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Factsheet for Bulgaria

1. General facts

CountryBulgaria (BG)
Surface area110912 Km²
Population (thousands)7622
Population density69
Persons per household
GDP per capita PPS37.3
GDP per capita
Household characteristics
Gross value added25.6 % Industry, including energy¨
5.9 % Construction
24.2 % Trade, transport and communication services
20.7 % Business activities and financial services
15.1 % Other services
8.5 % Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The Ministry of Environment and Water (MOEW) is the competent authority responsible for the development and implementation of the national waste management policy, including drafting and enforcement of the legislation, strategies, programmes, international projects, as well as regulation of the activities in the public and private sectors and also permits for activities with hazardous wastes and for disposal and/or recovery of municipal, construction and industrial waste that does not possess hazardous properties in the cases when the activities are executed on the territory of more than one Regional Inspectorates of Environment and Water (RIEW). Furthermore, the MoEW is also the competent authority for issuing of permits for transboundary shipment of wastes and for implementation of the obligations resulting from the Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

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The MOEW performs some of these activities by the Executive Environmental Agency (EEA) and a network of 16 Regional Inspectorates of Environment and Water (RIEW) that are specialized control bodies of the Ministry. The Regional Inspectorates of Environment and Water control the implementation of the waste management legislation. In execution of their obligations, they perform sudden, current and periodical inspections of waste management activities. They approve the waste management programmes presented by the persons that produce waste or treat waste and supervise the implementation of these programmes and control the compliance with the waste treatment requirements and the implementation of conditions laid down in the permits.

264 Municipalities play an important role in the implementation of the policy in the environmental sector. The mayors of municipalities organize the management of the waste generated on their territory according to the requirements of the Waste Management Act by providing of favourable conditions so that every holder of municipal waste is served by persons that have concluded written contract for rendering of the service following the procedure of the Public Procurement Act.

The municipal mayors are obliged to develop and implement waste management programmes for the territory of the respective municipality. The programmes are part of the municipal programmes for environmental protection and are developed, adopted and reported following the order of the Chapter V of the Environmental Protection Act.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Waste Management Act (WMA)
promulgated State Gazette 86/30.09.2003, last amended SG No 08.08.2008
The obligations and the responsibilities of the state and local authorities in regard to the organization, permitting, financing, supervision and control of the waste management activities are regulated by the Waste Management Act (WMA). This act shall apply to:
1. household waste,
2. industrial waste
3. construction and demolition waste
4. hazardous waste
It is structured in six chapters:
1. General Provisions
2. Obligations of persons carrying out waste-related operations
3. Waste treatment and transport
4. Waste-related operations management
• Information
• Programmes and financing
5. Waste-related operations authorization and control
• Waste related operation permits
• Registration documents for waste-related operations
• Licensing trade in ferrous and non-ferrous metal waste
• Recovery scheme operator permit
• Import, export and transit of waste
• Waste management control
6. Coercive administrative reassures and administrative penalty
• Coercive administrative measures
• Administrative violations and sanctions
Environment Protection Act
promulgated in State Gazette No 91/25.09.2002, last amended SG No 89/06.11.2007
By the adoption of the Reduction of the Harmful Impact of Waste upon the Environment Act (promulgated in State Gazette No 91 from 25.09.2002) in 2002 appropriate conditions for legal regulation of the waste management activities in the country was set out. This Act shall regulate the social relations with regard to:
1. protection of the environment for the present and future generations and protection of human health;
2. conservation of biological diversity in conformity with the natural biogeographic characteristics of Bulgaria;
3. the conservation and use of environmental media;
4. the control and management of factors damaging the environment;
5. the exercise of control over the state of the environment and over the sources of pollution;
6. the prevention and limitation of pollution;
7. the establishment and management of the National Environmental Monitoring System;
8. environmental strategies, programmes and plans;
9. collection of, and access to, environmental information;
10. the economic organization of environmental protection activities;
11. the rights and the obligations of the State, the municipalities, the juristic and natural persons in respect of environmental protection.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration Ordinance No 6 on the conditions and requirements for construction and operation of incineration-plants and co-incineration plants (SG 78/07.09.2004)2004
Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Decision 2003/33/EC establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills Ordinance No 7 on the requirements for sites determined for placing of waste treatment facilities (SG 81/17.09.2004) Ordinance No 8 on the conditions and requirements for construction and operation of landfills and other facilities and installations for waste disposal and recovery (SG 83/24.09.2004) 2004

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste Directive 2004/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 amending Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste Ordinance on packaging and packaging waste (adopted with CM Decree 41/2004, promulgated in State Gazette 19/09.03.2004, amended 10.06.2008).

2.3 Regional waste acts

no information

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Period of implementation
Main features
National Waste Management programme, 2003-2007
The National Waste Management Programme is developed on the basis of the requirements of Article 77 of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) and Article 28 of the Waste Management Act (WMA) and in accordance with the requirements of Directive 75/442/EEC on waste, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, and the Strategy on Waste Management of the European Union.
The main objective of the NWMP is to contribute for sustainable development by establishment of integrated framework for waste management, which will lead to:
·          reduction and limitation of the harmful impact upon the environment caused by the waste generated;
·          better resource efficiency
·          maximum producer responsibility;
·          encouragement of the investments and the waste management activities
It is structured in seven chapters:
  1. Achievements by the implementation of the existing National Waste Management Programme (1999-2002)
  2. Existing Situation and waste management practice
·         Sources of information for waste
·         Analysis of the current situation and assessment by waste types
·         Existing waste treatment practices
·         Waste treatment facilities
  1. Institutional Framework and control. role of the public sector
·         Institutional framework
·         Waste producers and waste holders
·         Role of the private and the public sector
  1. Legal framework and policy
·         Existing legal framework and policy of the European union
·         Expected amendments of the legal framework and policy of the European union
·         National legal framework and policy
  1. Main principles and objectives of the programme
·         Principles
·         Constrains
·         Main objectives
  1. Action plan
  2. Investment programme
·         Key assumptions used for determination of the economic parameters and financing possibilities
·         Priority investment projects
·         Sources of financing of the programme
Annex No. 1
Annex No. 2
 
 
National Infrastructural Sustainable Development Strategy and action plan, 2006-2015
The main goals of the National Infrastructural Sustainable Development Strategy and action plan are:
  • Practical implementation of EU standards for all operational waste treatment facilities and construction of new ones;
  • Development and construction of national hazardous waste infrastructure;
  • Municipal waste separate collection systems with subsequent reuse and recycling
National Waste Management programme - 2003-2007, action plan actualization, 2008
National Waste Management programme’s action plan was updated with following goals:
  • Waste prevention and minimization
  • Increasing the share of waste recycling and recovery;
  • Improvement of separate collection, temporary storage and waste transportation scheme;
  • Environment-friendly waste disposal;
  • Risk minimization from old contaminated sites;
  • Practical implementation of the waste management legislation;
  • Improvement of the wastedataquality;
  • Capacity building in all institutions for waste management;
  • Investmentsgrowthinwastesectorandpracticalimplementationof the “polluter pays principle”;
  • Public participation in waste management decisions;
  • Management of widespreadwaste.

3.2 Regional plans

no information

4. Waste prevention for Bulgaria

4.1. Objectives

The Waste Management Act 2002 general provision (Art. 1 (3)) states that: “Waste shall be managed for the purposes of prevention, mitigation or limitation of the harmful impact of waste on human health and on the environment. The WMA contains the waste hierarchy, according to which the first principle of waste management is (Art. 4(1)): “Any persons whose activity involves the formation and/or treatment of waste, shall take measures in the following hierarchy or priority for:
1.      The prevention or reduction of waste productionand its harmfulness;
2.      the recycling, reuse and/or extraction of secondary raw materials and energy recovery from waste whereof the formation cannot be prevented;
3.      the final disposal of waste, should the prevention, reduction and/or recovery thereof be impossible.
 
The Law on Prevention and reduction of environmental damages (SG 43/29.04.2008) settles the responsibility for reduction and removal of environment damages following the “polluter pays principle” and “sustainable development”. The law calls for:
§         environment risks and determination of exciting treats;
§         public and the executive responsibilities;
§         prevention and health measures determination;
§         financial responsibilities;
§         cooperation and data exchange.
 
RegulationforNationalschemeforeco-labellingwasadoptedin 2003 (SG49/27.05.2003). The regulation determines:
 

4.2. Targets

Waste prevention targets for specific waste streams have been specified - for the waste stream Packaging and packaging waste, ELV, waste oils, batteries and accumulators a combined target for collection, reuse and recycling has been set

4.3. Strategy

Environment Protection Act, 2002authorizes management authorities, the competencies thereof, as well as the requirements to organizations and the procedure for registration under the National Eco-management and Audit Scheme, shall be determined by a regulation of the Council of Ministers (Art. 136). Art. 137 (1) state: “The National Eco-label Award Scheme shall be implemented by means of:
1.   provision of accurate, non-misleading and scientifically based information to consumers on such products;
2.   identification of the environmental impacts resulting from the interactions of products with the environment, including the use of energy and natural resources, during the life cycle of the product”.
General rules for waste prevention (waste hierarchy, objectives) are set in the Waste Management Act 2002 as already mentioned. Furthermore the Minister of Environment and Water shall adopt ordinances containing following waste prevention measures: collection reuse, recycling and treatment requirements and targets; responsibility to polluters; reporting obligation and etc.

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year2005
Legal documentOrdinance on the requirements for marketing batteries and accumulators and for treatment and transportation of spent batteries and accumulators (SG 58/15.07.2005)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2004
Legal documentOrdinance on the requirements for treatment of end of life vehicles (SG 104/26.11.2004)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2006
Legal documentOrdinance on the requirements for marketing of electrical and electronic equipment and treatment and transportation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (30.03.2006)
Regulatory instrument
Titlelead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year2004
Legal documentOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste (SG 19/09.03.2004)

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopePackaging waste
Year2003
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers have to reach certain national targets of reuse and recycling packaging waste
ImplementationWaste management act (SG 86/30.09.2003)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeELV
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers have to reach certain national targets of reuse and recycling ELV
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for treatment of end of life vehicles (SG 104/26.11.2004)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeWaste oils
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers have to reach certain national targets of collection, reuse and recycling waste oils
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for treatment and transportation of waste oils and waste oil products (SG ? 90/2005)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeBatteries, Accumulators
Year2005
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers have to reach certain national targets of collection, reuse and recycling batteries and accumulators
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for marketing batteries and accumulators and for treatment and transportation of spent batteries and accumulators (SG 58/15.07.2005)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleReuse
ScopeWEEE
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers have to reach certain national targets of collection, reuse and recycling WEEE
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for marketing of electrical and electronic equipment and treatment and transportation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (30.03.2006)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopePackaging waste
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
- Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationOrdinance on packaging and packaging waste (SG 19/09.03.2004)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2006
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.
- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for marketing of electrical and electronic equipment and treatment and transportation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (30.03.2006)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleEco Design
ScopeELV
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,
- consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,
- increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationOrdinance on the requirements for treatment of end of life vehicles (SG 104/26.11.2004)
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

no information

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information
Target group
Waste stream
Year of introduction (amendm.)
Legal document
-    Capacity (life span of products)
-    higher content of heavy metals
-    the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators
Final consumer
Batteries, Accumulators
2005 (2008)
Ordinance on the requirements for marketing batteries and accumulators and for treatment and transportation of spent batteries and accumulators (SG 58/15.07.2005)
Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)
Final consumer
ELV
2004 (2008)
Ordinance on the requirements for treatment of end of life vehicles (SG 104/26.11.2004)
Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery
Disassembling companies
ELV
2004 (2008)
Ordinance on the requirements for treatment of end of life vehicles (SG 104/26.11.2004)

Additional info

no information

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

no information

Additional info

no information

4.5 Waste prevention examples

no information

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Bulgaria

5.1. Objectives

For C&D-Waste as such no specific objectives have been formulated, only the general objectives of waste management are applied.

 

5.2. Targets

No specific targets

5.3. Strategy

no information

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

no information

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Bulgaria

6.1. Objectives

no information

6.2. Targets

6.3. Strategy

The Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water have prepared a Draft Strategy for reduction of municipal biodegradable waste going to landfill in Bulgaria. The Strategy focuses primarily on Municipal waste, which is produced largely by households and commerce. The targets set in the strategy shall be achieved by the following work programme:
§         Description of the potential of biodegradable constituent actually present in the municipal waste;
§         Inventory of the exciting structures for collection and transportation of waste;
§         Inventory of the exciting and planned treatment capacities for biodegradable waste constituents;
§         Forecast of the future development of biodegradable waste constituents;
§         Determination of regional reuse options for compost and sewage sludge;
Assessment of major options for the reduction of biodegradable waste constituents according the regional and structural frame conditions

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of packaging waste
ScopePackaging waste (including, paper and cardboard and etc).
Year2004
Transition periodNo
Objectives? Enforcing producer responsibility ? Prevention packaging waste ? Heavy metal limitation ? Recycling and recovery targets
TargetsRecovery and recycling targets 50-65%
DescriptionObligation for separate collection and recycling of packaging waste (paper, glass, metal)
Implementationno information
ResultRecycling targets 25% - 45%
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling
ScopeLandfilling of waste
Year2004
Transition periodNo
Objectives? Reducing BDW landfilling ? Composting ? Sanitary landfills
TargetsBann of BDW from landfills 75%, 50%, 35%
DescriptionObligation for pretreatment of waste, procedures and criteria for waste accepting for landfilling
Implementationno information
ResultBann of landfilling 75%, 50%, 35%

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

no information

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

no information

Construction and demolition waste

no information

Waste prevention

no information

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information