery, and 100 % of the municipal sewage sludge should be recovered.

6.3. Strategy

According to the national waste, the waste management goals, and the policy instruments that are required for reaching the goals set, are described by eight main themes:
  1. Improving the materials efficiency of production and consumption
  2. Promoting recycling
  3. Decreasing hazardous chemicals in waste
  4. Reducing harmful effects on the climate from waste management
  5. Reducing risks to health and the environment from waste management
  6. Developing and clarifying the organization of waste management
  7. Improving waste management know-how
  8. Managing waste shipments safely.
The target for the sustainable use of natural resources includes measures to increase both waste prevention (like sustainable materials management) and recycling. Other targets include the waste prevention and control of harmful substances, reduction of greenhouse-gases in waste management, minimisation of health hazards in waste management, organisation of waste management and optimisation of cost and development of know-how in waste management.
Recovery is defined in the Finnish Waste Act, section 3, subsection 1, paragraph 10 as”operations aimed at leading to the separation and further use of the material or energy of the waste”.
A most important policy document in relation to biodegradable waste management is the National Strategy on Reduction of Disposal of Biodegradable Waste on landfill. This strategy focuses on fulfilling the numeric reduction percentages for biodegradable waste given in the landfill directive.
This strategy also provides means and assistance in order to reach the objectives set out in the landfill directive. Scenarios of the strategy give statistics and forecasts for biodegradable waste production and treatment for years 1994, 2000, 2006 and 2012.
The strategy contains an assessment of present biodegradable waste quantities and a forecast and various technological and infrastructural scenarios including waste prevention. The strategy is intended to support the use of other policy instruments, especially the National waste Plan.
In 2005 the first Finnish National Programme on Sustainable Production and Consumption was drafted. The programme , by name 'Getting more from less', aims firstly at decreasing and managing material and energy flows with life cycle aspect. Secondly it aims at promoting production and know-how based on environmental technologies, and thirdly it aims at promoting environmental education and awareness. (http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=137677&lan=en)

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling
ScopeBan on landfilling (Government Decision on landfills (861/1997) and Government Decree for revising the Decision on landfills (202/2006, amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008)
The following may not be deposited in a landfill:
• waste that is not pre-treated (except such inert waste that cannot be technically pre-treated or other waste if the pre-treatment operation doesn't promote attaining to the aim of the decision by diminishing the amount of waste or harm or hazard to health or the environment;
• household waste or waste of a comparable nature and composition from industrial, service or other operations, from which most of the biodegradable waste has not been collected separately for recovery;
• liquid waste;
• waste that in landfill circumstances is explosive, corrosive, oxidising or (highly) flammable;
• infectious waste generated at a hospital or veterinary station or in comparable activities;
• scrap tyres (except tyres of bicycles);
• waste that does not meet the acceptance criteria for landfills. Wastes may not be diluted or mixed with other wastes or other substances merely in order to meet the acceptance criteria for landfills.
Year2005
Transition periodGov. Dec. 861/1997 came into force 1 November 1997; partly 1 January 2005; Landfill Dir. 99/31 was implemented 1 January 2002. Government Decree for revising the Decision on landfills (202/2006, amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008) came into force 1 September 2006.Gov.Decree 202/2006 (+ amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008) concern ia. restrictions on landfilling of biodegradable municipal waste as well as specifying the follow-up of these wastes. It also includes criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills.
ObjectivesTo implement the targets set in the national biowaste strategy and the Directive 1999/31/EC to reduce landfilling of organic waste, and to direct depositing of wastes in such a way that, even over a long period of time, no hazard or harm is caused to health or the environment.
Targetsno information
Description• Government Decision on landfills (861/1997) and Government Decree for revising the Decision on landfills (202/2006, amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008) set general restrictions on the depositing of wastes in a landfill.
Landfills are classified as those for hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste and inert waste. Wastes may be deposited into a landfill only in accordance with its classification.
The operator of the landfill has a general duty to monitor that all waste which is transported to the landfill fulfil the quality requirements. Every transport is checked. The Act also sets bookkeeping and reporting obligation for the operator. Regional environment centres (which are the permit authorities for landfills), also have an annual reporting obligation. This concerns i.a. data on biodegradable wastes that have been collected, pretreated, recovered, landfilled or otherwise disposed of. According to the Act, also Finnish Environment Institute has an obligation to report such data to MoE on a national level.
ImplementationGovernmental Decision on landfills (861/1997), Government Decree revising the Decision on landfills (202/2006, amendments 59/2008 and 381/2008) and Waste Act (1072/1993).
ResultRegarding biodegradable municipal waste, the amount landfilled has been diminishing since the year 1994 (2.1 mill. t/a). In 2006, the amount landfilled was 1,0 mill t/a.
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of various waste streams
ScopeSeparate collection of various waste streams
YearFrom
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionIn the Waste Act, there is:
1) a general duty to separate different waste streams to the extent that is necessary and technically and economically feasible in order to prevent hazard or harm to health or the environment or to organize waste management appropriately,
2) a general duty to keep hazardous waste separate. The municipalities may give corresponding rules on the collection of any other types of waste. Most municipalities have done so.
Gov. Dec. on construction waste (295/1997) sets provisions for a construction site to:
1) minimise the generation of construction waste and separate useable objects and substances from it, reusing them as far as possible;
2) use construction materials sparingly, replacing them as far as possible with waste suitable for construction purposes; and
3) ensure that construction waste generated does not result in hazard or harm to health or the environment, or does not significantly hamper or complicate the organisation of waste management. Construction must be so planned and implemented and the construction waste so collected and transported that the recoverable waste and the following waste types are kept separate, or are separated from each other and other construction waste: 1) concrete, brick, mineral tile, ceramic and gypsum wastes; 2) non-impregnated wood wastes; 3) metal wastes; and 4) soil, rock and dredging wastes. The target for the recovery rate set for all construction waste (except for soil, rock and dredging waste) for the year 2000 was min. 50%.

