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Factsheet for Belgium

1. General facts

CountryBelgium (BE)
Surface area30,528 Km²
Population (thousands)10693
Population density350
Persons per household2.3
GDP per capita PPS118.2
GDP per capita
Household characteristics57% in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhab./km2)
39% in intermediate urbanised areas (100 - 499 inhab./km2)
5% in sparsely populated areas (less than 100 inhab/km2)
Gross value added19.2% Industry, including energy
5.1% Construction
22.5% Trade, transport and communication services
28.8% Business activities and financial services
23.4% Other services
1% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

2. Legislation overview

The Federal government and the regions have a shared responsibility for environmental matters. Environmental and waste management has, for the most part, become a regional competence and falls under the responsibility of each of the three regions: Brussels Capital Region, Flanders and Walloon Region. The Federal Government has retained limited responsibility for specific environmental matters, including nuclear installations and nuclear waste, waste transit, product standards, import/export/transit of non-indigenous vegetal and animal species as well as activities in the North Sea. The waste management legislation is subject to the three regions but in principle follows similar lines in the three regions. Regional governments offer actually a range of instruments to guide and steer waste management. These include licenses, charges, acceptance obligations, covenants, grants, local controls, environmental policy agreements etc. For further details see chapter on regional waste acts.

2.2 National acts

ReferenceMain content
Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2000 – 2004, adopted by the Federal Government of Belgium.
Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2004 – 2008, adopted by the Federal Government of Belgium.
Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2009 – 2012, draft.
Federal Plan Integrated Product Policy 2009-2013
Sustainability policies have been developed at the national level. In the year 2000 the Federal Government of Belgiumadopted the first Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2000 – 2004, with actions on influencing patterns of consumption and production. The 2004 – 2008 Federal Plan for Sustainable Development is targeted towards a more responsible use of natural resources. Currently, a Federal Plan for Sustainable development for the period 2009-2013 is under development.
The Federal Plan on Integrated Product Policy contains measures to improve the environmental performance of products and to foster the uptake of ‘green’ products by consumers.
In the long term, the actions provided for in these federal plans may also have an effect on waste arisings and waste quality.

2.2.2 National legislation

NameReferenceYear
no informationno informationno i

2.2.3 Selected legislation

NameReference
PackagingAll regions: Samenwerkingsakkoord van betreffende de preventie en het beheer van verpakkingsafval (B.S.29/12/08)

2.3 Regional waste acts

Flanders

In Flanders the Public Waste Agency of the Flemish region (OVAM) is responsible for the achievement of waste management objectives by means of waste projects. Local authorities, interurban communities, professional companies, firms etc. take initiatives to meet these objectives locally. Local authorities are specifically responsible for the prevention, separate collection and treatment of household waste.

In general Flanders sticks to the European waste hierarchy and lays its focus of waste management activities on waste prevention followed by re-use and recycling. Waste that still has to be disposed off should preferably be incinerated with energy recovery. Only if no other possibility remains waste may be landfilled.

The Flemish region strictly adheres to the principle of self-sufficiency with regard to final disposal.

 

VLAREA, 5 dec 2003 (B.S. 30.04.04): Order of the Flemish government for the establishment of the Flemish regulations relating to waste prevention and management.

This is the implementing of the Decree of 2 July 1981 concerning the Prevention and Management of Waste-materials. It contains general provisions (definitions, waste materials list), the acceptance obligation, the use of wastes as secondary raw materials, environmental taxes,…

(http://www.emis.vito.be/wet_ENG_navigator/Vlarea04-index.htm)

 

MIRA ('Milieurapport') is the State of the Environment Report (SOER) on the Flemish Region of Belgium. The Decree of General Regulations on Environment Policy of April 5, 1995 defines three tasks for MIRA. Each task is reported on separately:

·         Description, analysis and assessment of the actual environmental state:

MIRA-T report(T=themes)

·         Description, analysis and assessment of the actual environment policy:

MIRA-PE report (PE=policy evaluation)

·     Description of the expected environmental development in case of both unchanged and alternative policy, according to a number of relevant scenarios:

      MIRA-S report(S=scenario's)

 

In the MIRA-T 2007 Indicator report (p 106-109) you can find an overview of the quantities of waste (municipal and industrial), the processing and conclusions about it (1992-2005). Each indicator in the report (for waste: the quantity and the processing) is checked for compliance with the objectives of the policy (MINA plan 3).

 

MIRA-BE 2007 Policy evaluation gives an overview of policy evaluations published between 01.06.05 and 30.06.07 (about the environment).  One of them concerns the evaluation of the waste prevention policy of the Flemish Region.

(http://www.hiva.be/per_onderzoeksproject_en.phpωid=2212) and (www.environmentflanders.be)

In the Flemish region several Waste Management Plans (WMP’s) are used. WMP’s refer to concrete projects, prevention-orientated, recovery and waste disposal or to specific waste categories.They are necessary as a frame of reference for the waste policy.

Furthermore, the WMP’s in the Flemish region provide substantially more information than required by the current Waste Frame Directive: they give a general framework for the waste policy and are a point of reference for policy makers, waste collectors, waste processors and other interested parties.

Overview of the current Sectoral Implementation Plans in Flanders

Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible material and waste management in construction (2007-2010)

Implementation Plan for Biological Waste 2000

Implementation Plan for High-calory Waste 2004

Implementation Plan for Sludge 2002

Implementation Plan for Woodwaste 2004

Implementation Plan for Separate Collection of …Waste

Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible household waste management 2008-2015

Implementation Plan for Dredging Spoils: design

 

The new Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible household waste management 2008-2015 contains the following objectives:

·         Objective 1: adopt consumption habits that are more environmentally responsible.

·         Objective 2: produce less waste, even though we may be using identical quantities of materials. On an annual basis, the goal is to produce only as much waste as we did in the year 2000: in other words, maximum 560 kilograms per person.

·         Objective 3: on average, at the Flemish level, produce no more than 150 kilograms of residual waste a year per person. At the municipal level, the goal is to achieve a maximum of 180 kilograms per person by 2010.

·         Objective 4: the final treatment of waste is carried out in accordance with the principles of ‘Best Available Techniques’ (BAT).

Regional Regulations

Reference* (if available)

Landfill

Besluit van de Vlaamse Regering houdende de algemene en sectorale bepalingen inzake milieuhygiëne, zoals herhaaldelijk gewijzigd en meer specifiek bij besluit van de Vlaamse Regering van 12.05.06 (B.S. 30.06.06)

Incineration

Besluit van de Vlaamse Regering houdende de algemene en sectorale bepalingen inzake milieuhygiëne, zoals herhaaldelijk gewijzigd en meer specifiek bij besluit van de Vlaamse Regering van 12.12.03 (B.S. 13.02.04)

BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)

Besluit van de Vlaamse regering tot vaststelling van het Vlaams reglement inzake afvalvoorkoming en –beheer 05.12.03. (B.S.30.04.04)

Construction/demolition waste

Besluit van de Vlaamse regering tot vaststelling van het Vlaams reglement inzake afvalvoorkoming en –beheer, 05.12.03. (B.S.30.04.04)

Walloonia

The Walloon waste management plan defines targets for the prevention, composting, recycling and landfilling of industrial and municipal waste, respectively and specifies instruments which should support the achievement of these targets.

Regional Regulations

Reference* (if available)

Landfill

Wallonische Regierung (2003). Erlass zur Festlegung der sektorbezogenen Betriebsbedingungen der technischen Vergrabungszentren (Deponieverordnung), 27.02.2003. Moniteur Belge 13.03.2003

Wallonische Regierung (2004). Erlass zur Untersagung der Zuweisung bestimmter Abfälle in technischen Vergrabungszentren (Deponieverbotsverordnung), 18.03.2004. Moniteur Belge 04.05.2004

Incineration

Wallonische Regierung (2003). Erlass über die sektorbezogenen Bedingungen im Bereich der Abfallverbrennungs- oder –mitverbrennungsanlagen 27.02.2004. Moniteur Belge 14.03.2003

BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)

Wallonische Regierung (2004). Erlass zur Untersagung der Zuweisung bestimmter Abfälle in technischen Vergrabungszentren (Deponieverbotsverordnung), 18.03.2004. Moniteur Belge 04.05.2004

Brussels Capital Region

Brussels Environment is the public organism responsible for the elaboration, the control and the organisation of the regional prevention and management waste plan. It is also responsible of the control and application of the waste legislation.

In general Brussels sticks to the European waste hierarchy and lays its focus of waste management activities on waste prevention followed by re-use and recycling. Waste that still has to be disposed off should preferably be incinerated. Only if no other possibility remains may waste be landfilled. But there is no disposal of landfilling in the Brussels Capital Region. The waste produced on the Brussels territory that must be landfilled are first exported to Wallonia or Flanders.

Regional Regulations

Reference* (if available)

Landfill

Arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale concernant la mise en décharge des déchets, 18/04/2002 (MB 17/05/02)

Incineration

Arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale relatif à l'incinération des déchets, 21/11/2002 (MB 20/02/2003)

BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)

There is no regulation in the BCR over BMW

Construction/demolition waste

Arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale relatif au recyclage obligatoire de certains déchets de construction ou de démolition 16/03/95. (MB.06/05/1995)

3. Waste management plans

no information

3.1 National plan

Waste management plans only cover the regions (see following chapter on regional waste management plans).

 

3.2 Regional plans

Flanders

Period of implementation

Main features

2007

·         In the MIRA-T 2007 Indicator report (p 106-109) you can find (for waste) an overview of the quantities of waste (municipal and industrial), the processing and conclusions about it (1992-2005). Each indicator in the report (for waste: the quantity and the processing) is checked whether of not it is in compliance with the objectives of the policy (MINA plan 3).

