|Surface area||131626 Km²|
|Population (tousand inhabitans)||11006|
|Population density||84 inhabitants/Km²|
|Average number of persons per private
|Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants**||331|
|GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
|GDP per capita (Constant prices)||EUR 11473 (at 1995 and exchange rates)|
|Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
|100 % Unknown|
|Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
|13% Industry, including energy
31% Trade, transport and communication services
20% Buisness activities and financial services
22% Other services
6% Agriculture, hunting and fishing
Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from *2003; **EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***2000; ****1999
|Joint Ministerial Decision 114218/1997 of 17 November 1997||Concerning the establishment of a general framework & waste management programs;
Sets the framework of technical specifications and general programmes for the management of solid waste.
|Joint Ministerial Decision 50910/2727/2003
|Provides measures and terms for solid waste management - national and regional planning management, in complete compliance with the European Waste Framework Directive 91/156/EEC.|
|Joint Ministerial Decision 13588/725/2006 (OJG 383 B/2006)||Provides measures and terms for hazardous waste management.|
|Joint Ministerial Decision 24944/1159/2006 (OJG 791 B/2006)||Concerning the establishment of general technical specifications of hazardous waste management.|
In 1986, Law 1650 for the Environment established a framework of sanctions and liabilities for the protection of the
environment. This Law set the waste management issue under the jurisdiction of Local Authorities. In 1990, two Joint
Ministerial Decisions (JMD 69269/5387/90 (Official Journal of the Government - OJG 678B/1990) and JMD 73508/5512/90 (OJG 691B/1990)) introduced environmental impact assessments for certain projects and activities. Recently, the
environmental impact assessment framework in Greece(set by Law 1650/1986) has been amended (by Law 3010/2002) in order to fully harmonize national
legislation with EU Directives 96/61/EC and 97/11/EC. In accordance with this Law, three new Joint Ministerial
Decisions (JMDs 15393/2332/2002, 11014/703/104 and 37111/2021/2003) introduce new provisions for categorization of projects, environmental permitting and public
The EU Waste framework Directive was transposed into domestic law in 1986, through the Joint Ministerial Decision 49541/1424/86 (“solid waste in conformity with Directive 75/442/EEC…”). Directive 91/156/EEC, which amended the Waste Framework Directive, was transposed into domestic law in 1996(through the Joint Ministerial Decision 69728/824/1996), through the Joint Ministerial Decision on “the general measures and conditions for solid waste management”. Generally speaking, the Joint Ministerial Decision attempted to integrate and rationalise earlier legislation in the field of waste management.
In 1996, Local Authorities started the elaboration of Prefectural solid waste management schemes, in accordance with the Joint Ministerial Decision(JMD 69728), which was accompanied by two other acts issued one year later:
The first act, JMD113944, rearticulated some of the definitions, objectives, procedures and specification lain
down by the Joint Ministerial Decision(JMD 69728); moreover, it set some additional quantitative objectives and defined the
minimum standards for the studies on the selection of disposal sites, also suggesting measures for raising public awareness
and ensuring social acceptance.
JMD 114218 determined the technical specifications regarding the appropriate systems, means and procedures for each of the available waste treatment methods (like temporary storage, collection and disposal, collection at source, recycling etc.) and it also specified the criteria for the selection of landfills, as well as for the planning, design and function of “Sanitary Legal Waste Disposal Sites” (HYTA), mechanical sorting plants and composting facilities.
YPEHODE has prepared the first National Solid Waste Management Plan, which was translated into law in 2000 by JMD 14312/1302/2000 “filling in JMD 113944/1997”.
During 2001-2003, YPEHODE has focused on the transposition of the recent community legislation on the waste management into the national system. Based on the recent institutional framework and the review process of the first National Planning, YPEHODE proceeded to a thorough reform of the domestic management system, issuing in 2003 the JMD 50910/2727/2003 (OJG 1909/2003).
JMD 50910 established “the measures and terms for solid waste management” and provided the guidelines for the national and regional management planning, repealing JMD 69728 of 1996 and JMD 113944 of 1997. This new act aims to achieve “full conformity” with the Waste Framework Directive, placing particular emphasis on the establishment of functional and effective planning and managing procedures. More precisely:
Specific EU targets include the reduction of the quantity of wastes going to final disposal by 20% from 2000 to 2010, and by 50% by 2050, with special emphasis on cutting hazardous waste.
|Period of implementation||Main features|
|National Planning for the Integrated and Alternative Management of Solid Waste (elaborated between 1997-1999)||Based on the principles contained in JMD 113944/97:
|“updated national solid waste management plan”||
|Transposition||Act/Law/decree||Year of transposition||Text available
|Landfill directive99/31||JMD 29407/3508/2002 (OJG 1572B/2002) on measures and terms for sanitary disposal.||2002||Y||Greek|
|Landfill decision 2003/33||-||-||-|
|Incineration directive 76/00||JMD 22912/1117/2005 (OJG 759B/2005) on measures and terms for the prevention and reduction of environmental pollution and the incineration of waste||2005||Y||Greek|
According to YPEHODE figures, the number of uncontrolled dumps was statistically reduced from 6,500 in 1997 to 2182
in 2001 and 1458 in 2002.Up until the early 1990s, the use of uncontrolled dumps was the “traditional” method of
solid waste disposal. Since then, the overall situation has dramatically improved: There are 45 sanitary landfills
constructed in Greece (41 already operational) whereas 47 more sites are under construction including the expansion
of existing ones. Last data for the year 2003 reports that 1032 dumping sites, mainly small, were still operating
in various municipalities of the country. It is expected that by the end of 2008, uncontrolled waste dumping will
cease to exist.