Government Decision on the collection and recovery of waste paper (883/1998, amendment 584/2004)
http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980883)
The purpose of this Decision is to make the collection and recovery of waste paper more efficient and to minimize the impact on them of harmful economic fluctuations. The target is that at least 70 per cent of waste paper should be collected and recovered by the year 2000 and at least 75 per cent by the year 2005, calculated in terms of paper products sold and used in Finland as referred to in this Decision. The waste paper collected shall primarily be recovered as material. Property holders have to provide residential property and property with offices or production or service functions with room and facilities for the separate collection of waste paper. In areas of low-rise housing, and in sparsely populated areas, the collection facilities can take the form of an areal collection site provided by the producer, rather than facilities on each property; this site serves the properties in the area and its location is agreed on with the municipalities concerned. Property holders have to ensure that the separate collection of waste paper at properties or at collection sites is in accordance with the municipal waste management regulations, or as agreed with the producer.

The purpose of the Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997, amendments) is to reduce the environmental harm caused by packaging and packaging waste, and to prevent barriers to trade and distortion and restriction of competition. The primary aim is to prevent the generation of packaging waste; the other aims are to reuse packaging, and to recycle and otherwise recover packaging wastes in order to reduce their final disposal.

The Government Decree (607/2008) on granting subsidies for the production of bioenergy aims at increasing the use of biomass in energy production. The subsidy concerns such biomasses as raw-materials generated on farms, side-products, sewage sludge generated in households in rural areas or wastewater sewage plants as well as biodegradable wastes from the food industry and the commercial sector. One of the aims of the Decree is to promote building of biogasplants in domestic animal production areas.
ImplementationGovernment Decision on the collection and recovery of waste paper (883/1998): 1.1.1999- ;
Government Decree (607/2008) on granting subsidies for the production of bioenergy: 1.10.2008- ;
Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997): 1.12.1997- .
ResultAccording to the statistics concerning waste paper and producer responsibility, the rate for paper recovery for recycling has improved up to 86% in 2006 (Source: Pirkanmaa regional environment centre).

2004 2005 2006
Collectable paper t/a 403 535 414 270 456 459
Recycled t/a 294 563 241 825 306 087
Recovered as energy t/a 23 000 23 000 23 000
Collection rate % 85 85 83
Collection target % 70 75 75
Recovery rate % 80 81 86
Recovery target % 70 85 85

The number of landfills in operation has diminished during the past years, especially the number of non-hazardous landfill sites. In 1990, the number of landfills for non-hazardous wastes was 561, in 2004 148, and in 2007 109.

Regarding biodegradable municipal waste, the amount landfilled in 1994 was 2.1 million tonnes, in 2001 it was 1.2 million tonnes, in 2006 1.0 mill tonnes.

In Finland the generation of packaging waste has been reduced by a significant amount of reuse of packaging. Over two thirds of our packaging is reusable and reused in existing industrial/commercial reuse systems (deposit system for glass- and PET-bottles). The majority of transport packaging between industry and retail trade are reusable like plastic boxes and baskets, pallets, roller cages and drums. Of the packaging wastes generated, the total recovery rates (recycling and energy recovery) in 2000 and in 2005 were the following: for glass 64% and 65%, for plastics 36% and 14,5%, for paper and fibre board 72% and 87,9%, and for metals 25% and 53,5%.

The Government Decree on refund systems of some packaging containers (180/2005) defines refunds for certain beverage packaging belonging to a functional refund system.
In 2007, of the bottles and cans belonging to the deposit system, 94 % was returned: 97% refillable glass and plastic bottles, 89% aluminium cans, and 82% disposable plastic bottles. Due to the transitional provisions laid down by the Act of Excise tax (1037/ 2004), from the beginning of January 2008 there has been no excise tax for recyclable packaging belonging to an approved deposit system. For example, disposable bottles that are recovered as material became tax free. In consequence of the change in the taxation, there has been a clear increase in the amounts of PET-bottles produced.

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleTax on landfill of waste
ScopeTax on landfill of waste
Year1996
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesTo stimulate waste minimisation and material reuse, and to diminish the landfilling.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe tax is restricted to municipal landfills, which means that the tax does not apply to private landfills, such as industrial waste dumps. The tax is the same for every type of waste subject to taxation. Certain wastes are exempted from the taxation (i.e. separately collected contaminated soil which is placed on the landfill site; de-inking waste from the purification processes of waste paper; fly-ash and sulphur removal waste from energy production; and wastes that are utilised in landfill structures). In addition, the taxation is not applied to areas where soil and stone materials are deposited, or to areas where separately collected bio-wastes or sewage sludges are composted. Also, taxation is not applied to areas where wastes are recovered. If the waste arriving at the site cannot be weighed, the weight is estimated based on its volume using a table of conversion coefficients.
ImplementationWaste Tax Act (No. 495), enacted on 28 June 1996
ResultThe taxation has particularly diminished landfilling of construction wastes as well as of industrial wastes and wastes from the commercial sector by improving the competitiveness of the recovery operations. Even though there is found an increase in the consumption, the quantity of wastes being disposed of in municipal landfills is diminished in the last few years. In general, the waste taxation is considered not to have contributed so much to waste prevention, but developed and increased recovery.
Market-based instrument
TitleDeposit refund scheme, packaging
ScopeDeposit refund scheme, packaging
Year1997
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesThe purpose of the Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997, amendments) is to reduce the environmental harm caused by packaging and packaging waste, and to prevent barriers to trade and distortion and restriction of competition. The primary aim is to prevent the generation of packaging waste; the other aims are to reuse packaging, and to recycle and otherwise recover packaging wastes in order to reduce their final disposal. The Government Decree on refund systems of some packaging containers (180/2005) defines refunds for certain beverage packaging belonging to a functional refund system. There are detailed some targets for refund rates of certain beverage packaging belonging to a functional refund system.
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997, amendments) sets provisions on recycling of packaging waste of certain packaging materials (producer responsibility): 1) of the fibre packaging waste, at least 53% of the amount of fibre packaging waste generated by weight, has to be recycled;
2) of the glass packaging waste, at least 48% of the amount of glass packaging waste generated by weight, has to be recycled;
3) of the metal packaging waste, at least 25 % of the amount of metal packaging waste generated by weight, has to be recycled;
4) of the plastic packaging waste, at least 15 % of the amount of plastic packaging waste generated by weight has to be recycled. There are also set some general targets for minimising the generation of packaging waste, and for the reuse, recovery and recycling of it. Material based recovery targets are set for the year 2008.

The Government Decree 180/2005: The refund rate target for refillable beverage bottles of beer, cider, soft drinks, wine and alcohol is 90%, for metallic cans 90% and for disposable beverage packaging that are recovered as material, 80%. The refund rate target for aluminium cans is now set higher than for example in 2003 (85%). Respectively, the refund rate for refillable beverage bottles of beer, cider and soft drinks was 99% in 2003, but the same for refillable alcohol beverage bottles was only 80%.

Reuse systems of packaging have been encouraged by economic instruments like taxes and deposits. (Provisions about these are laid down in Act of Excise tax 1037/ 2004, the Amendments 452/2004 and 1040/2004 of Waste Act and Council of State Decision 180/2005). The tax (0,51 euros/liter) is required on drinks sold in retail packaging. There is no tax for refillable packaging belonging to a deposit system. In 2005-2007 tax was lower (0,085 euros/liter) for those packaging which belong to a deposit system and which can be recycled as material. From the beginning of January 2008 there has been no excise tax at all for packaging belonging to an approved deposit system. (The tax legislation has been in force before implementation of Directive 94/62/EC). The deposits are: 0,15 euros for aluminium cans, 0,20 euros for plastic bottles of 0,35-1 liters, 0,40 euros for plastic bottles over 1 liter, and 0,10 euros for others.
ImplementationGovernment Decision on packaging and packaging waste (962/1997; amendments 1025/2000, 987/2004 and 817/2005).
Government Decree on refund systems of some packaging containers (180/2005 in Finnish, in Swedish)

Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitlePackaging agreement
ScopePackaging agreement
Year1995
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionIn 1991 the Ministry of the Environment ordered a working group was to follow the development of EU’s Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste and to estimate its effects on the Finnish waste policy. The working group consisted of members from Ministry of the Environment, the packaging industry, consumer and environmental organisations and the Association of Finnish Local Authorities. In its memorandum in 1993 it was proposed that voluntary agreements can be used as a first phase solution for the reduction of packaging waste before the EU's Directive is implemented by regulation. According to the memorandum, the packaging industry took the view that the systems which are organised and implemented ona voluntary basis are more flexible and cost-effective than regulation and taxes set by the ministry alone. The actual initiative to reduce packaging waste by a voluntary agreement came from the packaging industry in 1994. The purpose of the agreement was to reach the same targets which were given in EU's Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste. The packaging industry committed itself to optimise and reduce the use of packaging material and energy in relation to a certain amount of packaging.
The packaging agreement was in force for app. two years. It was replaced by a regulation which ratified the EU's Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste (Government Decision on packaging and packaging waste 962/1997).
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV) is responsible for organising the waste management for households and the public administrations in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. During the years 2005-2008 it realised a project "Waste Prevention Kit for Enterprises, Education and Households" (WastePrevKit http://www.ytv.fi/ENG/fiksu/background_information/wpk_project/frontpage.htm; report http://www.ytv.fi/NR/rdonlyres/87C09D20-941E-428D-865B-574D18368328/0/YTV_JSE_esite_ENG_netti.pdf)  with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community. The purpose of the WastePrevKit -project was to work, test, disseminate and adopt best practice -models and materials on waste prevention and through this, to reduce the waste amounts generated. The target group of the project was households, educational institutions, day-care centres, the public administration and enterprises.
It provided teaching materials, a tool for waste benchmarking, models for best practices, consultation, campaigns and web pages.

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

no information

Construction and demolition waste

no information

Waste prevention

no information

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information