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Hungary

  1. General facts
  2. National legislative framework
  3. National policies on waste
  4. Instruments
  5. Data on waste management
  6. National legislation on waste (selected)
  7. Competent Authorities
  8. Bibliography

1. General facts

General facts
Surface area 93029Km²
Population (thousand inhabitans) 1014
Population density 109 inhabitants/Km²
Average number of persons per private
household*

2.6
Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants** 259
GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
Standards(PPS) EU25=100

60
GDP per capita (Constant prices) EUR 4848 (at 1995 and exchange rates)
Land use*** 63% agriculture land
19% forests and other wooded land
- % buildt-up and related land
- % wet open land
- % dry open land
- % Water
Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
-
Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
26% Industry, including energy
5% Construction
21% Trade, transport and communication services
21% Buisness activities and financial services
24% Other services
4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from *2003; **EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***2000; ****1999

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2. National legislative framework

National acts/laws on waste management
Reference Main features
Act XLIII of 2000. on Waste Management The principles and aims of the Hungarian environmental policy are to facilitate sustainable development and it sets up the basics of the national waste management regulations. Principles are founded in the Act XLIII of 2000 that describes the harmonization of the EU directives and the general regulating legislative rules of waste management.
Act LVI. of 1995 on environmental product charges The Act on waste management (2000) is the main piece of waste legislation in Hungary. The aim of the Act is to provide source of funds for the prevention and reduction of the damages caused during the production, distribution and utilization of products and to give contribution to pollution prevention and reduction, promoting environmental management as well.
Act LIII. of 1995 on the general rules of environmental protection The aim of the Act is to construct a harmonious relationship between human and environment, to protect the compartments and procedures of the environment, to provide the environmental conditions of the sustainable development.
Act LXXXIX. of 2003 on environmental charges The aim of the Act is to protect the environment and nature, to reduce its exertion, to promote such activities that are environment and nature protecting and to provide the necessary budget resources.
Additionally, in accordance with the Act LIII of 1995 to promote the reduction of material – or energy emissions into the environment and the use of the best available techniques (BAT), to secure the proportionate charges between the users and the state.
193/2001 (X.19) Government. decree on the use of environment The list of atmospheric pollutants to be considered while setting the numerical emissions limits values.
213/2001 (XI.14.) Government decree on municipal waste Conditions set while handling municipal waste.
224/2004. (VII.22.) Government decree on choice of public services Conditions set for municipalities to choose a proper contractor.
271/2001. (XII. 21.) Government decree on Waste Management fines Sets the way of imposing the fines.
126/2003. (VIII.15.) Government decree on WM planning Sets a framework for the details to be included in the plans.
164/2003. (X. 18.) Government decree on WM reporting Decree on the recording and data supply of waste.
242/2000. (XII. 23.)Gov. decree on fee of communal waste utilities Sets the way of imposing the fee of communal waste utilities.

2.1 Summary of the legislation relevant to waste management

The Hungarian rules of waste management more or less comply with the EU’s expectations. The Act XLIII of 2000 took over as a framework law the system of communal waste management regulation that was started in 1975, and took over the new law-sources ever since. The principles of the Law are the interest of the obligations of the Hungarian Republic towards EU and other international agreements:

Main elements of the act:

Waste tires are subject to the product charges system. The minimal condition of the product charge discharge is the 50% recovery rate, from 2006 the 50% of this recovered part has to be recycled.

National waste management plans
Period of implementation Main features
2002-2008 National Waste Management Plant (NWMP)
The National Waste Management Plan (NWMP) valid from 2003 till 2008 prescribes the general tasks of waste management in Hungary. The waste management plans of the different levels (4 levels: national, regional, local and individual) have to be made for 6 years, according to the detailed specifications of the government decree 126/2003 (VIII.15).
Preliminaries and principles:
  • Preparation of the National Waste Management Plan is prescribed in the Act XLIII of 2000 on Waste Management (33.§).
  • Adoption by the Parliament 12/12/2002.
  • Financing by the budget and enterprises.
  • Planning on 4 level (national, regional, local and individual plans, county level is optional).

The structural elements of NWMP:

  • Assessment of the situation
  • Determination of the goals and the target conditions
  • Measures and programmes

Main features:

  • reducing the ratio of the high waste formation
  • encouraging the economic material – and energy management and improving the ratio of recovery
  • minimising the landfill disposals
  • improving the standard and safety of waste management, reducing the risks
  • keeping the rules and principles, making the regulating system complete
  • developing the system of monitoring waste (recording, statistical data supply, measurement checking)
  • encouraging the development of up-to-date, complex waste management systems (with economic instruments)
  • strengthening the cooperation between public and private sector
  • gradually liquidating the polluting resources and contaminated sites

Main goals and targets:

  1. Prevention: At the end of 2008 the generated waste mass will not exceed the level of 2000.
  2. Recovery:
    • at the end of 2008 approximately half of all waste not including biomass must be recovered or used in power engineering
    • 50% recovery rate for packaging waste till 2005
    • 50% reduction of landfilled quantity of biodegradable waste of the volume generated in 1995 till 2007
  3. Incineration: The old waste incinerators will be renovated or closed till 2005 (accomplished).
  4. Landfill: Revision and liquidation of the old landfill sites till 2009. There is a ban in force on dumping waste from rubber tires as of the year 2003, and on rubber grindings as of the year 2006, therefore selective gathering and recovery of these materials must be solved.
Transposition of landfill and incineration directives
Transposition Act/Law/decree Year of transposition Text available
(Y/N)
Language
Landfill directive99/31 22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition 2001 Y Hungarian
Landfill decision 2003/33 22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition 2001 Y Hungarian
Incineration directive 76/00 3/2002. (II. 22.) Declaration. of Minister on incineration of waste 2002 Y Hungarian

2.2 Landfill and Incineration Directives

As a member of the EU, Hungary undertook to incorporate the rules of the Community into the national rules of law, enforcing them in the course. Most prominent field in the approximation of the rules is environmental protection. As regarding waste management, the incorporation (approximation of the laws into the national rules) has already been done regardless of a few exceptions, for which the country has applied for temporary exemption.
As a result of the impact-studies and the consultations made with the experts of the EU by February 2001, four exemptions are related to Hungary. Based on these the EU has agreed to four applications:

The National Bio-waste Programme (BIO-P, 2005-2008) has the following preferences to reduce BMW: recycling (paper), composting, anaerobic digestion (biogas generation), MBT, thermal utilisation. Targets from the Landfill Directive are the reduction in the amount of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) sent to landfill (to the baseline of 1995) to:

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3. National policies on waste

The National Waste Management Plan contains the Hungarian national policies on waste implemented or to be implemented to shift waste management from landfill towards recovery, recycling and prevention. The NWMP includes the actions, these actions realize the following targets:

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4. Instruments

Most common economic instruments in waste management include environmental product charges, fees or taxes (including tax differentiation), deposit-refund systems, subsidies, effluent charges/taxes, user fees, non-compliance fees, tradable permits and voluntary agreements.
The product charges system, which is the most important instrument was initiated in 1995. First, it was regarded merely a fiscal measure in the beginning, now forms an economic incentive system, then it has turned into a partly environmental instrument.
Currently those product categories are listed where the product wastes has the highest environmental impact: “other oil products” (practically lubricants), tires, packaging materials, particularly commercial beverage packaging (differentiated from 2005), accumulators, advertisement brochures, electrical- and electronic equipment, cooling equipment and media.
Item-based product charges are applied on the packaging of commercial beverages for example.

Kind of instrument Environmental Product Fee (for imported and domestic products)
Year of introduction 1995
Rate(s) Rates are fixed for: fuel and other crude-oil products, tyres, cooling equipment, refrigerants, packaging materials, battery, solvents, printed papers. The currently valid rates are available in the Act LVI. of 1995 on the environmental product charges
Purpose of instrument To prevent formation of wastes, to raise funds for reducing damages caused, to encourage economical management of natural resources.
Receiver Fee must be paid by the producer, by the direct and indirect users of the goods. The Ministry of Environment and Water can make a bid for a part of the paid and collected money and on receiving it can make a best use of it in the interest of recovery or disposal of the wastes of the products.
Revenue HUF 25.459 million in 2003
Administrative level National Announcements and reports to be forwarded to the Ministry of Environment.
Request for exemptions are to be sent Environmental Inspectorate.
Reconfirmations are given by State Taxation Authority /APEH.
Targets achieved More efficient compliance with the waste ratios given in the legal regulations of the EU, development of coordinating organisations. Providing the necessary financial background for the waste management projects.
Source of information Act LVI. of 1995, http://www.ksh.hu/ National Accounts of Hungary (2002–2003)
http://www.kvvm.hu/
Kind of instrument Ban on landfilling
Year of introduction 2000
Waste streams banned Types of Landfills:
  • hazardous landfills (C)
  • non-hazardous landfills(B) (inorganic (B1b) and mixed (B3))
  • inert-waste landfills (A)

In all three types of landfills it is forbidden to store:
  • fluid waste,
  • gas under pressure,
  • critical wastes
  • explosives
  • corrosives
  • oxidizers
  • inflammables
  • clinical wastes from hospitals or waste from other human–health and animal–health institutions , which are infections
  • tyres and shredded rubber
  • untreated sludge
  • animal wastes
  • organic wastes

(comparing to the landfilled organic waste 1995):
  • till 2006 decrease by 75%
  • till 2009 decrease by 50%
  • till 2016 decrease by 35%
Purpose of instrument To achieve the proper ratio and composition of the waste landfilled, to be incompliance with the values given as of the standards of the EU, to implement the sustainable waste management, to move from landfill to incineration and recovery.
Administrative level The Ministry of Environment and Water
Monitoring systems Monitoring obligation from the operating side:
  • Technical condition of the buildings and equipment
  • Operation of monitoring equipment
  • Changes recorded in the quality of subsurface water
  • quality of piped drain-water
  • safety installations, drainage and water treatment systems
Monitoring programme (Act 20/2006)
Sample analyses in accredited laboratory.
Reviews: Environmental reviews are to be periodically performed by landfill operators (supervised by inspectorate).
Sanctions A Gov. Ordinance 271/2001. (XII. 21.)
Penalties (waste management): Omit to (or non-compliance) updating waste registry, providing information, illegal landfilling.
Targets achieved More waste is shifted from landfilling to incineration.
Source of information Gov. ordinance 271/2001. (XII. 21.)
Other information of relevance Ministerial programme under preparation for composting BMWs, and implementation of landfilling charges.
Kind of instrument Separate collection of waste streams
Year of introduction Initiative started in 2001
Waste streams collected
  • metal, plastic, paper, and glass waste
  • BMW
Purpose of instrument To increase the rate of recycling of generated waste, to minimize the amount of waste to be landfilled
Administrative level Regional (municipal)
Targets achieved Change of the attitude of the population and implementation of the private sector into the resolution of the separate collection of waste.
Construction of collection islands and points in the country, recovery of about 10 % of the generated municipal solid waste.
Source of information http://www.kvvm.hu/
http://www.fkf.hu/
Kind of instrument Fee on ELVs
Year of introduction 267/2004. (IX. 23.) Government decree on end-of-life vehicles
Purpose of instrument Fee for support of collecting, processing, use and removal of end-of-life automobiles.
The obligation of the manufacturer:
  • to take back the end-of-life vehicle, which was put out of commission or want to put out of commission
  • to organize, develop and operate a gathering network to take back the end-of-life vehicles – on public road max. within 50 km – by application of BAT

The obligation of at least free of charge taking back of valueless ELV till 01. 01. 2007. is valid for vehicles which was produced after 01. 06. 2002.
In the course of taking back procedure can count the taking back- treatment charge if the ELV was produced before 01. 06. 2002. or the producer is not existing. The owner pays this charge, which is commensurable to the treatment prize
Administrative level Ministry of Environment
Source of information OECD/EEA database on instruments used for environmental policy and natural resources management
Kind of instrument Voluntary agreements: Hungarian Eco-labelling
Year of introduction 1993
Purpose of instrument Applications may be submitted for any products or services having reduced environmental impact.
Waste streams involved Aspects of waste management (waste reduction) are involved in the product group criteria development.
Administrative level Managed by Hungarian Eco-labelling Organisation (HELO) (Public interest company)
Actors involved Producers of a long list of products
Targets achieved 363 sorts of products have been awarded by eco-label
Source of information Order No. 29/1997 (VIII.29.) of the Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy.
Website of HELO: http://www.kornyezetbarat-termek.hu
Website of Ministry of Environment and Water: http://okocimke.kvvm.hu
Kind of instrument Voluntary agreements: Community eco-management and audit scheme ( EMAS) in Hungary
Year of introduction 2004
Purpose of instrument EU voluntary instrument for promoting companies in compliance with all relevant requirement regarding the environment, and improvements of environmental performance.
Waste streams involved Aspects of waste management (waste reduction) are involved in the EMAS policy and targets.
Administrative level Managed by National Inspectorate for Environment, Nature and Water (NIENW) (Competent Body)
Actors involved All organisations
Targets achieved
  • -5 organisations have been registered for EMAS.
  • -3 accredited verifiers (1 company, 2 personal verifiers).
  • -Traning courses for coming potential verifiers (50 applicants) and regional environmental inspectors (24 inspectors), in order to provide them the necessary knowledge to adopt the EMAS regulation in their work ( Danish-Hungarian Twinning Light Project (2005) ).
Source of information Hungarian Government Decree No. 74/2003 (V.28.)Website of Ministry of Environment and Water: http://emas.kvvm.hu
Kind of instrument Tradable permit systems (European Emission Trading Scheme)
Year of introduction Act XV. of 2005 on the emission trade units of greenhouse gas allowances
Purpose of instrument To reduce the risks of the climate change occurred by the human kind (by being part of the European emission trading scheme).
Type of permits system The operator is entitled to a number of emission allowances (the allowances), based on the National Allocation Plan (and List) of Hungary for the trading period in question. The emission permits set out the operator’s monitoring obligations separately by every installation. The operator has to monitor its’ CO2 emissions based on the permits of it’s installations and based on the Hungarian, European legislation in force. It has to have a verified report of its’ emissions annually by March 31. Afterwards, by April 30, based on it’s verified report it has to give back to the Authorities allowances equal to its’ emissions. Therefore If it emits more CO2 during the trading year than the allowances it has received based on the National Allocation Plan, it has to buy extra allowances on the market.
Waste streams involved in the trading Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Administrative level Based on National Allocation Plan allowances are given to the operators by the Ministry of Environment and Water (the Ministry). The Ministry is the Trustee of the allowances and as a general rule is the proceeding authority in the second place.
The monitoring and verifying obligations are overseen by the Environmental Authority. As a general rule the Environmental Authority is the proceeding authority in question at the first place.
Actors involved Large emitters in the power and heat generation industry and in selected energy-intensive industrial sectors: combustion plants, oil refineries, coke ovens, iron and steel plants and factories making cement, glass, lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp and paper over a size threshold.
Monitoring systems Based on :
  • Commission Regulation (EC) 2216/2004
  • Government Decree 272/2004 on the permitting, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Emission permits of the operator.
Sanctions Based on the obligation violated and on the seriousness of the violation, the following sanctions may differ (or be combined):
  • Payment of fines;
  • Payment of excess emissions penalty;
  • Publication of the names of operators who are in breach of requirements to surrender sufficient allowances;
  • Suspension of operator’s right to trade with its’ allowances;
  • Limiting, suspending the operation of the installation in question;
  • Revoking emission permit of the installation in question (the installation has to close)
Source of information http://www.kvvm.hu/klima>
Kind of instrument Deposit refund schemes
Year of introduction Government Decree 209/2005 (X.5.) on rules of deposit refund schemes
Purpose of instrument Promote the recollection of waste and reuse, protection of consumer’s interests
Type of permits system Deposit fee
Waste streams involved in the trading All waste stream may be involved, no determined fees
Administrative level National
Actors involved Producers and distributors
Monitoring systems Monitor the fulfilment of the obligations in respect of the production and distribution of the returnable products.
Sanctions Consumer Inspectorate is to sanction non-fulfilments of the production and distribution of the returnable products.
Administrative costs of the system No
Targets achieved -
Source of information http://www.humusz.hu
www.kvvm.hu
Other information of relevance A reuse fee item has been determined from 1 January 2005 as the requirement of the exemption from product charges.

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5. Data on waste management

Waste generation and treatment in 1000 tonnes
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation 84442 70514 79256 79980 - - - - -
Municipal waste generated 4752 4834 5016 4976 4943 4552 4603 4646 -
Municipal waste landfilled 3576 3788 4023 4067 4146 3847 3887 3954 3958
Biodegradable municipal waste generated *2340 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - - - 1720
Used tyres generated - - - - - - - - -

Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators; except *: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)

Waste generation and treatment in kg per capita
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation 8169 6832 7694 7780 - - - - -
Municipal waste generated 460 468 487 484 482 445 451 457 463
Municipal waste landfilled 346 367 391 396 404 376 375 384 390
Biodegradable municipal waste generated 226 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - - - 170
Used tyres generated - - - - - - - - -

Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators; except *: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)

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6. National legislation on waste (selected)

National regulations Exists or not (Y/N) Reference (if available)
Landfill Y 22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste (1999/31, 2000/738) EEC changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition
Incineration Y 3/2002. (II. 22.) Declaration of Minister on incineration of waste 89/369 (89/429, 2000/76) EC/EEC.
BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste) Y 213/2001 (XI.14.) Government decree on municipal waste
23/2003. (XII. 29.) Declaration of Minister on treatment of biowaste and the technical requirements of the composting
Packaging Y Act LVI of 1995 on the environmental product charges and the environmental charges of the products themselves.
94/2002. Government decree on packaging and packaging waste (94/62 (V. 5.)) EC.
End-of Life Vehicles / Tyres Y 267/2004. (IX. 23.) Government decree on end-of-life vehicles
Waste of electrical and electronic equipment Y Act LVI of 1995 on the environmental product charges and the environmental charges of the products themselves.
Government decree 264/2004.(IX.23) on take-back of wastes of electronic equipments.
15/2004. (X. 8.) Declaration of Minister on the rules of treatment of waste of electronic equipments
Batteries Y 9/2001.(IV. 9.) Declaration of Minister on batteries and accumulators changed by 109/2005. (VI. 23.) Government decree on taking back of batteries and accumulators 91/157 (93/86, 98/101) EEC

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7. Competent authorities

This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase

8. Bibliography

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