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Factsheet for Czech Republic

1. General facts

CountryCzech Republic (CZ)
Surface area78,866 Km²
Population (thousands)10323
Population density131
Persons per household2.5
GDP per capita PPS80.2
GDP per capita
Household characteristics24% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km2)
48% in intermediate urbanized areas (100 - 499 inhab./km2)
28% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab/km2)
Gross value added31.5% Industry, including Energy
6.8% Construction
24.7% Trade, transport and communication services
17% Business activities and other financial services
17% Other services
2.9% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The urgent need to adopt legal regulations concerning waste management along with the transformation towards a market economy following the Velvet Revolution in 1989 was dealt with in Act No. 238/1991 Coll., on waste, laying down essential rules for waste management. Furthermore, the law placed waste producers, District Offices and the Czech Republic under the obligation to produce waste management programmes. There was insufficient data concerning waste production and management to plan and process such programs. For this reason the Ministry of the Environment established a Waste Information System (in operation since 1994) which is currently operated under the title of Waste Management Information System (WMIS).
Act No. 188/2004 Coll. - amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amendments to other pertinent laws, as amended - fully transposes the EC regulations into the Czech laws covering the entire scope of waste management. Along with the amendments to the waste act, changes were made to the implementing regulations, including the Catalogue of Waste, according to which individual waste types are classified and the waste production and management is registered.

Decree No. 381/2001 Coll. of Ministry of the Environment, which promulgates the Catalogue of Waste and the List of Hazardous Waste, and establishes further lists of wastes and countries for the purpose of export, import and transit of waste, and the procedure for granting permission for waste exports, imports and transits (Catalogue of Waste), is now in full compliance with the EU Catalogue. The existing Catalogue of Waste distinguishes only two categories of wastes, i.e. hazardous and other wastes. With respect to the legislative changes during the last decade, it is difficult to compare the actual development in waste production and management during individual years and in time series.
The Ministry of the Environment has appointed working teams to produce Implementation Programmes of the Czech Republic, including 282 top experts from throughout the country. Representatives taking part in individual working teams were appointed by other ministries, regions, unions, associations and societies, as well as non-profit organisations and other entities. Outputs from the individual Implementation Programmes of the Czech Republic were discussed by the Government and subsequently issued in the form of Government Resolutions until the end of 2004.
Regional Waste Management Plans must be in accordance with the binding part of the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic and its amendments. Regional Waste Management Plans serve as a basis for conceptual activities conducted within regions and for the processing of follow-up waste management plans for waste producers. The binding part of Regional Waste Management Plans shall become a background for decision-making and other waste management activities by the competent administrative bodies, regions and municipalities. The binding parts of Regional Waste Management Plans were issued during the year 2004 in the form of generally binding decrees by the region in question.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Act No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amendments to other pertinent laws, as amended.The act lays down essential rules for waste management.
Act No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amending some other laws, as follows from amendments introduced by Act No. 477/2001 Coll., Act No. 76/2002 Coll., Act No. 275/2002 Coll., Act No. 320/2002 Coll., Act No. 356/2003 Coll., Act No. 167/2004 Coll., Act No. 188/2004 Coll., Act No. 317/2004 Coll., Act No. 7/2005 Coll., Act No. 444/2005 Coll., Act No. 186/2006 Coll., Act No. 222/2006 Coll., Act No. 230/2006 Coll., Act No. 314/2006 Coll., Act No. 296/2007 Coll., Act No. 25/2008 Coll., Act No. 34/2008 Coll. and Act No. 383/2008 Coll.Fully transposes the EC regulations into the Czech laws within the entire scope of waste management.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Landfill Directive 99/31Act 188/2004 Coll.2001
Landfill Decision 33/03Act 188/2004 Coll.2001
Incineration Directive 76/00Act 188/2004 Coll.2001

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
LandfillAct No. 106/2005 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amending some other laws. Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 294/2005 Coll., on the conditions of landfilling of waste and use of waste on surface and below the surface and amendment of Decree No. 383/2001 Coll., on details of waste management
IncinerationAct No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amending some other laws, as amended. Section 22 Special Provisions on Waste Incineration Act No. 86/2002 Coll., on Clean Air Protection and Amendment of Some Other Acts (the Clean Air Act)
BMW (Biodegradable municipal waste)Act No. 185/2001 Coll., on waste and amending some other laws, as amended. Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 294/2005 Coll., on the conditions of landfilling of waste and use of waste on surface and below the surface and amendment of Decree No. 383/2001 Coll., on details of waste management. Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 341/2008 Coll. on details biodegradable waste management and amendment of Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 294/2005 Coll., on the conditions of landfilling of waste and use of waste on surface and below the surface and amendment of Decree No. 383/2001 Coll., on details of waste management
PackagingAct 477/2001 Coll., on packaging and the amendment to certain Acts (Packaging Act), together with three implementing regulations (Government order No. 111/2002 Coll. specifying the amount of the deposit on selected types of returnable packaging, Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 116/2002 Coll. on marking returnable packaging and Decree of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. 641/2004 Coll. on the scope and manner of keeping records of packaging and reporting the data from these records).

2.3 Regional waste acts

The basic rules for waste treatment are set out by the Waste Act and its executive regulations. The goals and targets for the various waste treatment methods and the optimum ways of achieving them are set out by the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic for 2003-2013, which was published in the form of a Government Regulation in compliance with the Waste Act.

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Waste management plans are drawn up in order to create preconditions for prevention of waste
production and for waste management under Act No. 185/2001 Coll.
Period of implementation
Main features
Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic
2003 – 2013
  • Reduction of production of waste, independently of the level of economic growth;
  • Maximum use of waste as a replacement for primary natural resources;
  • Minimisation of negative impacts on human health and the environment in association with waste management.
  • The Implementation Programmes of the Czech Republic are processed with the aim of defining the tools (economic, legislative and voluntary) for the achievement of the defined targets. In 2003 there were 10 Implementation Programmes of the Czech Republic covering hazardous waste, medical waste, sludge from waste water treatment plants, disposal of scrap vehicles, packaging and packaging waste, biologically degradable waste, electrical and electronic devices, PVC and PVC-containing waste, decontamination and removal of PCB-containing devices and design of tools for support of increased material use of wastes. 
The English version of the National Waste Management Plan 2003-2013 can be found on the internet: http://www.env.cz/C125750E003B698B/en/waste/$FILE/waste_management_plan.pdf

3.2 Regional plans

The regional waste management plan must be in compliance with the binding part of the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic and changes thereto.
The basic rules for waste treatment are set out by the Waste Act and its executive regulations.
 
The current waste management plans of the Czech region are listed below (only Czech language). The contents of the plans differ and cannot be summarised here.
 

Capital city Prague
 
Jihomoravský region
 
Jihočeský region
 
Karlovarský region
 
Královéhradecký region
 
Liberecký region
 
Moravskoslezský region
 
Olomoucký region
 
Pardubický region
 
Plzeňský region
 
Region Vysočina
 
Středočeský region
 
Ústecký region
 
Zlínský region
 

4. Waste prevention for Czech Republic

4.1. Objectives

Act No. 185/2001 Coll., regulates for waste prevention and waste management in compliance with environmental protection, human health protection and sustainable development aspects, rights and obligations of persons in the waste management sector, and competence of public administration authorities.

The basic principles of waste management contain this act in Section 10 (Art. 10).

4.2. Targets


 no information

4.3. Strategy

General rules for waste prevention (waste hierarchy, objectives) are set in the Waste Act (Act No. 185/2001 Coll., and Amendment of Some Other Acts) .

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

Instruments for enforcement and control of compliance with the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic and evaluation thereof
a) normative instruments:
Implementation plans were drawn up for the area of waste management, containing, in particular the schedule of further steps in enforcing legal regulations of the Czech Republic and the EC legislation, and laying down benchmarks and responsibilities. The Ministry of the Environment annually updates the implementation plans;
b) Economic instruments:
· Fees for depositing wastes in landfills:
Pursuant to the Act on Wastes, fees consist of two components – the basic component for the actual deposition of waste and the risk component for deposition of hazardous waste. Both components grow progressively, in particular for hazardous waste, so that generators are stimulated to limit generation of waste and introduce different technologies, and use input raw materials that are not a source of hazardous wastes;
· financial reserve of landfill operators:
Landfill operators are obliged to create a financial reserve for recovery and maintenance of the landfill and for its decontamination after termination. The financial reserve is kept in a special escrow account and the landfill operator may draw funds from this account only with the consent of the competent Municipal Authority of a municipality with extended competence. The amount of financial reserve equals CZK 100 per ton of hazardous waste and CZK 35 per ton of other waste.
· Payments for municipal waste:
The costs connected with fulfilment of duties of municipalities as generators of municipal waste are dependant on the local conditions and are paid for by inhabitants. There are thee ways to pay for municipal waste.
  • The local fee for operation of a system of collection, transport, separation, recovery and disposal of municipal waste is limited by a maximum of CZK 500 per natural person with the place of permanent residence within the jurisdiction of the municipality or per structure intended or serving for individual recreation in relation to which no natural person is registered for permanent residence.
  • Second, an amendment to the Act on Wastes, No. 275/2002 Coll.§ 17, introduced an optional fee for municipal waste; the amount of this fee is not specified.
  • Third, pursuant to § 17 (5) of the Act on Wastes, payment can be made on a contractual basis between the municipality and the inhabitant; again, there is no upper limit for this payment.
· Fines for administrative torts:
In the range of CZK 0 to CZK 10 million;
· Tax exemptions:
Tax exemptions are related to the value added tax and real estate tax:
  • The lower rate of value added tax  (5%, in contrast to the basic 22% rate), applies to products made from recycled paper (with a minimum of 70 % of waste paper) and to production of biogas.
  • Properties and structures serving exclusively for operation of recycling activities are exempted from the real estate tax.

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2001
Legal documentAct No. 185/2001 Coll.
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2004
Legal documentAct No. 188/2004 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2005
Legal documentAct. No. 7/2005 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll.
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year2001
Legal documentAct No. 477/2001 Coll.

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year2001
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description-Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
-Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible.
ImplementationAct No. 477/2001 Coll.
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description -EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.
- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
Implementation Act. No. 7/2005 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll.
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description -Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,
-consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,
-increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationAct No. 188/2004 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll.
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information
Target group
Waste stream
Year of introduction (amendm.)
Legal document
-    Capacity (life span of products)
-    higher content of heavy metals
-    the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
Final consumer
Batteries, Ac­cumula­tors
 
 
Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Final consumer
ELV
2004
Act No. 188/2004 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll.
Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Disassembling companies
ELV
2004
Act No. 188/2004 Coll., amending Act No. 185/2001 Coll.

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Other instruments

Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeBatteries, Accumulators
Year2000
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesCzech manufacturers' association and importers mobile battery (further CSVDPB) to have been based in the year 2000 with the aim of create in co-operation administration Czech Republic (CR) conditions for performance environment needs legislation CR and European states.
TargetsAim to have been making easy situation with surrender and recycling these produce especially consumers and citizens, transferred also municipality, which according to law CR (Act No. 185/2001 Coll.) Act in the Wastes, which answer behind management with municipal waste.
DescriptionVoluntary agreements
ImplementationNo
ResultAnnually report to the Ministry of the Environment the Czech Republic.

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

no information

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Czech Republic

5.1. Objectives

The management of C&D waste is legally regulated by Act No. 185/2001 Coll. and the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic for 2003-2013.

5.2. Targets

no information

5.3. Strategy

no information

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

no information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Czech Republic

6.1. Objectives

no information

6.2. Targets

The Biologically decomposable portion of municipal waste (BMW) deposited to landfill must gradually be reduced toward the targets given in the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic for 2003-2013. This means to reduce the amount of biologically decomposable municipal waste going to landfill;

 

6.3. Strategy

The most important waste management policy principles are the following:

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling
ScopeBan on landfilling: paper and BMW
Year1997
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesEliminate paper and BMW waste in landfills.
TargetsBMW waste has been reduced to share by the year 2010 on 75 %, by the year 2013 on 50 % and by the year 2020 on 35 % of the total amount BMW waste originated produced in the year 1995.
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleFees on landfilling
ScopeFees on landfilling
Year1991
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe waste producer pays a fee when depositing waste in a landfill. This fee consists of two components, the basic part and the risk part. The tariff for the basic component of the fee applies to all categories of waste (and is differentiated into two levels, one for municipal and other waste and the other for hazardous waste). The risk component of the fee is paid only for hazardous waste. The operator of the landfill transfers collected fees to their recipients, i.e. the municipality in whose cadastre the landfill is located (basic component) and SEF CR (risk component).
Implementationno information
Resultno information
Market-based instrument
TitleCharge on municipal waste
ScopeCharge on municipal waste
Year1990
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe fee for municipal waste is a local fee collected (according to Act of the Czech National Council 565/1990 Coll., on local fees, as amended). The introduction of this fee comprising two components has turned out to be a positive step in the stimulation of the population towards waste sorting. The fee for the operation of a system of accumulation, collection, transport, separation, recovery and disposal of municipal wastes has the form of a local fee and is thus the subject of Act No. 565/1990 Coll., on local fees, as amended. The fee is paid to the municipality by every individual with permanent residence and every owner of a recreational object in the municipality. The tariff comprises two components and may attain a maximum of CZK 500 per year. As the fee is subject to the Act on Local Fees, the municipality may adjust its requisites in a generally binding edict according to local conditions, including possible relieves and exemptions
Implementationno information
Resultno information
Market-based instrument
TitleDeposit refund scheme for glass bottles
ScopeDeposit refund scheme for glass bottles
Year2001
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe Act on Packaging lays down a detailed system of returnable packaging for which deposits are made. The deposit is a set on returnable package to ensure that it is returned. When purchasing a product in a returnable package, the buyer pays this amount in addition to the price of the product and this amount is returned to the buyer upon return of the empty package. In this way, the collected packages can be reused or recycled.

ImplementationGovernment Regulation No. 111/2002 Coll., laying down the amount of the deposit for selected types of returnable packages for which a deposit is made, comprises a list of returnable packages for which deposits are paid, together with the amount of such deposits. The list contains seven types of bottles.
Resultno information

Additional info

Basic Fee Rate for Depositing Waste in Landfill
CZK/ton (Calendar Year)
 
Waste category
 Year 2002 through 2004
Year 2005 through 2006
Year 2007 through 2008
Year 2009 and on
Hazardous
1100
1200
1400
1700
Municipal and other
200
300
400
500
 

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
Titleno information
ScopeEco-labelling
Year1993
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesPromotion of “green products”.
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

no information

Construction and demolition waste

no information

Waste prevention

no information

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information