|Population (thousand inhabitans)||1014|
|Population density||109 inhabitants/Km²|
|Average number of persons per private
|Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants**||259|
|GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
|GDP per capita (Constant prices)||EUR 4848 (at 1995 and exchange rates)|
|Land use***||63% agriculture land
19% forests and other wooded land
- % buildt-up and related land
- % wet open land
- % dry open land
- % Water
|Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
|Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
|26% Industry, including energy
21% Trade, transport and communication services
21% Buisness activities and financial services
24% Other services
4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing
Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from *2003; **EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***2000; ****1999
|Act XLIII of 2000. on Waste Management||The principles and aims of the Hungarian environmental policy are to facilitate sustainable development and it sets up the basics of the national waste management regulations. Principles are founded in the Act XLIII of 2000 that describes the harmonization of the EU directives and the general regulating legislative rules of waste management.|
|Act LVI. of 1995 on environmental product charges||The Act on waste management (2000) is the main piece of waste legislation in Hungary. The aim of the Act is to provide source of funds for the prevention and reduction of the damages caused during the production, distribution and utilization of products and to give contribution to pollution prevention and reduction, promoting environmental management as well.|
|Act LIII. of 1995 on the general rules of environmental protection||The aim of the Act is to construct a harmonious relationship between human and environment, to protect the compartments and procedures of the environment, to provide the environmental conditions of the sustainable development.|
|Act LXXXIX. of 2003 on environmental charges||The aim of the Act is to protect the environment and nature, to reduce its exertion, to promote such activities
that are environment and nature protecting and to provide the necessary budget resources.
Additionally, in accordance with the Act LIII of 1995 to promote the reduction of material – or energy emissions into the environment and the use of the best available techniques (BAT), to secure the proportionate charges between the users and the state.
|193/2001 (X.19) Government. decree on the use of environment||The list of atmospheric pollutants to be considered while setting the numerical emissions limits values.|
|213/2001 (XI.14.) Government decree on municipal waste||Conditions set while handling municipal waste.|
|224/2004. (VII.22.) Government decree on choice of public services||Conditions set for municipalities to choose a proper contractor.|
|271/2001. (XII. 21.) Government decree on Waste Management fines||Sets the way of imposing the fines.|
|126/2003. (VIII.15.) Government decree on WM planning||Sets a framework for the details to be included in the plans.|
|164/2003. (X. 18.) Government decree on WM reporting||Decree on the recording and data supply of waste.|
|242/2000. (XII. 23.)Gov. decree on fee of communal waste utilities||Sets the way of imposing the fee of communal waste utilities.|
The Hungarian rules of waste management more or less comply with the EU’s expectations. The Act XLIII of 2000 took over as a framework law the system of communal waste management regulation that was started in 1975, and took over the new law-sources ever since. The principles of the Law are the interest of the obligations of the Hungarian Republic towards EU and other international agreements:
Main elements of the act:
Waste tires are subject to the product charges system. The minimal condition of the product charge discharge is the 50% recovery rate, from 2006 the 50% of this recovered part has to be recycled.
|Period of implementation||Main features|
|2002-2008||National Waste Management Plant (NWMP)
The National Waste Management Plan (NWMP) valid from 2003 till 2008 prescribes the general tasks of waste management in Hungary. The waste management plans of the different levels (4 levels: national, regional, local and individual) have to be made for 6 years, according to the detailed specifications of the government decree 126/2003 (VIII.15).
|Preliminaries and principles:
The structural elements of NWMP:
Main goals and targets:
|Transposition||Act/Law/decree||Year of transposition||Text available
|Landfill directive99/31||22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition||2001||Y||Hungarian|
|Landfill decision 2003/33||22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition||2001||Y||Hungarian|
|Incineration directive 76/00||3/2002. (II. 22.) Declaration. of Minister on incineration of waste||2002||Y||Hungarian|
As a member of the EU, Hungary undertook to incorporate the rules of the Community into the national rules of law,
enforcing them in the course. Most prominent field in the approximation of the rules is environmental protection.
As regarding waste management, the incorporation (approximation of the laws into the national rules) has already
been done regardless of a few exceptions, for which the country has applied for temporary exemption.
As a result of the impact-studies and the consultations made with the experts of the EU by February 2001, four exemptions are related to Hungary. Based on these the EU has agreed to four applications:
The National Bio-waste Programme (BIO-P, 2005-2008) has the following preferences to reduce BMW: recycling (paper), composting, anaerobic digestion (biogas generation), MBT, thermal utilisation. Targets from the Landfill Directive are the reduction in the amount of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) sent to landfill (to the baseline of 1995) to:
The National Waste Management Plan contains the Hungarian national policies on waste implemented or to be implemented to shift waste management from landfill towards recovery, recycling and prevention. The NWMP includes the actions, these actions realize the following targets:
Most common economic instruments in waste management include environmental product charges, fees or taxes (including
tax differentiation), deposit-refund systems, subsidies, effluent charges/taxes, user fees, non-compliance fees,
tradable permits and voluntary agreements.
The product charges system, which is the most important instrument was initiated in 1995. First, it was regarded merely a fiscal measure in the beginning, now forms an economic incentive system, then it has turned into a partly environmental instrument.
Currently those product categories are listed where the product wastes has the highest environmental impact: “other oil products” (practically lubricants), tires, packaging materials, particularly commercial beverage packaging (differentiated from 2005), accumulators, advertisement brochures, electrical- and electronic equipment, cooling equipment and media.
Item-based product charges are applied on the packaging of commercial beverages for example.
|Kind of instrument||Environmental Product Fee (for imported and domestic products)|
|Year of introduction||1995|
|Rate(s)||Rates are fixed for: fuel and other crude-oil products, tyres, cooling equipment, refrigerants, packaging materials, battery, solvents, printed papers. The currently valid rates are available in the Act LVI. of 1995 on the environmental product charges|
|Purpose of instrument||To prevent formation of wastes, to raise funds for reducing damages caused, to encourage economical management of natural resources.|
|Receiver||Fee must be paid by the producer, by the direct and indirect users of the goods. The Ministry of Environment and Water can make a bid for a part of the paid and collected money and on receiving it can make a best use of it in the interest of recovery or disposal of the wastes of the products.|
|Revenue||HUF 25.459 million in 2003|
|Administrative level|| National Announcements and reports to be forwarded to the Ministry of Environment.
Request for exemptions are to be sent Environmental Inspectorate.
Reconfirmations are given by State Taxation Authority /APEH.
|Targets achieved||More efficient compliance with the waste ratios given in the legal regulations of the EU, development of coordinating organisations. Providing the necessary financial background for the waste management projects.|
|Source of information|| Act LVI. of 1995, http://www.ksh.hu/ National Accounts of Hungary (2002–2003)
|Kind of instrument||Ban on landfilling|
|Year of introduction||2000|
|Waste streams banned||Types of Landfills:
In all three types of landfills it is forbidden to store:
(comparing to the landfilled organic waste 1995):
|Purpose of instrument||To achieve the proper ratio and composition of the waste landfilled, to be incompliance with the values given as of the standards of the EU, to implement the sustainable waste management, to move from landfill to incineration and recovery.|
|Administrative level||The Ministry of Environment and Water|
|Monitoring systems|| Monitoring obligation from the operating side:
Sample analyses in accredited laboratory.
Reviews: Environmental reviews are to be periodically performed by landfill operators (supervised by inspectorate).
|Sanctions|| A Gov. Ordinance 271/2001. (XII. 21.)
Penalties (waste management): Omit to (or non-compliance) updating waste registry, providing information, illegal landfilling.
|Targets achieved||More waste is shifted from landfilling to incineration.|
|Source of information||Gov. ordinance 271/2001. (XII. 21.)|
|Other information of relevance||Ministerial programme under preparation for composting BMWs, and implementation of landfilling charges.|
|Kind of instrument||Separate collection of waste streams|
|Year of introduction||Initiative started in 2001|
|Waste streams collected||
|Purpose of instrument||To increase the rate of recycling of generated waste, to minimize the amount of waste to be landfilled|
|Administrative level||Regional (municipal)|
|Targets achieved||Change of the attitude of the population and implementation of the private sector into the resolution of the
separate collection of waste.
Construction of collection islands and points in the country, recovery of about 10 % of the generated municipal solid waste.
|Source of information|| http://www.kvvm.hu/
|Kind of instrument||Fee on ELVs|
|Year of introduction||267/2004. (IX. 23.) Government decree on end-of-life vehicles|
|Purpose of instrument||Fee for support of collecting, processing, use and removal of end-of-life automobiles.
The obligation of the manufacturer:
The obligation of at least free of charge taking back of valueless ELV till 01. 01. 2007. is valid for vehicles which was produced after 01. 06. 2002.
In the course of taking back procedure can count the taking back- treatment charge if the ELV was produced before 01. 06. 2002. or the producer is not existing. The owner pays this charge, which is commensurable to the treatment prize
|Administrative level||Ministry of Environment|
|Source of information||OECD/EEA database on instruments used for environmental policy and natural resources management|
|Kind of instrument||Voluntary agreements: Hungarian Eco-labelling|
|Year of introduction||1993|
|Purpose of instrument||Applications may be submitted for any products or services having reduced environmental impact.|
|Waste streams involved||Aspects of waste management (waste reduction) are involved in the product group criteria development.|
|Administrative level||Managed by Hungarian Eco-labelling Organisation (HELO) (Public interest company)|
|Actors involved||Producers of a long list of products|
|Targets achieved||363 sorts of products have been awarded by eco-label|
|Source of information||Order No. 29/1997 (VIII.29.) of the Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy.
Website of HELO: http://www.kornyezetbarat-termek.hu
Website of Ministry of Environment and Water: http://okocimke.kvvm.hu
|Kind of instrument||Voluntary agreements: Community eco-management and audit scheme ( EMAS) in Hungary|
|Year of introduction||2004|
|Purpose of instrument||EU voluntary instrument for promoting companies in compliance with all relevant requirement regarding the environment, and improvements of environmental performance.|
|Waste streams involved||Aspects of waste management (waste reduction) are involved in the EMAS policy and targets.|
|Administrative level||Managed by National Inspectorate for Environment, Nature and Water (NIENW) (Competent Body)|
|Actors involved||All organisations|
|Source of information||Hungarian Government Decree No. 74/2003 (V.28.)Website of Ministry of Environment and Water: http://emas.kvvm.hu|
|Kind of instrument||Tradable permit systems (European Emission Trading Scheme)|
|Year of introduction||Act XV. of 2005 on the emission trade units of greenhouse gas allowances|
|Purpose of instrument||To reduce the risks of the climate change occurred by the human kind (by being part of the European emission trading scheme).|
|Type of permits system||The operator is entitled to a number of emission allowances (the allowances), based on the National Allocation Plan (and List) of Hungary for the trading period in question. The emission permits set out the operator’s monitoring obligations separately by every installation. The operator has to monitor its’ CO2 emissions based on the permits of it’s installations and based on the Hungarian, European legislation in force. It has to have a verified report of its’ emissions annually by March 31. Afterwards, by April 30, based on it’s verified report it has to give back to the Authorities allowances equal to its’ emissions. Therefore If it emits more CO2 during the trading year than the allowances it has received based on the National Allocation Plan, it has to buy extra allowances on the market.|
|Waste streams involved in the trading||Carbon dioxide (CO2)|
|Administrative level|| Based on National Allocation Plan allowances are given to the operators by the Ministry of Environment and
Water (the Ministry). The Ministry is the Trustee of the allowances and as a general rule is the proceeding
authority in the second place.
The monitoring and verifying obligations are overseen by the Environmental Authority. As a general rule the Environmental Authority is the proceeding authority in question at the first place.
|Actors involved||Large emitters in the power and heat generation industry and in selected energy-intensive industrial sectors: combustion plants, oil refineries, coke ovens, iron and steel plants and factories making cement, glass, lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp and paper over a size threshold.|
|Monitoring systems||Based on :
|Sanctions||Based on the obligation violated and on the seriousness of the violation, the following sanctions may differ
(or be combined):
|Source of information||http://www.kvvm.hu/klima>|
|Kind of instrument||Deposit refund schemes|
|Year of introduction||Government Decree 209/2005 (X.5.) on rules of deposit refund schemes|
|Purpose of instrument||Promote the recollection of waste and reuse, protection of consumer’s interests|
|Type of permits system||Deposit fee|
|Waste streams involved in the trading||All waste stream may be involved, no determined fees|
|Actors involved||Producers and distributors|
|Monitoring systems||Monitor the fulfilment of the obligations in respect of the production and distribution of the returnable products.|
|Sanctions||Consumer Inspectorate is to sanction non-fulfilments of the production and distribution of the returnable products.|
|Administrative costs of the system||No|
|Source of information|| http://www.humusz.hu
|Other information of relevance||A reuse fee item has been determined from 1 January 2005 as the requirement of the exemption from product charges.|
|Total waste generation||84442||70514||79256||79980||-||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||4752||4834||5016||4976||4943||4552||4603||4646||-|
|Municipal waste landfilled||3576||3788||4023||4067||4146||3847||3887||3954||3958|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||*2340||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||1720|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators; except *: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
|Total waste generation||8169||6832||7694||7780||-||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||460||468||487||484||482||445||451||457||463|
|Municipal waste landfilled||346||367||391||396||404||376||375||384||390|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||226||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||170|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators; except *: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
|National regulations||Exists or not (Y/N)||Reference (if available)|
|Landfill||Y||22/2001. (X. 10.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste (1999/31, 2000/738) EEC changed by 20/2006. (IV. 5.) Declaration of Minister on the landfill of waste and the conditions and rules of the waste deposition|
|Incineration||Y||3/2002. (II. 22.) Declaration of Minister on incineration of waste 89/369 (89/429, 2000/76) EC/EEC.|
|BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)||Y||213/2001 (XI.14.) Government decree on municipal waste
23/2003. (XII. 29.) Declaration of Minister on treatment of biowaste and the technical requirements of the composting
|Packaging||Y|| Act LVI of 1995 on the environmental product charges and the environmental charges of the products themselves.
94/2002. Government decree on packaging and packaging waste (94/62 (V. 5.)) EC.
|End-of Life Vehicles / Tyres||Y||267/2004. (IX. 23.) Government decree on end-of-life vehicles|
|Waste of electrical and electronic equipment||Y||Act LVI of 1995 on the environmental product charges and the environmental charges of the products themselves.
Government decree 264/2004.(IX.23) on take-back of wastes of electronic equipments.
15/2004. (X. 8.) Declaration of Minister on the rules of treatment of waste of electronic equipments
|Batteries||Y||9/2001.(IV. 9.) Declaration of Minister on batteries and accumulators changed by 109/2005. (VI. 23.) Government decree on taking back of batteries and accumulators 91/157 (93/86, 98/101) EEC|
This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase