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Italy

  1. General facts
  2. National legislative framework
  3. National policies on waste
  4. Instruments
  5. Data on waste management
  6. National legislation on waste (selected)
  7. Competent Authorities
  8. Bibliography

1. General facts

General facts
Surface area 301336 Km²
Population (tousand inhabitans) 57321
Population density 191 inhabitants/Km²
Average number of persons per private
household*

2.6
Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants** 590
GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
Standards(PPS) EU25=100

103 (forecast)
GDP per capita (Constant prices) EUR 16946 (at 1995 and exchange rates)
Land use*** - % agriculture land
23% forests and other wooded land
- % buildt-up and related land
- % wet open land
- % dry open land
- % Water
Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
50% in densely populated areas(at least 500 inhab./Km²)
37% in intermediate urbanised areas(100 - 499 inhab./Km²)
13% in sparsely populated areas(less than 100 inhab./Km²)
Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
21% Industry, including energy
5% Construction
23% Trade, transport and communication services
28% Buisness activities and financial services
20% Other services
3% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from *2003; **EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***2000; ****1999

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2. National legislative framework

National acts/laws on waste management
Reference Main features
Legislative Decree n.152 of 3 April 2006 Environment Act, covers many environment sectors
Legislative Decree n.22 of 5 February 1997 National Waste framework Law, now abrogated by Decree 152/06, transposed three of the main EU directives on waste: the European Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC, as modified by Directive 91/156/EEC, the Directive on Hazardous Waste 91/689/EC and the Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste 94/62/EC. (details below)

2.1 Summary of the legislation relevant to waste management

National Waste framework Law
The national framework law on waste was issued in 1997 (Legislative Decree 22/97), transposing three of the main EU directives on waste:

Decree 22/97 implemented the integrated waste management policy set up by the European Waste Strategy, representing a reform in the waste management sector in Italy, through the promotion of clean technologies, Ecolabel, EMAS certification system, integrated networks of recovery and disposal facilities, voluntary agreements between public administrators and economic operators in order to create real opportunities for waste recycling.
According to decree 22/97 the waste management system is based on:

  1. Prevention of waste generation (to be developed in national and local waste plans)
  2. Material and energy recovery from waste

The decree established that permits for incineration plants should be granted only if the plant had an energy recovery system and that waste disposal must be reduced as much as possible. The issuing of decree 22/97 gave input to many actions for waste prevention and recycling in Italy, in particular in the field of packaging waste, where specific measures have been enacted by producers of packaging design and materials in order to favour re-use and recycling (CONAI system).
Negotiated agreements between public authorities and economic agents are the innovative tools introduced by decree 22/97 for the achievement of ambitious objectives fixed by the decree on prevention and recovery of waste. At national level some agreements concerning particularly significant waste streams have already been stipulated and others are in advanced phases of negotiation. At local level several agreements have been signed in the field of agricultural waste and construction & demolition waste. To improve prevention and recovery of municipal waste, decree 152/06 provides regulatory and fiscal tools, giving particular importance to voluntary agreements, as valuable instruments to fulfil the waste hierarchy.

Competent authorities:
Decree 22/97 also defined the responsibilities among the actors of the national waste management system.

Environment Act
Legislative decree n.152 of 3 April 2006 entered into force on 29 April 2006. It abrogates decree 22/97 but includes all the abovementioned provisions related to waste management, and introduces some changes in the waste management sector. This decree is actually under examination by a special commission of the new Italian government, with the aim of modifying some provisions.
From 1 January 2007 decree 152/06 will abolish the old tax on municipal waste paid by citizens to municipalities, calculated on the basis of floor area thus independent of the quantity of waste produced, and establishes a new municipal fee to implement the “polluter pays” principle. The new tariff on waste, based on a PAYT scheme, will be commensurate to the waste quantity actually produced and to the municipal cleaning service delivered by the municipality. The budget of municipal cleaning and waste collection service has to be progressively and completely covered by the tariff income. That will stimulate municipalities to develop an industrial accounting system of municipal waste management.
Decree 152/06 sets targets about the weight of separate collection of municipal waste in order to reach the following targets, to be achieved at ATO level:

In these figures must be included the organic fraction from Mechanical Biological Treatment sent to material or energy recovery.
Moreover, by transposing the Directive 2004/12/EC, it improves MSW separate collection and recovery, redesigning the packaging waste management system, on the basis of the “polluter pays” principle and the “shared responsibility” among all the actors involved in the packaging life cycle.
In order to achieve the recovery targets set by the Packaging Directive, the National Packaging Consortium (CONAI) has been established by Decree 22/97 with the aim to coordinate the activities of six material consortia for the recovery of aluminium, glass, paper, plastic, steel and wood. Environmental contributions are paid to CONAI by packaging producers and users in order to finance the management of waste deriving from their products. In order to enhance the separate collection of these waste streams at municipal level, CONAI in 1999 signed a 5 years agreement with the national association of Italian municipalities (ANCI). Thanks to such system there was a considerable increase in the collection of packaging waste and the all the recovery targets were fulfilled in 2002.
A waste information system has also been developed at national level, based on the National Waste Inventory, which was first established by law in 1994. Hazardous waste producers and all those who manage hazardous waste are obliged to report yearly to the National Waste Inventory about managed waste quantities and categories. The Inventory has its headquarters at Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente e per i servizi tecnici (APAT) and regional seats at ARPAs (the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies). All the bodies involved in the waste cycle (both hazardous and non-hazardous waste), shall report every year data about produced/managed waste by means of a compulsory questionnaire (MUD). National Inventory of Waste is actually to be considered as an implementation tool of the Regulation 2150/2002/EC on waste statistics.

National waste management plans
Period of implementation Main features
Italian National Strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills See section 3
Waste Management Plans pursuant to art. 7of Dir. 91/156 Regional waste management plans
Transposition of landfill and incineration directives
Transposition Act/Law/decree Year of transposition Text available
(Y/N)
Language
Landfill directive99/31 Legislative Decree n. 36 of 13 January 2003 2003 Y Italian
Landfill decision 2003/33 Ministerial Decree 13 March 2003 2003 Y Italian
Incineration directive 76/00 Legislative Decree n. 133 of 11 May 2005 2005 Y Italian

Landfill Directive and Landfill Decision:
In Italy the implementation of the Landfill Directive has been carried out with a big effort from all the actors involved, and it is showing promising results. The Italian legislation that transposes the Landfill Directive is very detailed and provides comprehensive technical annexes, aiming to harmonise the authorisation at local level.
During the authorisation request, it is necessary to include 5 plans that will be integrated in the permit:

  1. operational management plan
  2. closure and after-care procedures plan
  3. monitoring and control plan
  4. site-conditioning plan
  5. financial plan

Some problems have arisen in the implementation of the Landfill Decision 2003/33/EC, since it includes very strict limits as regards organic matter (TOC). Also, financial security represents a problem, since it is difficult to find financial coverage for 30 years; in order to face this problematic aspect the regional legislation allows 5 year plans.
Decree 36/03 reorganises the landfill system in Italy. In particular it establishes:

Decree 36/03 sets specific targets to be achieved at ATO (optimal management area) or provincial level based on the amount of biodegradable municipal waste per capita, considering also possible seasonal fluctuations of the inhabitants. The decree also provides precise standards and measures for the localisation of landfills and technical requirements for the geological barriers and membranes.
Moreover, decree 36/03 establishes specific prescriptions for the phases of construction, management, monitoring and closure of the landfill; the operator of a landfill shall carry out during the operational phase a control and monitoring programme. After a landfill has been definitely closed, the operator shall be responsible for its maintenance, monitoring and control in the after-care phase for as long as may be required by the competent authority, taking into account the time during which the landfill could present hazards.
With the Ministerial Decree 3 August 2005 (amended M.D. 13 March 2003) criteria and procedures for the acceptance at landfills are provided for on the basis of the leaching behaviour of waste.
Leaching limit values and acceptance procedures are set for each landfill class in compliance with Decision 03/33/EC.

Incineration Directive:
Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration has been transposed into national legislation through Legislative Decree no 133 of 11 May 2005. This decree establishes precise provisions for waste incineration and co-incineration and repeals the former decrees that regulated the sector: Ministerial Decree 503/1997, transposition of directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC, municipal waste and non hazardous waste incineration, and Ministerial Decree 124/2000, transposition of directive 94/67/EC dealing with hazardous waste.
The decree provides measures and procedures to prevent or reduce, as much as possible, negative effects of waste incineration on the environment, in particular the pollution of air, soil, surface and groundwater, and the resulting risks to human health. With this aim the decree sets up:

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3. National policies on waste

The Italian National Strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills:
According to art. 5 (1) of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/CE, Italy has developed a national strategy regarding the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. This strategy identifies the waste typologies to be considered as biowaste and defines the specific targets for the reduction (as set by decree 36/03), explaining how they were calculated on the basis of the 1995 waste production. It also describes the tools and the instruments to adopt in order to achieve the targets and briefly reports the results achieved in 2002.
Coherently with decree 36/03, the strategy explains that Regions shall plan a strategy in order to decrease the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfills. In art. 5 of decree 36/03 it is stated that within a year from the entry into force of the decree, all Regions have to elaborate and approve a proper programme for reducing the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfills, integrating the Regional Waste Management Plan as established by art. 22 of Legislative decree 22/97, in order to achieve specific targets at ATO level (Optimal Management Areas) or provincial level (if the ATO is not yet delimited).
The targets to be achieved are the following:

The strategy identifies the following instruments to be implemented in order to achieve the targets:

Separate collection of BMW, years 2002-2004
Year Food & garden waste Paper Wood packaging Bulky wood waste (*) Textiles Total BMW Separate Collection BMW rate of total separate collection
(1000*t) (1000*t) (1000*t) (1000*t) (1000*t) (1000*t) (1000*t) (%)
2002 1831.5 1689.0 208.6 113.9 54.0 3897.0 5739.0 67.9 %
2003 1895.1 1935.8 284.9 105.9 50.0 4271.7 6339.0 67.4 %
2004 2216.0 2153.8 280.7 197.1 56.5 4904.1 7066.8 69.4

(*) provisional data

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4. Instruments

In Italy many different instruments have been applied following Decree 22/97. The decree sets specific targets for separate collection of municipal waste enhancing MSW separate collection and redesigning the packaging waste management system on the basis of the “polluter pays” principle and “shared responsibility” among all the actors involved in the packaging life cycle.
Further economic instruments as the Environmental fees/Environmental contributions are paid by the producers for the management of waste deriving from their products (packaging, lead accumulators, mineral oils, polyethylene goods).
Decree 152/06 enhances and widely promotes voluntary agreements, which in recent years have been launched at national and regional level (e.g., packaging waste, telephone poles, collection and recovery of single-use cameras, recycling of C&D waste, agricultural waste).
For certain waste streams of particular relevance, the following Mandatory Consortia have been established:

These consortia are incorporated and non-profit associations, founded on the model of public/ private partnership that guarantees public interests with regard to protection of the environment through the collection and proper disposal of hazardous waste items and recovery of the raw materials contained in such items.

Kind of instrument Municipal Waste Tariff (Tariffa Rifiuti)
Year of introduction 2000, in experimental phase
Rate(s) Average cost per capita of the municipal waste management system: EUR 95.40
Purpose of instrument Development of separate collection, enhancing waste prevention and minimisation
Receiver Household, economic and commercial activities
Tax base Based on the effective number of the persons and the specific production coefficient of the activity
Revenue Not available on national basis
Administrative level Municipality/ATO
Source of information Legislative decree n.152 of 3 April 2006
Other information of relevance It is not yet implemented nationwide (747 municipalities in 2005)

Municipal Waste Tariff
Decree 22/97 (art. 49) radically modifies the tax on solid urban waste (TaRSU). According to decree 22/97, this tax will be gradually replaced by the Waste Tariff. The new Municipal Waste Tariff will be proportionate to the number of persons and to the quantity of waste actually produced and no longer to the floor area of the building, as the old tax. Furthermore it will be properly commensurate to the results of the separate collection achieved.
The new structure of the tariff includes:

One of the purposes of the introduction of the tariff is to enhance the reduction of the disposal of municipal waste and to comply with the separate collection targets set by decree 22/97 and the new ones set by Legislative decree n.152 of 3 April 2006.
Municipalities that do not reach the minimum will be forced to increase the tariff for waste destined to landfill. The new tariff system pushes the municipality’s administration to introduce a system of industrial accounting for the handling of waste, with the purpose of ensuring efficiency and practicality. At the moment the application of the tariff is in the implementation and development stage.

Kind of instrument Tax on Waste Disposal
Year of introduction 1996
Rate(s): Law 549/95 identified three categories of waste and established a tax level between a minimum and maximum for each of these waste categories as indicated below.
Waste typology: Tax level
Industrial waste from mining, extractive, building and metalworking sector activity EUR 1.03 - 10.33/ tonne
Other industrial waste EUR 5.16 - 10.33/ tonne
Other typologies of waste (i.e. municipal solid waste) EUR 10.33 - 25.82/ tonne
Waste incinerated without energy recovery; waste generated after treatment on recycling, recovery and composting plant; sewage sludge 20% of the tax
Purpose of instrument To tax the disposal (landfilling and incineration), the waste management option with greater environmental impact, and to give incentives to prevention and recycling
Receiver Landfills and incineration plants without energy recovery
Tax base The amount, expressed by weight, of waste disposed of in landfill or in incineration plants without energy recovery
Revenue n.a.
Administrative level Regional competent authorities
Source of information Law n. 549 of 28 December 1995
Other information of relevance Some Regions increase the tax where separate collection targets set by Decree 22/97 are not achieved.

Tax on waste disposal:
Law of 28 December 1995, n.549 (Financial law 1996) instituted a tax on disposal operations. The objectives are the prevention of waste production and the material and energy recovery from waste. The tax is calculated on the basis of the amount, expressed by weight, of the waste disposal at landfills or in incineration plants without energy recovery.
Law 549/95 identifies three categories of waste:

  1. industrial waste from the mining, extractive, building and metalworking sectors;
  2. other typologies of industrial waste;
  3. other typologies of waste (i.e. municipal waste).

The law also established a tax level between a minimum and maximum for each of these waste categories; for the first year (1996) the tax level was applied at the minimum level: this tax level is applied in every case in which the competent regional administration has not yet implemented a landfill tax. The tax revenue can be used by the local administration in order to finance environmental projects, such as:

  1. waste prevention;
  2. projects on recycling and recovery of materials and energy from waste;
  3. reclamation of contaminated sites and abandoned industrial sites;
  4. recovery of degraded sites;
  5. financing of the regional environmental protection agencies;
  6. institution and maintenance of protected natural areas.

Law 549/95 establishes that the detailed definition of the taxation is delegated to the competent regional administrations, which have the possibility to deliberate on three important elements:

  1. tax level,
  2. waste typologies on which to apply the tax,
  3. destination of use of the tax revenue.

Some Regions have established – through regional acts – an increase in the tax if the separate collection targets set by decree 22/97 are not achieved.

Kind of instrument Surcharges on purchase of certain goods (e.g. spent lead acid batteries)
Year of introduction 1988
Rate(s) For example, EUR 0.83 for a 55 Ah battery
Purpose of instrument To boost the collection and recycling system
Receiver Companies involved in the material chain
Revenue In the year 2002 the costs of COBAT (Mandatory Consortium for Spent Lead Batteries and Lead Waste) and the lead recycling system were EUR 24.6 million. These costs were covered by the battery surcharge (56%) and by revenues from selling recycled lead (44%).
Administrative level National
Source of information Law n. 475 of 9 November 1988
Other information of relevance Increase of 38% of spent lead acid batteries collected during 1992-2002, + 35% per capita collection rate (1992-2002); 183,422 tonnes of batteries collected (2002) with 102,716 (t) of lead and 8,600 (t) of polypropylene recovered; 30,000,000 (l) of sulphuric acid neutralized. The surcharge is an effective economic tool, in that it enables a total collection in every national region, regardless of the market value of lead collected.
Over 15,000,000 lead acid batteries picked up per year.
Kind of instrument Ban on landfilling
Year of introduction First introduced by Decree 141/98, then integrated by Decree 36/03
Waste streams banned
  • Liquid waste
  • Explosive and/or combustible waste
  • Waste with a flashpoint <55°C
  • Corrosive waste
  • Sanitary waste, infectious as defined in category H9, annex I, DM141/98
  • Waste arising from the production of medical or pesticides compounds
  • Waste containing or contaminated by PCBs, PCTs, monomethyltetrachlorodiphenylmethane, monomethyldichlorodiphenylmethane, monomethyldibromodiphenylmethane, with concentration > 25 ppm;
  • Waste containing or contaminated by PCDD or PCDF, with concentration > 10 ppb
  • Waste containing Ozone layer depleting substances
  • Waste containing substances from research activities, with unknown effects on human health and the environment
  • Waste with a Calorific Value > 13,000 kJ/kg, from 1/1/2007.
  • Whole used tyres (from 16 July 2003), excluding tyres used as engineering material, and shredded used tyres three years from that date (excluding in both instances bicycle tyres and tyres with an outside diameter above 1400 mm)
Purpose of instrument To divert certain waste streams from landfill to other options, and to decrease the amount of waste landfilled
Administrative level Regional level
Monitoring systems ARPAs (Regional Environmental Protection Agencies)
Sanctions Administrative and penal sanctions (art.16 decree 36/03, art. 51 decree 22/97)
Targets achieved Progressive yearly reduction of the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfill
Source of information Legislative Decree n. 36 of 13 January 2003
Kind of instrument MSW separate collection targets
Year of introduction 1997 (Decree 22/97); 2006 (Decree 152/06)
Waste streams collected Paper & Cardboard, Glass, Plastics, Metals, Kitchen waste, Garden waste, Waste wood, Textiles, WEEE, Batteries
Purpose of instrument Waste minimisation and increase of material recovery Separate collection within the ATO should reach the following targets:
  • 35% by 31/12/2006
  • 45% by 31/12/2008
  • 65% by 31/12/2012
In these figures must be included the organic fraction from Mechanical Biological Treatment sent to material or energy recovery.
Administrative level Municipality/ATO
Monitoring systems Rapporto Rifiuti
Sanctions No
Targets achieved Separate collection of municipal waste and material recovery has been steadily increasing over the last decade; in 1999 it almost reached the 15% target set by decree 22/97.
In the table below the last results are summarised (in %)
Italy:
  • 2001 - 17.4%
  • 2002 - 19.2%
  • 2003 - 21.5%
  • 2004 - 22.7%

divided by area:
North:
  • 2001 - 28.6%
  • 2002 - 30.6%
  • 2003 - 33.5%
  • 2004 - 35.5%

Centre
  • 2001 - 12.8%
  • 2002 - 14.6%
  • 2003 - 17.1%
  • 2004 - 18.3%

South:
  • 2001 - 4.7%
  • 2002 - 6.3%
  • 2003 - 7.7%
  • 2004 - 8.1%
Source of information Legislative Decree n. 22 of 5 February 1997
Legislative Decree n. 152 of 3 April 2006
Other information of relevance More than 600 Municipalities are running source separation programme for food waste
Kind of instrument Voluntary agreements
Signed agreements National level
  • Packaging waste (ANCI-CONAI, see below)
  • FIAT (recycling of ELVs 1993)
  • Telephone poles
  • Collection and recovery of single-use cameras (1999)
Regional level
  • Agricultural waste
  • Recycling of C&D waste
Purpose of instrument Improve the management of the selected waste streams: to boost waste prevention and minimisation and increase material recovery
Administrative level National/Regional/Province/ATO/Municipality
Actors involved Ministry for the Environment and the Territory, Local Authorities, Economic Operators, Stakeholders
Source of information Legislative Decree n. 22 of 5 February 1997
Legislative decree n. 152 of 3 April 2006
Kind of instrument CONAI System: Directive 94/62/EC Compliance scheme
Year of introduction 1998
Purpose of instrument To comply with the recycling and recovery targets of the packaging directive and of decree 22/97.
The system is based on the activities of the six Material Consortia representing Steel, Aluminium, Paper, Wood, Plastic and Glass, which are the raw materials used in packaging production. The consortia, whose associates are producers, include all the main companies in the life cycle of each material.
CONAI directs and coordinates the activities of the six Consortia. Material Consortia operations cover the whole country and are concerned with every type of packaging. Collection and recycling of packaging waste is regulated by agreements stipulated between Consortia and Municipalities (“Accordo ANCI-CONAI” between the Italian Municipalities Association and CONAI ). The CONAI Environmental Contribution (fee) is an economic instruments for the achievement of the recycling targets
Waste streams involved Packaging materials
Administrative level Local authorities
Actors involved CONAI and the various packaging materials consortia:
  • CNA - National Steel Consortium
  • CIAL - Aluminium Packaging Consortium
  • COMIECO - National Cellulose-based packaging recovery and recycling Consortium
  • RILEGNO - National Consortium for Wood Packaging Recovery and Recycling
  • CO.RE.PLA - National Consortium for Plastic Packaging Recovery
  • CO.RE.VE - Glass Recovery Consortium
Targets achieved During 2003, the packaging waste system recorded a total recovery of 6.7 million tonne, equal to 58.6% of all packaging put on the market
Source of information Legislative Decree n. 22 of 5 February 1997
Legislative decree n. 152 of 3 April 2006
Other information of relevance To enhance separate collection of these waste streams by municipalities, CONAI in 1999 signed a 5 years agreement with the national association of Italian municipalities (ANCI). In 2004 the ANCI-CONAI agreement was renewed in order to fulfil the new targets set by the new Packaging Directive (04/12/EC).
Kind of instrument Green Public Procurement
Year of introduction 1997
Purpose of instrument To boost recycled materials market, to promote waste prevention
Waste streams involved Post-consumer waste
Administrative level All levels
Actors involved Producers, public sectors
Targets Minimum 30 % for products made from recycled materials
Source of information Legislative Decree n. 22 of 5 February 1997
Ministerial Decree of 8 May 2003, n. 203
Regional Acts
Other information of relevance Decree 22/97 introduced general criteria and measures for the promotion of recycled materials utilisation.
Decree 203/03 implemented what was envisaged by decree 22/97, establishing provisions and measures so that the Regions must guarantee the utilisation of a minimum of 30% of goods and products made with from recycled materials.

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5. Data on waste management

Waste generation and treatment in 1000 tonnes
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation - - 87293 94036 99562 111124 118697 - -
Municipal waste generated 25780 25960 26605 26846 28364 28595 29409 29929 -
Municipal waste landfilled 24000 21623 21275 20768 21745 21917 19705 18500 18500
Biodegradable municipal waste generated 16757 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - 12750 11530 10094
Used tyres generated - - - - - - - - -

Source: Eurostat structural Indicators

Waste generation and treatment in kg per capita
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation - - 1535 1652 1749 1952 2084 - -
Municipal waste generated 454 457 468 472 498 509 516 524 524
Municipal waste landfilled 422 380 374 365 382 385 346 331 314
Biodegradable municipal waste generated 295 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - 224 202 176
Used tyres generated - - - - - - - - -

Source: Eurostat structural Indicators

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6. National legislation on waste (selected)

National regulations Exists or not (Y/N) Reference (if available)
Recovery Y Ministerial Decree of 5 February 1998
Ministerial Decree of 12 June 2002, n. 161
Recovery (Green Public Procurement) Y Ministerial Decree of 8 May 2003, n. 203
Incineration Y Ministerial Decree 503/1997, transposition of directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC, (municipal waste and non hazardous waste incineration)
Ministerial Decree 124/2000, transposition of directive 94/67/EC (hazardous waste)
The decree transposing into national legislation Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration is about to be issued, and it will abrogate the aforementioned decrees.
Landfill Y Legislative decree n.36/03 of 13 January 2003;
Ministerial Decree of 13 March 2003 (criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills)
BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste) Y National Strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills
Packaging Y Legislative decree n. 22 of 5 February 1997
End-of Life Vehicles / Tyres Y Legislative decree n. 209 of 24 June 2003
Waste of electrical and electronic equipment Y to be issued
Batteries Y Legislative decree n. 476 of 20 November 1997 (transposition of Directive 91/157/EEC and 93/86/EEC on batteries and accumulators containing certain dangerous substances)

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7. Competent authorities

This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase

8. Bibliography

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