On 16 December 2002 the Directive was transposed into Greek law through a Joint Ministerial Decision (JMD 29407/ 3508 ) of the Ministries of Environment (YPEHODE), Economy, Home Affairs, Development and Health and Social Welfare. The JMD includes Greece’s commitment to reduce the biodegradable municipal waste to 35% by 2020 and not by 2016, because Greece takes advantage of the four-year extension (the “postponement clause”) allowed for those countries landfilling more than 80% of their waste in the year 1996, and is formulating its strategy by placing targets for the years 2010, 2013 and 2020.
Various regional waste management plans foresee the construction of MBT plants as the main tool to meet the Landfill Directive targets. At present 3 such plants are in operation. Obviously, while the option to revise the waste management plans to include other options such as thermal treatment or source separation is always open, but conditions for either of these options do not seem to be mature yet. At the moment, there are no facilities processing source separated organic waste, although it would be fairly easy to do so with at least the green waste, as they are collected separately anyway and some municipalities have thought of doing so.
Greek national strategy on sustainable development (NSSD):
The strategy been formulated in view of the preparations for the Johannesburg WSSD 2002 and it has been approved by the Council of Ministers in Athens in June 2002. The strategy includes a chapter concerning the “Reduction and rational management of solid waste”.The targets of the National Strategy for the management of solid wastes, as presented in the National Plan of Integrated Management, aim at the safe disposal and maximisation of recycling. In parallel, long-term actions are mainly promoted for the reduction of the total quantity of produced solid wastes.
The basic sectors of action of the NSSD for Solid Wastes are:
The above directions will be accompanied by other actions, such as, training the staff of local authorities and
raising the awareness of the responsible for decision making and the citizens in general. Additionally, the
Operational Programme “Competitiveness” of the Hellenic Ministry of Development, incorporated in the 3rd Community
Support Framework, also provides for the creation of new and extension of existing units for recycling, the reuse
and dismantling of solid material and waste and the further promotion of environmental management schemes (e.g. EMAS).
Regarding composting, the current situation can be summed up as follows:
An important area that characterizes the current situation is the secondary raw materials market. Currently, no market for compost or RDF exists. This is due to two main reasons:
Additionally, existing markets for plastics and glass are not well developed, while markets for paper and metals
are mostly defined by private sector activities.
There are currently no plans to introduce some kind of landfill tax.
In just over a decade (1987-1998) the quantity of used tyres has experienced a 70 % increase fuelled by the corresponding increase in the numbers of vehicles into circulation (fig. 3.2.5a). The broader Athens district contributes 55 % of the quantities of tyres withdrawn nowadays from the various types of vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcycles).
On the basis of the existing legislative framework, all tyres producers, importers etc.. have established a collective system called ECOELASTIKA, which is dealing with the separate collection and alternative management (recycling) of used tyres.
The main objectives of the National Legislative Framework on tyres aims to:
Packaging waste and alternative management of selected waste streams:
Law 2939/2001 (OJG 179A/2001) for “Packaging and the Alternative Management of Packaging and other Materials - Establishment of the National Organization for Alternative Management of Packaging and other Materials (NOAMPOM)” constitutes the general legal framework for the alternative management of packaging and other waste streams (i.e. tyres, ELVs, batteries, used oils, construction/demolition wastes, with priorities on the prevention, reuse, recycling and energy recovery without polluting. The whole operational framework for all these waste streams is at its beginning phase (Start of operation: 2nd half of 2004 except for packaging waste), therefore most quantitative information will be available after 2005
The implementation started with the formulation of a private – public partnership, the Packaging Waste Management Company (PWMC), in 2003. This company has undertaken the task to organize packaging waste management activities all over the country and to assure increase in recycling rates for all recyclable materials, by enhancing citizens’ participation and constructing new Material Recovery Facilities.
|Total waste generation||-||33130||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||3200||3600||3900||4082||4264||4447||4559||4640||4710|
|Municipal waste landfilled||3295||3437||3540||3719||3886||4056||4157||4233||4328|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||*2100||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||2827||2877||2926|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||-||248||250||252|
Source: Eurostat structural Indicators, * Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
|Total waste generation||-||33130||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||302||337||363||378||393||408||417||423||428|
|Municipal waste landfilled||311||322||329||344||358||372||380||386||393|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||*199||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||259||262||266|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||-||23||23||23|
Source: Eurostat structural Indicators, *Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
|National regulations||Exists or not (Y/N)||Reference (if available)|
|Landfill||Y||JMD 29407/3508/2002 (OJG 1572B/2002) on measures and terms for sanitary disposal (harmonization with the EU Directive 99/31/EC)|
|Incineration||Y||Joint Ministerial Decision 22912/1117/2005 which defines measures and terms for the prevention and reduction of environmental pollution and the incineration of waste.|
|BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste)||?||-|
|Packaging||Y|| JMD 31784/954/1990 (OJG 251B/1990)
|End-of Life Vehicles / Tyres||Y||Laws2939/2001, Presidential Decrees (PD) 116/2004 (ELV), 109/2004 (tyres)|
|Waste of electrical and electronic equipment||Y||Law 2939/2001, PD 117/2004|
|Batteries||Y||Law 2939/2001, PD 115/2004|
This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase