HOME



Search this website

Factsheet for Germany

1. General facts

CountryGermany (DE)
Surface area357,022 Km²
Population (thousands)82190
Population density230
Persons per household2.1
GDP per capita PPS114.8
GDP per capita
Household characteristics52% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km2)
31% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km2)
17% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab/km2)
Gross value added25.4% Industry, including energy
4% Construction
17.9% Trade, transport and communication services
29.5% Business activities and financial services
22.3% Other services
0.9% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

According to the German constitution (Basic Law), waste management belongs to the field of con­current legislation. That means that the Federal Government has the right to adopt the waste man­agement legislation. The competence of the Federal States (Länder) and Provinces/Districts is restricted to the fields where no federal legislation exists. The result is that beneath the national waste legislation, each Federal State has its own waste management legislation/regulation. Unless otherwise regulated in national legislation, waste from households fall under the responsibi­lity of the Federal State, who delegate the concrete management of household waste to the dis­tricts/regions and municipalities.
In Germany, the EU Landfill Directive is implemented by the Landfill Ordinance and by the Ordi­nance on Landfills and Long Term Storages. The latter transposes also the EU Landfill Decision.
The Technical Instruction on Municipal Waste came into force in 1993, which defined the state of the art for the landfilling of municipal waste. Unfortunately, the Technical Instructions contained a loophole which meant that rules were not implemented as intended. With the Landfill Ordinance of 2001, the deadline for the landfilling of untreated waste was set at 1.6.2005.
The procedure for the handling of the financial security is stipulated in Article 19 of the Ordinance on Landfills and Long Term Storages.
With the amendment of the Ordinance on Incineration and Co-incineration of Waste in 2003, the German waste law was adapted to the requirements of the EU Incineration Directive.

 

Transposition
Act/law/decree
Year of transposition
Text available
(Y/N)
Language
Landfill Directive 99/31
Ordinance: Verordnung über Deponien und Langzeitlager, 24.7.2001, BGBl. I S. 2807
(Ordinance on Landfills and Long Term Storages)
2001 (transi­tion until 2005)
Y
German/ English available
 
Ordinance: Abfallablagerungsverord­nung, 20.02.2001, BGBl. I 2001, 305
(Landfill Ordinance)
 
Y
German/ English available
Landfill Decision 33/03
Ordinance: Verordnung über Deponien und Langzeitlager, 24.7.2001, BGBl. I S. 2807
(Ordinance on Landfills and Long Term Storages)
 
Y
German/ English available
Incineration Directive 76/00
Ordinance: Siebzehnte Verordnung zur Durchführung des Bundes-Immissions­schutzgesetzes: Verordnung über die Verbrennung und Mitverbrennung von Abfällen, amendment 14.08.2003, BGBl. I, S. 1633
(Ordinance on the Incineration and Co-incineration of Waste)
 
2003 (last amendment)
Y
German/ English available

 

 

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Constitution (Basic Law):
Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland vom 23. Mai 1949 (BGBl. I S.1)
Art. 72 (1): In the field of concurrent legislation the Federal States (Länder) have the power for legislation, as long and as far as the federal authority does not use its legislation power. (references to Federal States (Länder) waste management act is found in Annex 1)
Art. 74 (24): The concurrent legislation comprises the following fields: waste management.
Law:
Gesetz zur Förderung der Kreislaufwirtschaft und Sicherung der umweltverträglichen Beseitigung von Abfällen
(Act for Promoting Closed Loop Recycling and Ensuring Environmentally Sound Waste Disposal)
(Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz - KrW-/AbfG)
(Recycling Management and Waste Act – RMWA)
The RMWA is the main piece of waste legislation in Germany. It is structured in 9 sections:
1. General obligations
2. Principles and duties of waste generators and owners as well as disposal authorities
3. Product stewardship
4. Responsibility for planning
a. 1st chapter: order and planning
b. 2nd chapter: Permission of waste disposal facilities
5. Green procurement
6. Duty to supply information
7. Inspection
8. Company organisation, waste manager and audited company sites
9. Final clauses

2.2.2 National legislation

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)Ordinance: Verordnung über die Verwertung von Bioabfällen auf landwirtschaft¬lich, forstwirtschaftlich und gärtnerisch genutzten Böden (Bioabfallverordnung), 21.9.1998, BGBl I 1998, 2955 (Ordinance on Biowastes)
no informationOrdinance: Abfallablagerungsverordnung, 20.02.2001, BGBl. I 2001, 305 (Landfill Ordinance)
PackagingOrdinance: Verordnung über die Vermeidung und Verwertung von Verpackungs¬abfällen, 27.08.1998, BGBl. I 1998 S. 2379, last amendment amendment, April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I, S. 531) (Ordinance on prevention and recovery of packaging waste)
Construction/demolition wasteOrdinance: Verordnung über die Entsorgung von gewerblichen Siedlungsabfällen und von bestimmten Bau- und Abbruchabfällen, 19. Juni 2002, BGBl. I 2002, 1938 (Ordinance on the Management of Municipal Wastes of Commercial Origin and Certain Construction and Demolition Wastes)
WEEELaw: Gesetz über das Inverkehrbringen, die Rücknahme und die umweltver¬trägli¬che Entsorgung von Elektro- und Elektronikgeräten, 16.3.2005, BGBl. I, Nr. 17/2005, S. 762 (Act Governing the Sale, Return and Environmentally Sound Disposal of Electri¬cal and Electronic Equipment)
Waste woodOrdinance: Verordnung über die Entsorgung von Altholz, 15.08.2002, BGBl. I S. 2203 (Ordinance on the disposal of waste wood)

2.3 Regional waste acts

All Federal States (Länder) have issued their own Waste Act. Due to number of Acts.  These acts are listed here, but no further detailed information is provided.

  • Baden-Württemberg: Provincial Waste Act (15. Oktober 1996, GBl. Nr.24 vom 29.10.1996, S. 617)
  • Bavaria: Bavarian Waste Management Act (9. August 1996, GVBl. S. 396, 449; last amend­ment of 25.05.2003, GVBl. S. 325)
  • Berlin: Closed Loop Recycling Management and Waste Act (21. Juli 1999, GVBl. S. 413; last mendment of 11.07.2006,GVBl. 2006, S.819)
  • Brandenburg: Waste Act of Brandenburg (6. Juni 1997, GVBl. I S. 40, last amendment of 28.07.2006, GBVl. I 2006, S 74)
  • Bremen: Act of Bremen implementing Closed Loop Recycling Management and Environmen­tally Sound Disposal of Waste Act (23. November 1998, Brem.GBl. S. 289, last amendment of 22.06.2004, Bre. GBl. vom 02.07.2004, S. 313)
  • Hamburg: Waste Management Act of Hamburg (21. März 2005, HmbGVBl. S. 80)
  • Hesse: Hesse Act Implementing Closed Loop Recycling Management and Environmentally Sound Disposal of Waste Act (20. Juli 2004, GVBl. I S. 252, last amendment of 04.12.2006, GVBl. I, S. 619)
  • Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Waste Management Act (15. Januar 1997, GVOBl.M-V S. 43, last amendment of 23.05.2006, GVOBl.M-V 2006, S. 194)
  • Lower Saxony: Waste Management Act of Lower Saxony (14. Juli 2003, Nds.GVBl. S. 273, last amendment of 05.11.2004, Nds.GVBl. 2004,)
  • North Rhine-Westfalia: Waste Act of Northrhine-Westfalia (21. Juni 1988, GV.NW S. 250, last amendment of 11.12.2007, GV.NW Nr. 34 vom 28.12.2007, S. 708)
  • Rhineland-Palatinate: Waste Management and Contaminated Sites Act of Rhineland – Pa­latinate (2. April 1998, GVBl. S. 97, last amendment of 21.12.2007, GVBl Nr. 17 vom 28.12.2007, S. 297)
  • Saarland: Waste Management Act of Saarland (26. November 1997, last amendment of 21.11.2007, Amtsblatt Saarland Nr. 58 vom 30.12.2007, S. 2393)
  • Saxony: Waste Management and Soil Protection Act of Saxony (31. Mai 1999, Sächs.GVBl. S. 261, last amendment of 05.05.2004, Sächs.GVBl. vom 22.05.2004, S.148)
  • Saxony-Anhalt: Waste Act of the Province Saxony-Anhalt (10. März 1998, GVBl.LSA S. 112, last amendment of 22.12.2004, GVBl.LSA 2004, S. 852)
  • Schleswig-Holstein: Waste Management Act of Schleswig-Holstein (Januar 1999, GVOBl.Schl.-H. S. 26, last amendment of 12.06.2007, GVOBl.Schl.-H. Nr. 12 vom 28.06.2007, S. 289)
  • Thuringa: Thuringian Waste Management Act (15. Juni 1999, GVBl. S. 385, last amendment of 20.12.2007, GVBl. Thüringen Nr. 13 vom 28.12.2007, S. 267)
 

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

There is no national Waste Management Plan in Germany. In its Article 29, the Recycling Manage­ment and Waste Act stipulates, that the Federal States (Länder) have to issue waste management plans for their area of responsibility.

3.2 Regional plans

In Lower Saxony or North Rhine-Westphalia the planning competence is given to regional authorities (districts).
 
Waste management Plans of the Federal States or Districts (for further details see link in No 8):
Baden-Württemberg
·         Municipal waste 2007
·         Hazardous waste 2004
Bavaria
·         Waste management plan 2006 -total- with Justification
Berlin
·         Waste management plan 2005 -total- with Justification
Brandenburg
·         Municipal waste 2007
·         Hazardous waste 2006
Bremen
·         Waste management plan 2007 -New-
Hamburg
·         Municipal waste 2007
·         Waste from municipal waste water plants 2007
·         Hazardous waste 2005
·         Joint waste management plan for Construction and Demolition Waste Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein 2006
·         Waste from medical service 2004
·         Dredged materials 2001
Hesse
·         Waste management plan 2005 -total-
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
·         Waste management plan 2002 -total-
Lower Saxony
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Braunschweig
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Hannover
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Lüneburg
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Weser-Ems
·         Hazardous waste 2004
North Rhine-Westphalia
·         Municipal waste 2005 -total-
·         Municipal waste 2005 - District Government Arnsberg
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Detmold
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Düsseldorf
·         Municipal waste 2004 - District Government Köln
·         Municipal waste 2005 - District Government Münster
·         Hazardous waste 2008
Rhineland - Palatinate
·         Municipal waste 2004
·         Hazardous waste 2006
Saarland
·         Municipal waste 2004
·         Industrial waste 2008
Saxony
·         Waste management plan 2004 with Attachments
Saxony-Anhalt
·         Municipal waste 2005
·         Hazardous waste 2005
Schleswig-Holstein
·         Municipal waste 2007-2016 –New-
·         Joint Waste management plan for Construction- and Demolition Waste Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein 2006
·         Industrial waste 2006
·         Sludge (DRAFT) December 2000
Thuringia
·         Municipal waste
·         Hazardous waste

4. Waste prevention for Germany

4.1. Objectives

The Recycling Management and Waste Act (RMWA)contains a waste hierarchy. The first principle of RMWA (Art. 4(1)) is that waste must,
  1.  firstly, be avoided; this must be accomplished especially by reducing its amount and haz­ardousness;
  2. secondly,  be subjected to material recycling or used to recover energy (energy recovery).
According to Article 4(2), "measures for waste avoidance include, especially, closed loop recycling of materials within plants, low-waste product design and consumer behaviour oriented to the ac­quisition of low-waste and low-pollution products."

4.2. Targets

For certain waste streams, quantitative targets for waste prevention and recovery (in general, combined targets for reuse and recovery/ recycling) are specified, see table:
Waste stream
Legal document
Year of introduction
Targets
Reference
Batteries
Revised Battery Or­dinance (BGBLl. I, S. 1486)
2001
Ban of batteries contai­ning hazardous sub­stances, Take-back and recycling of spent batteries: Sustainable production of long-life batteries
 
Packaging waste
Revised Packaging ordinance (BGBl. I, S. 2379, last amend­ment, April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I, S. 531)
1998
(2007)
Re-use, recovery and recycling targets
Art. 1, 8
End-of-life ve­hicles (ELVs)
Revised End-of-life Vehicle Ordinance of 21 June 2002 (BGBl. I, S. 2214)
2006
Reuse + recovery and reuse + recycling tar­gets for ELVs, as of 2006, and increased targets as of 2015
Art. 5 (1)
Electronic waste
Governing the Sale, Return and Environ­mentally Sound Dis­posal of Electrical and electronic Equip­ment (Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act - ElektroG) as of: 23 March 2005 (Federal Law Gazette BGBl. I p. 762-774).
2005
Reuse + recovery and reuse + recycling tar­gets
Art. 12
For certain waste streams, qualitative waste prevention targets, such as substance limits and bans are specified, see below, chapter 4.4.1.1

4.3. Strategy

A modern waste management system including closed loop recycling can only be effective if those responsible for the generation of waste also accept responsibility for, and bear the costs of, its re­cycling and disposal. Consequently, waste generators from trade and industry are required to ac­cept responsibility for the recycling and in some cases also the disposal of their waste.
While during the last few decades waste management was mainly dominated by first reaching en­vironmentally sound management and second closing material cycles as much as possible (cradle to grave), the challenge now is to regard waste as a resource which should be used efficiently (cradle to cradle). This new approach also includes the retrieval of waste disposed of in the past (urban mining) and the perception that for example buildings have to be seen as anthropogenic storages for future mining.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

General rules for waste avoidance/prevention (waste hierarchy, objectives) are set in the Recycling Management and Waste Act of 1994.
Furthermore this act authorises the Federal Government to mandate by statutory ordinance fol­lowing waste prevention measures
Based on this authorisation a number of policy instruments have been implemented, see below (4.4) and above (4.2). Most of them, however, are based on EU legislation.
Provisions for waste prevention in industrial plants are given in the Recycling Management and Waste Act (RMWA) and the Federal Immission Control Act, see Article 9 of the RMWA and Article 5(1) 3 of the Federal Immission Control Act (of 2002, BGBl. I S. 3830).
 
In Germany, the legal system of limiting the concentration of hazardous substance or banning them totally in different products derives from chemical law, food law, environmental protection, consumer protection, workers protection, health protection and waste management law. Here only the ordinance derived from waste management law are mentioned.

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2001
Legal documentRevised Battery Ordi¬nance (BGBl. I, S. 1486)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamEnd of life vehi¬cles
Year2002
Legal documentRevised End-of-life Ve¬hicle Ordinance (BGBl. I 2214) Article 8 (2)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2006
Legal documentElektroG, Art. 5
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1991
Legal documentRevised Packaging or¬dinance (BGBl. I, S. 2379, last amendment, April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I, S. 531)

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year1991
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
- Packaging has to be designed, pro­duced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationRevised Packaging ordinance (BGBl. I, S. 2379, last amend­ment, April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I, S. 531)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeBatteries, accumula­tors
Year2001
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Removability of batteries built in EEE
ImplementationRevised Battery Or­dinance (BGBLl. I 1486)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery es­pecially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilita­ted.
- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationElektroG
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2002
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Restrict and reduce use of hazardous substances in cars,
- consider dismantling, reuse, recyc­ling, and recovery of materials and components when designing and pro­ducing cars,
- increased use of secondary raw ma­terials
ImplementationRevised End-of-life Vehicle Ordinance (BGBl. I 2214)
Article 8 (1)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThere is the priority to check the possibil­ity of reuse before recycling
ImplementationElektroG, Art. 9
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeELV
Year2002
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe components and substances ob­tained from the ELV must primarily be provided for reuse or recycling. As much as possible of the removed components have to be provided for reuse.
ImplementationRevised End-of-life Vehicle Ordinance (BGBl. I 2214)
Annex No. 3.2.4.1
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopePackaging waste
Year1991
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe reuse of beverage containers is a priority
ImplementationRevised Packaging ordinance (BGBl. I, S. 2379, last amendment, April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I, S. 531)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

Market based instruments are rarely used in Germany. There are two deposit refund schemes in place concerning beverage containers and lead acid batteries.
 

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information
Target group
Waste stream
Year of introduction (amendm.)
Legal document
-    Capacity (life span of products)
-    higher content of heavy metals
-    the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and ac­cumulators
Final consumer
Batteries, Accumula­tors
2006
2006/66/EC Direc­tive on Batteries and Accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators (not transposed into national legislation, yet)
Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Final consumer
ELV
2002
Revised End-of-life Vehicle Ordinance (BGBl. I 2214)
Art. 10
Use of component and material coding stan­dards, in particular to facilitate the identifica­tion of those compo­nents and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Disassembling companies
ELV
2002
Revised End-of-life Vehicle Ordinance (BGBl. I 2214)
Art. 10

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

Some waste related voluntary instruments concerning the German eco-labelling scheme are in place:
Material
voluntary instrument
Year of introduction
Recycled paper products
Ecolabel Blue Angel
1978
Products out of recycled plastics
Ecolabel Blue Angel
1978
Printed matter
Ecolabel Blue Angel
1978
Tissue paper
Ecolabel Blue Angel
1978
Products out of used rubber
Ecolabel Blue Angel
1978
Building Materials primarily made of Waste Glass
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 49)
1987
Building Materials primarily made of Waste Paper
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 36)
1985
Products made from Recycled Plastics
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 30a)
1984
Products made from Waste Rubber
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 30b)
1984
Wallpapers and Woodchip Wallpapers
primarily made of Waste Paper
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 35)
1985
Recycled Paper and Paper Products made of Recycled Paper
Ecolabel “Blue Angel” (RAL-UZ 5, 14, 56 & 72)
1981
In 2008 connected with the 30 anniversary of the national Ecolabel "Blue Angel" the Federal Envi­ronmental Ministry and the Federal Environment Agency launched a broad public campaign to promote ecolabelled products.

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

No examples

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Germany

5.1. Objectives

For C&D waste as such no specific objectives have been formulated, only the general objectives of waste mangement are applied.

5.2. Targets

No specific collection or recycling targets for C&D waste have been set.

5.3. Strategy

Currently the Federal Government is developing an ordinance regarding re-use and recycling strategies regarding C&D waste, which will include quality standards and re-use scenarios.

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of C&D-waste
ScopeConstruction/demolition waste from commerce.
Year2002
Transition periodNo
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionCompanies are obliged either to collect reusable waste material separately or to commit their waste to special commercial waste sorting facilities.
ImplementationVerordnung über die Entsorgung von gewerblichen Siedlungsabfällen und von bestimmten Bau- und Abbruchabfällen, 19 Juni 2002, BGBl. I 2002, S. 1938
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No instruments

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

Information based instruments are available for the recycling of C&D waste. For example a guidance document issued jointly by the Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs and the Ministry for Defence [BMVBS 2008]

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleConstruction and demolition waste (C&D waste)
ScopeConstruction and demolition waste (C&D waste)
Year1996
Transition periodno transition period
ObjectivesThe objectives of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kreislaufwirtschaftsträger Bau (ARGE KWTB)" are fostering the closed loop recycling of building materials.
TargetsReduce the amount of landfilled C&D waste from 1996 until 2005 by half.
DescriptionIn Germany app. 218 million tonnes of mineral C&D waste are generated annually. Two thirds of the waste is excavated soil and one third demolition waste, waste from road construction and construction waste. While excavated soil most often can be recycled directly, around 70 % of the other fractions need re-processing to meet the quality standards for re-use.
Implementationno information
ResultThe landfilling of recycable C&D waste has decreased dramatically. Nowadays only 1/10 of C&D wastes (50 % in 1997) are landfilled.

Additional info

no information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Germany

6.1. Objectives

Limit organic waste going to landfill and recycle or recover as much as possible of this waste stream. Reduce gas and liquid emissions from landfill sites.

6.2. Targets

Maximum 5% carbon content in waste going to landfill

6.3. Strategy

In general the German national strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills comprises the following elements:
  1. Separate collection of biodegradable waste from households and commerce
  2. Composting or anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste
  3. Separate collection of paper and cardboard
  4. Ban of untreated waste going to landfill, criteria for the landfilling of waste and aim of the treat­ment is esp. the limitation of the organic content.

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of packaging waste
ScopePaper waste and plastic waste as part of Packaging waste
Year1991
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesSeparate collection for reuse and recovery of products
TargetsPaper: min. 70 % material recycling
Plastic: min. 60% recovery, of which at least 60% material recycling
Descriptiontake-back and recycling obligation (producer responsibilities)
ImplementationPackaging Ordinance, 27 August 1998, BGBl. I 1998 S. 2379, last amendment of April 2, 2008 (BGBl. I S. 531)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of packaging waste
ScopePaper waste as part of Packaging waste
Year1991
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesSeparate collection for reuse and recovery of products
Targets70 % material recycling
Descriptiontack-back and recycling obligation
ImplementationPackaging Ordinance, 27 August 1998, BGBl. I 1998 S. 2379, last amendment of 19.07.2007, BGBl. I, S. 1462
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling
ScopeBan of landfilling certain waste types according to Ordinance on Landfill and Long-term Storage: e.g. Liquid waste, infectious waste, explosive waste, etc.
Ban of landfilling waste which does not comply with certain acceptance criteria depending on landfill types (Ordinance on Landfill and Long-term Storage)
Restriction of organic substance going to landfill according to Landfill Ordi¬nance
YearTASi
Transition periodmid 2005
ObjectivesLimit organic waste going to landfills
Targets• Requirements for municipal waste: max 5% carbon content in waste landfilled
• Requirements for municipal waste, which has been mechanical- bio¬logically pre-treated: max 18% carbon content and very low content of biodegradable organic carbon in waste landfilled measured with degradation tests
DescriptionWaste with organic content that exceeds target values must not be landfilled. Landfilling is only allowed after the waste has been treated in a way that the target values are met.
ImplementationVerordnung über Deponien und Langzeitlager, 24 July 2001, BGBl. I S. 2807
Abfallablagerungsverordnung, 20 February 2001, BGBl. I 2001, 305
Verordnung über den Versatz von Abfällen unter Tage, 24 July 2002, BGBl. I, S. 2833
ResultThe 2016 target of the Landfill Directive to divert BMW away from landfills has already been met.
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of biowaste
ScopeOrganic waste from households and commerce, plant residues from industrial food processing and agriculture
Year1998
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesSeparate collection for recycling organic waste as fertiliser and soil improver.
TargetsOnly compost from separate collected biodegradable municipal waste which fall below the heavy metal limit values is used on land.
Descriptionno information.
ImplementationOrdinance on Biowaste, Verordnung über die Verwertung von Bioabfällen auf landwirtschaftlich, forstwirtschaftlich und gärtnerisch genutzten Böden, 21.09.1998, BGBl. I S. 2955.
ResultAbout 12 Mio. tons of biodegradable waste were collected separately and used to produce about 8 Mio. tons of compost and digestate which can be used on soil.

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

No instruments

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

No instruments

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleBio-waste which should be processed to compost or digestate
ScopeBio-waste which should be processed to compost or digestate.
Year -
Transition periodno transition period
ObjectivesQuality assurance system for the compost and digestate which should be used as fertiliser or soil improver (Bundesgütegemeinschaft Kompost e.V.).
Targetsno targets
DescriptionA system of quality assurance for different kinds of composts and digestates. There are for example limiting values for nutrients, heavy metals and impurities.
ImplementationQuality assessment and testing provisions of RAL-Quality Lablel:
Resultabout 60% of the compost plants are currently members of the quality assurance system.

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

The reduction of municipal solid waste going to landfill to nearly zero and the increase of separate collection of biowaste and other waste streams (Paper and cardboard, glass, metals and plastics) for recycling is shown by the figure. MSW which can not be recycled has to be either incinerated or mechanical-biological treated.

development of municipal waste management in Germany

 

 

Construction and demolition waste

Table: Generation and recycling of construction and demolition waste 1999 – 2006 (kt)
year
amount generated
recycled
recycling quota [%]
1999
252,377
220,453
87,4
2000
253,770
222,383
88
2001
243,660
215,271
88
2002
240,812
206,076
86
2003
223,389
192,626
86
2004
188,607
162,893
86
2005
184,919
160,413
87
2006
196,374
173,678
88
source: Statistical Office: Aufkommen und Entsorgung 1999-2006

Waste prevention

The packaging consumption, recycling amount and recycling quotas in Germany are summarized in the following table:
 



 
 
Up to 2005 the Packaging Ordinance prescribed a share of reusable packaging of drinks (exclu­ding milk) of 72% and a share of ecologically advantageous packaging of pasteurised milk of 20%. If the beverage packaging sector failed to meet these quotas, a mandatory deposit on non-reusab­le, non-ecologically advantageous beverage packaging was to be introduced. The reusable quota for drinks rose in 1992 and 1993, but the trend has been downwards since 1994 and in 1997, the reusable quota failed to meet the prescribed 72%. Based on the ordinance, a mandatory deposit on non- reusable drinks containers for certain types of beverages (including beer, carbonated soft drinks and carbonated water) has come into effect in January 2003.
In 2005, the packaging ordinance was amended. The ordinance now aims to increase to at least 80% the share of beverages filled into reusable drinks packaging and ecologically advantageous one-way drinks packaging (drinks carton packaging, drinks packaging in the form of polyethylene bags and stand-up bags). The ecologically advantageous one-way drinks packaging systems are also exempted from the mandatory deposit scheme.
Additionally, the mandatory deposit scheme for one-way beverage packaging now covers a slightly larger part of all beverages, including beer (also non-alcoholic beer and mixed drinks containing beer), carbonated and non-carbonated water soft drinks (e.g. lemonades, cola drinks or ice tea, but exempting fruit juices and fruit nectars), mixed alcoholic drinks (containing less than 15 per cent alcohol or containing less than 50 per cent wine or wine-like products).
Share of reusable packaging of beverages in %
 
1991
1995
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
Total drinks (excl. milk)
71,69
72,27
70,13
65,46
56,20
60,30
50,50
Mineral water
91,33
89,03
87,44
80,96
68,30
67,60*
52,60*
Fruit juice and other still drinks
34,56
38,24
35,66
33,35
29,20
20,60
14,00
Carbonated soft drinks
73,72
75,31
77,02
68,45
54,00
62,20*
47,50*
Beer
82,16
79,07
76,14
73,07
68,00
87,80*
86,90*
Wine
28,63
30,42
26,20
25,76
25,30
20,00
17,50
Source: Society for Packaging Market Research (GVM), Gesellschaft für Verpackungsmarktforschung mbH( GVM): Verbrauch von Getränken in Ein- und Mehrweg-Verpackungen, Berichtsjahr 2006; Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit; Forschungsbericht 206 32 300; UBA-FB 001127, Texte 15/08; ISSN 1862-4804 (http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3458.pdf)
*) introduction of a mandatory deposit system for mineral water, still drinks and beer
 
 
The data concerning the re-use, recycling and recovery of end-of-life vehicles in Germany are shown in the following table:
Table: Reuse & recycling and reuse & recovery quota for end-of-life vehicles in Germany [BMU 2008]
Year
2004
2005
2006
Reuse and Recycling
77,2%
80,2 %
86,8%
Reuse and Recovery
79,7 %
82,9 %
89,5%
In 2007, 41 % of the batteries and accumulators distributed on the German market were collected separately.
 

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information