2007-2010

·         Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible material and waste management in construction

2000 

 

·         Implementation Plan for Biological Waste (valid until new plan)

2004

·         Implementation Plan for High-calory Waste (valid until new plan)

2002

·         Implementation Plan for Sludge (valid until new plan)

2004

·         Implementation Plan for Woodwaste (valid until new plan)

Under design

·         Implementation Plan for Dredging Spoils

2008-2015

·         Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible household waste management

2000

·         Implementation Plan for Separate Collection of commercial waste of small enterprises (valid until new plan)

Walloonia

Period of implementation

Main features

1998-2010

In 1998 a Waste Management Plan was presented which is valid up to the year 2010 (Ministre de l’environnement, des resources naturelles et de l’agriculture pour la Region Wallone (1998). Horizon 2010 - Plan wallon des dechets. Namur, Belgium). In this plan a detailed analysis for industrial, municipal and hazardous waste is presented as well as an analysis of 29 distinct waste streams.

The waste management plan defines targets for the prevention, composting, recycling and landfilling of industrial and municipal waste respectively and specifies instruments which should support the achievement of these targets.

BCR

Period of implementation

Main features

2003-2007

·         Third waste prevention and management plan. Focused on dematerialisation and reuse.

2009 – 2014 (quinquennial revision)

to be approved

·         Fourth waste prevention and management plan (should be approved by the Government by mid April 2009).

·         Objectives : reinforcement an quantification of undertaken actions

o        Continuation of actions concerning household  waste

o        Increase of actions concerning household assimilated waste

o        Initiatives over industrial, specific and hazardous waste

4. Waste prevention for Belgium

4.1. Objectives

Flemish region

Prevention of waste is the main objective. OVAM develops and supports waste prevention initiatives. By way of awareness and incentive programmes for firms, recommendations to local authorities, convenants with specific target groups, legal obligations and exchange of experience programmes, consumers as well as manufacturers are made aware of the problem and obliged to prevent waste.

We aim to:

Waste prevention in BCR is defined in Regional Waste Prevention and Management Plans.

The fourth one will be approved shortly and reinforces the idea of dematerialisation initiated in the third one.

4.2. Targets

Flemish region

BCR

The fourth Regional Waste Prevention and Management Plan aims measurable prevention targets of numerous waste streams, for 2020 :

 

-           Reduction of 5kg/inhab/year of food waste

-           Reduction of 6 kg/inhab/year of household paper waste

-           Reduction of 10 kg/inhab/year of household superfluous packing

-           Reduction of 1 kg/inhab/an of disposable nappy

-           Reduction of 12 kg/inhab/year of garden green waste

-           Increase of 10% recycling rate of bulky waste

-           Increase of 50% of selective collection of municipal waste

-           Reduction of 17 kg/worker/year of paper waste

-           Reduction of 14 kg/worker/year of food waste

-           Reduction of 4 kg/worker/year of superfluous packing

-           Reduction of 2,5 kg/pupil/year of paper waste

-           Reduction of 3 kg/pupil/year of food waste

-           Reduction of 1 kg/pupil/year of superfluous packing

-           Reduction of 10% of industrial waste production

-           Recycling of 50% industrial waste

-           Recycling of 90% of construction and demolition waste

 

 

4.3. Strategy

Flemish region:

General rules for waste prevention are set in the Waste Decree of 1981. This legislation authorises the Minister of Environment to adopt decisions (e.g. the VLAREA) containing following waste prevention measures:

Most of them are based on EU legislation. Another decision focusses on the prevention of emissions (the VLAREM).

The goals of these decisions are worked out in more practical action plans. The authority develops these plans (the plan Environmentally Responsible Household Waste Management;  the plan on household waste; the plan Environmentally Sound Material Use and Waste Management in the Building Trade, etc. see page 6) which contain specific prevention and recycling targets.

As well as a focus on waste, we also developed a materials policy. We want to contribute to:

The political strategy of waste prevention in Brussels (waste hierarchy, objectives) was historically based on voluntary instruments such as pedagogic tools, communication campaigns, formation, etc. The 4th Regional Waste Prevention and Management Plan provides furthermore economical and regulation instruments such as:

4.4. Policy instruments

4.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Overview

no information

Bans

Regulatory instrument
Titlemercury and cadmium
Waste streamBatteries, Accumulators
Year1997
Legal documentArrêté royal relatif aux piles et accumulateurs contenant certaines matières dangereuses (17/05/1997)
Regulatory instrument
TitleLead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamELV
Year2004
Legal documentArrêté royal portant normes de produit de véhicules (19/03/2004)
Regulatory instrument
TitleLead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, PBB, PBDE
Waste streamWEEE
Year2004
Legal documentArrêté royal relatif à la prévention des substances dangereuses dans les équipements électriques et électroniques (12/10/2004)
Regulatory instrument
TitleLead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium
Waste streamPackaging waste
Year1999
Legal documentArrêté royal portant fixation de normes de produits pour les emballages (25/03/2004)

Other instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleFlemish Region - Reuse
ScopeWEEE
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionCollected WEEE must be sorted into a reusable fraction and in a fraction that has to be recycled.
ImplementationVLAREA (BS 30/04/04)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleFlemish region - Reuse
ScopeELVs
Year2002
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionCar producers and importers have to reuse reusable components of ELVs as far as possible.
ImplementationVLAREA
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleBCR - Eco Design
Scopepackaging waste
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description-Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum.
-Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationAccord de coopération concernant la prévention et la gestion des déchets d'emballages (4/11/2008)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleBCR - Eco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
DescriptionProducers make an annual environmental convention where prevention measures are developed.
Waste Prevention concerns :
?-Improvement of recycling abilities
?-Limit hazardous products in the materials
ImplementationArrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale modifiant, en ce qui concerne les déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques, l'arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale du 18 juillet 2002 instaurant une obligation de reprise de certains déchets en vue de leur valorisation ou de leur élimination. (3/12/2004)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Title BCR - Eco Design
ScopeELV
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,
- Consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,
- Increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationArrêté royal portant normes de produit de véhicules (09/05/2004)Arrêté relatif à la gestion des véhicules hors d'usage (25/05/2004)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Title Flemish Region - Eco Design
Scopepackaging waste
Year2008
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description-Volume and weight of packaging has to be reduced to the minimum
-Packaging has to be designed, produced and distributed in a way that reuse and recovery are possible
ImplementationB.S.29/12/08
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Title Flemish Region - Eco Design
Scopebatteries
Year2009
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionencourage the use of rechargeable batteries
ImplementationVlarea (not yet published)
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Title Flemish Region - Eco Design
ScopeWEEE
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- EEE have to be designed in a way that disassembling and recovery, especially reuse and recycling of end of life products, its components and materials are considered and facilitated.
- Construction and production must not interfere with reusability
ImplementationSee table above
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
Title Flemish Region - Eco Design
ScopeELVs
Year2004
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Description- Limit use of hazardous substances in cars,
- Consider recovery of materials when designing and producing cars,
- Increased use of secondary raw materials
ImplementationSee table above
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

4.4.2. Market-based instruments

Overview

Flemish region:

BCR:

There are no taxes, charges, fees or deposit refund schemes for waste in BCR.

4.4.3. Information-based instruments

Overview

Information based instruments, based on EU legislation

Flemish region

Information

Target group

Waste stream

Year of introduction (amendm.)

Legal document

-    Capacity (life span of products)

-    Content of heavy metals in batteries

-    the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators

Final consumer

Batteries, Ac­cumula­tors

2009

Vlarea (version of Vlarea which is not yet published)

Waste prevention and waste management aspects (e.g. ecodesign)

Final consumer

ELV

2004

See Royal decree in the tabel above

Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery

Disassembling companies

ELV

2004

VLAREA, BS 30/04/2004

 

BCR

Information

Target group

Waste stream

Year of introduction (amendm.)

Legal document

The producer has to mention the presence of heavy metal on the product

Final consumer

Batteries, Ac­cumula­tors

1997Arrêté royal relatif aux piles et accumulateurs contenant certaines matières dangereuses (19/03/1997)

Use of component and material coding standards, in particular to facilitate the identification of those components and materials, suitable for reuse and recovery

Disassembling companies

ELV

2004

Arrêté relatif à la gestion des véhicules hors d'usage (25/05/2004)

Information about selective collection

Information about potential effect on environment and public health of hazardous products present in WEEE
Signification of symbol on the product

Final consumer

WEEE

2004

Arrêté royal relatif à la prévention des substances dangereuses dans les équipements électriques et électroniques (12/10/2004)

4.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Overview

In the Flemish region, we have environmental agreements for several waste streams such as waste oils (technical oils and used cooking oils),portable and automotive batteries, WEEE, car tyres, advertising leaflets, medicins, ELV, photochemicals,etc. In these agreements prevention is mentioned.

Other instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleBCR Take Back Obligation
Scopeo Batteries and accumulators
o Tyres
o Paper
o Medicine
o End-of Life Vehicles
o Waste of electric and electronic equipment and lamps
o Waste (food) oil
o Photo waste
o Packing

Brussels (similar system in Wallonia and Flanders, except photo waste)
Year1996
Transition period-
ObjectivesReduction of waste arising. Application of the extended producer responsibility to the listed waste streams
TargetsConventions are actually under discussion, the old rates are however given as indication. Only the rates for tyres and old medicines are still available;

Batteries and accumulators : 10% decrease of weight of used batteries and accumulators which were not separately collected
Tyres : 100 % of collection rate; 25 % of retread rate ; 20 % of recycling rate and 55% of energetic valorisation
Paper : 80 % of recycling rate
Medicine : no measurable target
End-of-Life vehicles : 85% of recycling rate
WEEE and lamps : 90% of recycling/reuse rate for large equipment and 70% for others
Waste (food) oil : 95 % of collection rate
Photwaste : no measurable target
Packing : global minimal percentage (% of weight compared to total lost waste weight put on the belgian market are those) :
- for households wastes : 80 % of recycling and 90% of valorisation (included energetic valorisation)
- for industrial wastes : 75 % of recycling and 80% of valorisation (80%, 85% from 2010)
The following minimum percentages have to be achieved :
- 60 % in weight for glass;
- 60 % in weight for paper/carton;
- 60 % in weight for drinking carton;
- 50 % in weight for metals;
- 30 % in weight for plastic (taking into account only materials recycled to plastics);
- 15 % in weight for wood.
DescriptionRetailers of the mentioned products have an obligation to take them back
Implementation
Result
Voluntary instrument
TitleFlemish region: take back obligations
Scopeo Batteries and accumulators
o Tyres
o Paper
o Medicine
o End-of Life Vehicles
o Waste of electric and electronic equipment and lamps
o Waste oils (technical oils and used cooking oils)
o Photo waste
Year2002
Transition period-
ObjectivesReduction of waste arising. Introduction of producer responsibility
TargetsRetailers of the mentioned products have an obligation to take them back
Description
Implementation
Result
Voluntary instrument
TitleThe BCR has developed its own management label : le “label entreprise éco-dynamique”. The aim is to provide one, two or three stars to the enterprise related to its environmental management. The stars are given after examination of several subjects, included waste prevention and management
ScopeThe evaluation of the environmental management concerns under other the waste management of the enterprise.
YearThe
Transition periodNo transition period was needed
ObjectivesThe enterprises receives labels after the evaluation of the environmental management. This label offers a good visibility and a brand image for the enterprise and the diagnosis made during evaluation helps the enterprise in its environmental performances.
TargetsWaste prevention and management measures are assessed
DescriptionThe label delivery is organised in 5 steps :
- Engagement of the enterprise
- Free support
- Introduction of candidature file
- Checking on-site
- Deliberation of the jury
ImplementationIts is a voluntary instrument, based on a regulation : Règlement label “enterprise écodynamique”, 1999
ResultTo achieve its label, the responsible of the enterprise develops a high waste management performance. In 2008, about 80 enterprises obtained an “éco-label”.
Voluntary instrument
TitleWalloon region: take back obligation
Scope
Year
Transition period2002-2003
ObjectivesReduction of waste arising. Introduction of producer responsibility
TargetsRegion Walloonia
Retailers
DescriptionRetailers of the following products have an obligation to take them back:

o Batteries and accumulators

o Tyres

o Paper

o Medicine

o End-of Life Vehicles

o Waste of electric and electronic equipment and lamps

o Waste (food) oil

o Photo waste
ImplementationConseil regional Wallon (2001).

Minister de la Region Walonne (2002).

Office Wallon des Dechets, et al. (2001).

Wallonische Regierung, et al. (2004).
Result

4.5 Waste prevention examples

Flemish region

There are scores of actions aimed at preventing waste. OVAM supports or has taken the initiative with:

 

5. Construction and Demolition Waste for Belgium

5.1. Objectives

The BCR's objectives for construction and demolition waste are developed in the 4th Regional Plan of Waste Prevention and Management. The general idea is to achieve a high recycling rate and to minimise the impacts of this type of waste during the entire period of life of the building (from its construction to its demolition including its occupation).

 

Flanders:

The main guiding objective (long period) is decoupling economic growth (living and construction) and the environmentally pressure due to material use in the building trade.

For 2007-2010 special attention is given to an integrated materials policy so even more reuse is possible.

5.2. Targets

Flanders and BCR: Recycling rate for C&D waste has to reach 90%.

 

Flanders:

Performance requirements for material use in the building trade are in development (project 1 implementation plan, see further).

5.3. Strategy

BCR

The 4th Regional Plan of Waste Prevention and Management foresees different measures about construction and demolition waste as following :

 

Flanders:

The sectoral implementation plan ‘Environmentally sound material use and waste management in the building trade’ (D/2007/5024/70, October 2007) describes the policy planning for the management of materials and waste in the Flemish building trade for the period 2007-2010. It contains 5 projects:

5.4. Policy instruments

5.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
Titleno information
ScopeBCR
The « Arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale relatif au recyclage obligatoire de certains déchets de construction ou de demolition » (06/05/1995) foresees compulsory recycling of some construction and demolition waste.
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleFlanders :
ScopeHazardous materials
Flanders
YearAim
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesSelective demolition so hazardous materials are separated at the source. Professionalize the selective demolition sector. Give confidence to sponsors.
Targetsno information
DescriptionAn architect or an expert has to draw up a scrapping inventory (where one has to declare which waste will come free by demolition) for the demolition contract for the demolition of buildings bigger than 1000 m³.
ImplementationVLAREA.
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleFlanders
ScopeDebris granules - flanders
YearUlti
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesDevelopment of a global management system for debris granules; Permanent protection of the quality and the traceability of both the input of the waste in the crushing plants as the output of the debris granules as secondary raw material
Targetsno information
DescriptionThe global management system gives the terms how the production of debris granules has to be done.
ImplementationVLAREA.
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleFlanders
ScopeRecycled granules from construction and demolition waste
Year1998
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesAssure the environmental hygienic features of recycled debris granules (f.e. a restriction of physical contaminations like synthetics, wood, paper, glass, gypsum) and so stimulate the sale of recycled granules.
TargetsChemical limit values for recycled construction materials
DescriptionCOPRO/Quarea inspection: all inert granules and asphalt granulates that one wants to reuse has to be inspected
ImplementationVLAREA
ResultThe amount of inspected granules increases. See figure below: the evolution of the amount of certified granules.
The increase from 2004 to 2005 is due to the mobile crushers: before 2005 the granules they produced were seen as material and not as waste.
Nowadays granules without certificate have problems with his sale.

Additional info

The evolution of the amount of certified granules.




5.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleFlanders: levies
ScopeDemolition waste
Flanders
Year1991
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesLess incineration and landfilling, more recycling.
Targetsno information
DescriptionA tax on incineration and landfilling such that recycling (without tax) becomes cheaper then incineration or landfilling (with tax).
ImplementationWaste Decree chapter 9
Resultno information

5.4.3. Information-based instruments

Information-based instrument
Titleno information
ScopeBCR
Brussels Environment edits manuals and specification sheets about construction waste and demolition waste but there is no obligation of information.
Yearno i
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targetsno information
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
Resultno information
Information-based instrument
TitleFlanders: guidelines
ScopeMaterials in the construction sector.
Flanders
YearStil
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesEnvironmentally sound material use in the building trade.
Targetsno information
DescriptionA tool that defines the environmental impact of construction products based on EPD’s taking into account the application of the product. This tool can be used by architects and builders to inform their clients about the advantages of certain materials for certain applications.
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

5.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Additional info

There is no voluntary instrument or agreement in the BCR on construction and demolition waste. But the BCR was involved in two European projects (Appricod and Irma) on deconstruction and demolition waste. Appricod aimed to evaluate recycling potential of plastic in c&d waste and Irma aimed to identify contaminated materials and method of separating them from recyclable fraction during the demolition phase.

 

Actually, Brussels Environment supports projects of reuse of construction and demolition waste (evaluation of potential materials and potential market).

 

No voluntary instruments in Flanders.

6. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Belgium

6.1. Objectives

In Flanders the policy is based on three pillars:

-composting at home for those who have the space and want to;

-separate collection of VFG waste;

-separate collection of green waste.

In Flanders municipalities can choose the solution they prefer; consequently, there are VFG regions and green regions.

 

The aim is to motivate as much people as possible to compost at home. In combination with the selective collection of VFG-waste and greenwaste, we avoid biodegradable waste going into the waste bin.

 

6.2. Targets

Flemish region

The new Implementation Plan for environmentally responsible household waste management 2008-2015  contains several targets:

·         On average, at the Flemish level, produce no more than 150 kilograms of residual waste a year per person. At the municipal level, the goal is to achieve a maximum of 180 kilograms per person by 2010.

·         2010: selective collection of VFG-waste to the amount of  56%

·         2010: selective collection of greenwaste to the amount of 87%

·         2010: selective collection of recyclable paper to the amount of 88%

·         2010: selective collection of paper and cardboard packaging to the amount of 85%

 

The 4th Brussels Waste Prevention and Management Plan foresees the following objectives in the next 10 years:

·        Reduction of 12 kg/inhab/year of garden green waste

·        Reduction of 3 kg/pupil/year of food waste

·        Reduction of 14 kg/worker/year of food waste

 

6.3. Strategy

The Flemish Region already exceeds the last reduction target set in directive 1999/31/EC (that is -65 % of biodegradable wastes going to landfills).

In order to reduce the amount of municipal waste to be landfilled or incinerated the Flemish Ministry of the Environment and OVAM initiated the selective collection of several waste streams in the early 1990s, obliged by VLAREA. They started with enforcing separate collection and composting of VFG (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) and green waste. Nowadays different waste streams such as paper and cardboard have to be collected separately .

In 2007 310,000 tonnes (82 kg/served inhabitant/year) of VFG-waste (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) and 508,000 tonnes (81 kg/served inhabitant/year) of green waste were collected separately.

85% of paper and cardboard are collected separately.

The Flemish Waste Management Plan provides for further reductions by banning the landfilling of some wastes, such as unsorted household waste, waste collected for recovery and the combustible fraction (with a TOC of more than 6 %).

Additionally, levies have to be paid for the incineration and landfilling of waste.

 

The Walloon Region plans to reach the targets by setting targets for the reduction of the generation of municipal waste, for the overall recovery of waste and for recycling. Separate collection of organic waste is foreseen on a voluntary basis. New installations for bio-methanisation, composting and energy recovery need to be created.

 

In Brussels, we assess a BMW production of 80 000 t (30 000 t of green waste and 50 000 of kitchen waste). The BCR supports decentralised compost and organises green waste collection in green neighbourhoods. There is a central compost unit which capacity is about 20 000 t/year and the 4th Regional Waste Prevention and Management Plan foresees the construction of a biomethanisation unit of 40 000 t/year.

 

6.4. Policy instruments

6.4.1. Regulatory instruments

Regulatory instrument
TitleFlanders-Ban on landfilling
ScopeUntreated residual waste, containing a part of biodegradable waste
Year2005
Transition period-no information
ObjectivesForbidden to landfill any amount of untreated residual waste (containing biodegradable household waste). Only waste which cannot be incinerated may be landfilled. Incentive for waste prevention, reduction of effects on the environment and efficient use of resources. Incentive for recycling of waste.
TargetsReduction on waste to be landfilled.
Residual household waste should not be more than 150 kg/cap.
DescriptionFor residual waste an environmental tax of EUR 7.41 to EUR 79.36/t applies (2009), with the highest rates for combustible waste to be landfilled.
Implementationno information
ResultObjectives of the landfill directive are met.
Regulatory instrument
TitleBan on landfilling – Walloonia
ScopeFor covered waste streams see description of the instrument.
Walloonia
Year2004
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesReduction on waste to be landfilled
Targetso Minus 76 % of municipal waste to be landfilled from 2000 to 2010
o Minus 72 % of industrial waste to be landfilled from 2000 to 2010
DescriptionTime schedule for waste types which may not be landfilled any more:
o Ban of landfill before 1 July 2004:
o Liquid waste and waste which cannot be formed to pellets
o Hazardous waste with certain properties, PCBs, asbestos, batteries and accumulators
o Certain clinical waste and animal waste
o Whole tyres
o Waste from the selective collection from households including compostable waste
o Certain metal waste
o Certain sewage sludge
o Certain waste from electric and electronic equipment
o Ban of landfill from 1 July 2004:
o Packaging, textile and medicinal waste
o Ban of landfill from 1 January 2006:
o Residues from metal shredders
o End-of-life vehicles and shreddered tyres
o Certain inert waste (primarily construction and demolition waste)
o Slag (e.g. from waste incineration)
o Ban of landfill from 1 January 2007:
o Plastic waste
o Paper and cardboard
o Certain waste from electric and electronic equipment
o Slag (e.g. from metal industry)
o Sewage sludge
o Ban of landfill from 1 January 2008:
o Dust from iron/steel production
o Residual household waste and not shredded bulky waste
o Clinical waste
o Ban of landfill from 1 January 2009:
o Foundry sands
o Ban of landfill from 1 January 2010:
o All bulky waste
Biodegradable waste
Implementationno information
Resultno information
Regulatory instrument
TitleSeparate collection of waste streams – Flanders
Scope? Paper and cardboard
? Wood waste
? VFG waste (Vegetable, fruit and garden waste)
? Green Waste
? Glass
? Plastic bottles and flasks, metal packaging and drink cartons
? Other Metals
? Textile waste
? Construction and demolition waste
? Car tyres, glass slabs, waste electric and electronic equipment, animal waste, medicines, small hazardous waste, used oil from cars and used oil from restaurants and reusable waste collected by the reuse centres.
YearSinc
Transition periodno information
Objectivesno information
Targets• To reduce arising of residual household waste (max 150 kg/cap/year).
• To achieve 75 % share of separately collected household waste starting from 2010
Descriptionno information
Implementationno information
ResultShare of separately collected household waste is already 71.1 % in 2006
Regulatory instrument
TitleFlanders - Take Back Obligation
ScopeUsed cooking fats and oils
Year2002
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesReduction of waste arising. Introduction of producer responsibility
Targetsno information
DescriptionThere is a take back obligation for several waste streams(see part on prevention): waste cooking fats and oils are one of them.
Retailers of the mentioned products have an obligation to take them back.
ImplementationValorfrit npo (representing producers and retailers) is responsible for the implementation.
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.2. Market-based instruments

Market-based instrument
TitleEnvironmental tax on residual waste - Flanders
ScopeHousehold and industrial waste: landfilling and incineration
Year1990
Transition periodNo
ObjectivesReduction of waste arisings. Reduction of waste on landfills
Targetsno information
DescriptionWaste disposal levy (to be paid to OVAM) 2009:
79.36 Eur/t combustible waste for landfilling
42.33 Eur/t not-combustible waste for landfilling
11.64 Eur/t inert waste for landfilling
7.41 Euro/t for incineration and co-incineration
Implementationno information
Resultno information

Additional info

no information

6.4.3. Information-based instruments

Additional info

Flanders

VLACO npo, the Flemish Compost Organisation, has a separate division on home composting.

They inform the public on home composting via their website (www.thuiscomposteren.be), information campaigns in the press and technical brochures and sheets. Volunteers, the ‘compost masters’ give demonstrations and explanation to the public on the composting process.

‘Smart gardening’ is another issue they inform the public about.

 

Information on the separate collection of VFG-waste and green waste is provided via the inter municipalities.

 

Brussels Environment is active in promoting decentralised composting and provides for manuals and specification/technical sheets/brochures on composting

6.4.4. Voluntary instruments

Voluntary instrument
TitleVoluntary agreements Flanders - A voluntary instrument developed by Flanders is the “composting master” network (compostmeesters)
ScopeBiodegradable household waste waste
YearThe
Transition periodno information
ObjectivesIncrease the amount of biodegradable household waste that is composted at home; thus avoiding that the biodegradable household waste ends up in the waste bin, or collected separately
TargetsTo motivate volunteers to learn the public how to compost at home.
DescriptionThe training contains of three steps: a course on composting, a training period and a specific course for composting masters.
ImplementationStarted by ‘Comité Jean Pain’ in 1994
VLACO npo took it over in 1998
ResultIn 2008, there were ?2500 composting-masters in Flanders
Voluntary instrument
TitleA voluntary instrument developed by the BCR is the “composting master” network (“réseau des maîtres-composteurs”).
ScopeWaste streams covered by this measure are biodegradable municipal wastes.
YearThe
Transition periodThere is no need of transition period
ObjectivesThe objective of this service is to increase household composting of biodegradable waste.
TargetsThe training of composting-master is open to any Brussels citizen and aims to reduce households waste production.
DescriptionThe training includes 9 sessions after which the composting-master is able to diffuse his knowledge and promote composting in the population through local contacts.
ImplementationThe training is organised by a partnership between the regional administration and a local environment association.
ResultIn 2008, there were 350 composting-masters in Brussels

Additional info

no information

Results

Biodegradable municipal waste

Flemish region

The 2016 target of the Landfill Directive to divert BMW away from landfills has already been met.

Year

Total Biode-gradable municipal waste

1995

3.397.080 ton

 

Year

Total Biode-gradable municipal waste going to landfills

2003

584.115 ton

2004

39.576 ton

2005

27.024 ton

2006

7.202 ton

 

Year

Total Biode-gradable other waste (industrial) going to landfills

Paper/
paperboard

Wood

Animal/
vegetal

Urban Sludge

2003

21.249 ton

118 ton

3.601 ton

16.348 ton

1.182 ton

2004

5.950 ton

294 ton

1.332 ton

4.324 ton

0 ton

2005

6.604 ton

165 ton

288 ton

6.134 ton

17 ton

2006

4.828 ton

213 ton

1.783 ton

2.828

n.a.

Construction and demolition waste

BCR achieves a recycling rate of construction and demolition waste of 80%.

 

 

Flanders achieves a high degree of recovery of construction and demolition waste (over 85%, principally material reuse) and hereby the repressing of landfilling.

Table 1illustrates that the use of recyled granules coming from construction and demolition waste increases. These recycled granules replace primary surface quarrying and are used as construction sand, grit and others.

Recyled granules (ton)

2002

2005

2007

 

 

 

 

concrete aggregates

1.826.400

2.324.000

2.761.000

mix granulated rubble

1.484.800

2.023.000

3.203.000

masonry debris granules

 

363.806

529.000

asphalt debris granules

676.000

 

521.000

 

 

 

 

sieve sand

900.000

1.010.000

1.846.000

sieve sand asphalt debris

 

 

31.000

crushing sand concrete

465.600

581.000

690.000

crushing sand mixed debris

280.000

385.000

610.000

 

 

 

 

rest

0

259.000

263.000

 

 

 

 

Total reuse

5.670.000

7.234.000

10.454.042

Table 1: Use of recycled granules coming from construction and demoliton waste

Waste prevention



Flemish region

Industrial waste Flanders

 

KT

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

TOTAL

29.249,0

28.975,6

26.912,9

28.876,9

27.047,6

33.536,5

34.687,1

Temporary storage

289,3

241,5

142,8

263,8

 

 

 

Pre-treatment

9.391,8

10.184,0

10.099,2

11.194,8

8.909,3

17.684,6

16.854,0

Secundary raw material

6.811,5

5.406,8

4.647,5

4.069,5

4.305,4

6.432,2

7.592,5

Recycling

8.575,0

8.778,1

8.086,5

9.231,2

9.527,3

5.844,5

6.291,2

Incineration

1.218,5

1.309,0

1.619,4

1.779,2

1.345,2

1.984,9

1.888,6

Landfilling

2.962,9

3.056,4

2.317,6

2.338,3

2.960,4

1.590,2

2.060,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-hazardous

28.222,0

27.719,7

25.873,0

27.730,4

24.250,7

30.734,6

31.980,6

Hazardous

1.027,0

1.255,9

1.039,9

1.146,5

2.796,9

2.801,9

2.706,5

7. Bibliography

8. Country links to national waste information