|Population (tousand inhabitans)||59856|
|Population Population density||110 inhabitants/Km²|
|Average number of persons per private
|Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants**||490|
|GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
|GDP per capita (Constant prices)||EUR 24513 (at 1995 and exchange rates)|
|Land use***||55.7% agriculture land
31.1% forests and other wooded land
7.7% buildt-up and related land
0.3% wet open land
3.9% dry open land
|Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
|53% in densely populated areas(at least 500 inhab./Km²)
22% in intermediate urbanised areas(100 - 499 inhab./Km²)
22% in sparsely populated areas(less than 100 inhab./Km²)
|Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
| 16% Industry, including energy¨
19% Trade, transport and communication services
31% Buisness activities and financial services
26% Other services
3% Agriculture, hunting and fishing
Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from *2003; **EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***2000; ****1999
|Code de l’environnement (Partie législative) Livre V Titre IV Chapitre I°||Waste disposal and recycling|
|Code général des collectivités territoriales, loi 15 juillet 1975; loi n°99-586 du 12 juillet 1999; loi n° 2004-1485 du 30 décembre 2004||Municipal waste public services|
|Décret du 5 juillet 2001
Arrêté du 15 mars 2005
|National Council on Waste|
|Décret n° 2002-540 du 18 avril 2002
Arrêté du 8 juillet 2003 - Circulaire du 3 octobre 2002.
National legislative framework on waste is based on Act n. 633 of the 15 July 1975, as modified by Act n. 646 of the 13 July 1992, which established main objectives of French policy on waste:
In accordance with these requirements the local waste management plans were revised with a stronger orientation
towards recycling. Separate collection of waste, in particular of paper, was developed. Landfilling and incineration
of waste have been decreasing since 1992 but actual levels are still important.
New quantitative objectives have therefore been proposed by the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development in order to decrease the amount of municipal waste sent to incineration or landfill plants¹.
In France a new national waste policy has been defined for the next decade: though, during last years, great improvements have been achieved in waste management since 1992, waste production and related management cost are still increasing. To this end a broad public consultation was launched by the Ministry of the Environment. New orientations on waste have been announced by the French Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development on September 2005. Main prepositions set out in Law 13 July 1992 (starting from the 1 July 2002 only final waste will be accepted at landfills) will be re-affirmed but more emphasis will be put on waste prevention and on the development of recycling ². It cannot be made without improving the participation of citizens in the waste management. It's therefore important to made more information available for the public, for example though awareness raising campaigns (http://www.reduisonsnosdechets.org/).
The responsibility for municipal waste collection and disposal lies with the municipalities, the smallest administrative unit in France (about 36 000) or with groupings of municipalities. The grouping of municipalities within larger units for waste management is encouraged by the national authorities. Municipalities are responsible for the collection and disposal of waste from households and other waste similar to household waste (waste from businesses, shops, small industries, which can be collected in the same conditions as household waste). The administrative units above the municipalities, the departments (100 departments in France) are involved in waste disposal planning but do not have actual responsibilities over collection and disposal.
Planning at the level of departments played quite an important role for the development of valorisation through:
The collection and disposal operations can be carried out either directly by the local authority, through its services,
or by a private company under contract with the local authority.
The non-profit sector can be involved in some operations but remains relatively marginal.
¹ Nouvelle politique des déchets- septembre 2005: http://www.ecologie.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=4862 ² Nouvelle politique des déchets- septembre 2005: http://www.ecologie.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=4862
|Period of implementation||Main features|
|2003 – 2008 (?)||National Strategy for Sustainable Development, June 2003 (see below).|
|2003 – 2008 (?)||National Action Plan for Waste Prevention, February 2004 (see below).|
|Décrets 96-1008 et 96-1009 du 18 novembre 1996 relatifs aux plans d'élimination des déchets ménagers et assimilés et aux plans régionaux d'élimination des déchets industriels spéciaux|
National Strategy for Sustainable Development, 3 June 2003 (NSSD)
The National Strategy for Sustainable Development contains a series of action programmes, which deal with all environmental aspects. According to the NSSD, a sustainable waste policy should preserve natural resources and limit environmental and sanitary impacts. Main actions provided by the Strategy are related with Integrate Product Policies and sustainable consumption. Waste policy plays a key role in sustainable development. Actions in this field will particularly focus on reduction at source, collection systems and recovery of waste:
National Action Plan for Waste Prevention, February 2004
The overall objective of the Plan is to stabilise waste generation by 2008. With this aim, the first part of the prevention programme has the objective of bringing this issue to the attention of all players in order to make all French citizens aware of their possibilities of action in everyday life.
The main actions are:
Axis 1)Responsible consumption and more environment-friendly products:
Overall objective: to stabilise municipal waste generation by 2008.
Axis 2)Environmental management and industrial processes:
Objective: to stabilise waste generation in enterprises by 2008.
Axis 3)The State as example:
Objective: reduction by 5% per year in five years of waste generated by the public administration
Axis 4)Local approaches and householders’ management of goods and waste:
Objective: stabilisation by 2008 of household waste generated per capita
|Transposition||Act/Law/decree||Year of transposition||Text available
|Landfill directive99/31||Arrêtés du 3 avril 2002, du 31 décembre 2001 et du 19 janvier 2006 modifiant l’arrêté ministériel du 9 septembre
1997. Arrêté du 31 décembre 2004 et du 15 mars 2006.
|Landfill decision 33/03||idem|
|Incineration directive 76/00||Arrêtés 20 septembre 2002||2002||Y||French|
Despite Act n. 646 of the 13 July 1992 establishing that by 1 July 2002 only “final waste” (i.e. waste that cannot be treated anymore under the present technical and economic conditions) might be accepted in landfills, today waste landfilling still represents the most applied management options for MSW in France: 42% of MSW are sent to landfills in 2002. Landfills are to be licensed by the préfet. Some landfills are still operated without license; anyway numbers are decreasing since 1992 thanks to the landfill tax (see D4). The circular of 23 February 2004 deals with the identification and the remediation of illegal landfills. Regulations 31 December 2001, 3 April 2002 and 19 January 2006 amended regulation 9 September 1997 in order to transpose Directive 1999/31/CE into French legislation.
Principal modifications to national rules are:
Regulation 25 January 1991 provided for rules about MSW incineration plants on the basis of the transposition of 1989 EU Directives. It fixed combustion conditions to be respected, limit values to emissions for several substances (dust, CO, heavy metals, acid gases, etc.. With the aim of preventing dioxin emissions, obligations were set up for plants (combustion gases have to be brought to 850°C for 2 seconds) but no limit values were fixed. These obligations applied from 1996 to existing plants with a capacity higher than 6 t/hour, and from December 2000 to plants with capacity lower than 6 t/hour.
Regulation 10 October 1996, transposing 1994 EU Directive on hazardous waste incineration, drew a more complete legislative framework on industrial waste incineration and it actually fixed a limit value for dioxins pair to 0,1 ng/Nm3. With the aim of limiting dioxins emissions, Circular 24 February 1997 established that limit values for dioxins fixed by Regulation 10 October 1996 were compulsory for all new incineration plants. Circular 24 February 1997, fixing limit values for dioxins pair to 0.1 ng/Nm3 for all new incineration plants actually anticipated the transposition of the EU directive on incineration.
Transposition works yielded 2 regulations, on not hazardous waste incineration and on hazardous waste incineration. After a broad consultation, these 2 texts have been issued in September 2002, only a few months before the deadline for transposing the EU directive (28 December 2002).
Existing plants have been given three years time for achieving the technical conformity with the dispositions set up by the regulations of September 2002, and in particular to reach the dioxins limit value of 0.1 ng/Nm3. To this end a conditioning plan should be submitted before 28 June 2003. All plans have been submitted. At 28 December 2005, all incineration plants shall respect the same limit values, despite type of waste treated and size.
There are approximately 130 incinerators at present in France. Some waste management plans foresee the construction of new incineration plants, some of which are already under construction. It is estimated that the amount of waste going to incineration will increase by 1- 2% in the next years.
National strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills (pursuant to article 5(1) of Directive
1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste):
France already largely respects the targets of 2006 and 2009 set by EU Directive on landfills. However, the estimated amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfill in 2016 is 40% of the total amount produced in 1995. The following measures are proposed to achieve the target of a reduction to 35% in 2016. The Act of 13 July 1992 requires that by 1 July 2002 only “final waste”, that means waste that cannot be treated anymore under the present technical and economic conditions may be accepted in landfills. In accordance with this requirement the waste management plans have been revised with a stronger orientation towards recycling. Separate collection of waste, in particular of paper, has developed.
A study was carried out on the management of municipal waste in 2002. Main trend in MSW management are:
There are approximately 130 incinerators at present in France. Some waste management plans foresee the construction of new incineration plants, some of which are already under construction. It is estimated that the amount of waste going to incineration will increase by 1- 2% in the next years. The biological pre-treatment of waste is not widespread in France, but the experiences of the existing sites are followed with interest.
|Kind of instrument||Landfill tax|
|Year of introduction||1992. From 1 January 1999 the landfill tax has been included in the General Tax on Pollutant Activities (TGAP)|
|Rate(s)||EUR 9.15 tonne (TGAP) for all landfills; EUR36.58tonne for not licensed landfills; EUR 7.5 tonne for environmentally certified landfills|
|Purpose of instrument||To prevent waste landfilling and to boost waste reduction and recycling, forms of waste management more compatible with the environment; to fight against illegal practices|
|Receiver||MSW and similar waste Landfill operators (both licensed and not licensed)|
|Tax base||The amount, expressed by weight, of waste disposed of in landfill or in incineration plants without energy recovery|
|Revenue||Mill EUR64.82 in 1994 and Mill EUR 277.66 in 2001 (+19.66% annual average)|
|Administrative level||Revenues from the tax were collected within the Fund for Waste Management Improvement instituted on the 1 April 1993 and managed by ADEME. From 1 January 1999 the landfill tax was included in the general tax on pollutant activities and the revenues are due to state budget.|
|Source of information||Law n. 646 of 13 July 1992; Rapport de l’instance d’évaluation de la politique du service public des déchets ménagers et assimilés, Commissariat général du plan, Dec. 2003|
|Kind of instrument||Ban on landfilling|
|Year of introduction||2002|
|Waste streams banned||
|Purpose of instrument||To divert critical waste flows from landfills|
|Source of information|| Circulaire du 6 juin 2006 relative aux installations de stockage de déchets non dangereux.
Arrêté du 19 janvier 2006 relatif au stockage de déchets dangereux.
|Kind of instrument||Fee on MSW service|
|Year of introduction||1993|
|Rate(s)||The service fee (REOM: Redevance d’Enlèvement des Ordures Ménagères) is determined by the Municipality Council or the council of the responsible authority, in case of municipality groupings. The REOM is theoretically linked to the actual service and thus should take into account the amount of waste produced. However, the determination of the cost of the service per household is complex. Up to recently, pricing was determined on the basis of the volume put to the disposition of the household (variable pricing with collection weighting is being experimented in some municipalities).|
|Purpose of instrument||To implement the “polluter-pays” principle (PAYT scheme) and to boost wastereduction|
|Administrative level||Municipal Council or the assembly of the responsible authority can choose to establish a service fee. The REOM is collected by the municipality|
|Other information of relevance||The REOM is not tax revenue, it is the financial counterpart for a service and thus has to cover the total cost of the service. Additional financing, for example through the municipal budget, is not permitted.|
|Source of information|| Rapport de l’instance d’évaluation de la politique du service public des déchets ménagers et assimilés,
Commissariat général du plan, Dec.2003
Rapport à la commission des comptes et de l’économie de l’environnement, IFEN, Mars 2005.
|Other information of relevance||Starting January 1993, municipalities have to set up a special fee on municipal waste to finance the management of waste from professional activities comparable to municipal waste.|
|Kind of instrument||Separate collection schemes / sustainable MSW management|
|Year of introduction||1999 (Budget law 1999)|
|Rate(s)||Reduction of the value added tax on waste management services: from 20.6% to 5.5%|
|Purpose of instrument||Incentive for local authorities to put in place separate collection schemes|
|Receiver||Local authorities under contract with ECO-emballages or Adelphe|
|Administrative level||Local authorities|
|Objectives achieved||Improvement in selective collection|
|Source of information||Rapport de l’instance d’évaluation de la politique du service public des déchets ménagers et assimilés, Commissariat general du plan, Dec.2003|
|Other information of relevance|| Moreover financial support to waste management can be given to municipalities or groupings by 3
types of sources:
|Kind of instrument||Directive 94/62/EC Compliance scheme|
|Year of introduction||Decree 1 April 1992 on municipal packaging waste put an obligation on producers to participate to the disposal
of packaging waste deriving from their products in an independent way or by taking part to an organisation as
Eco-Emballages, Adelphe et Cyclamed. Decree 18 November 1996, transposing EU Directive on packaging, fixed the
deadline of the 30 of June 2001 for:
|Purpose of instrument||In application of the directive on packaging and packaging waste, state approved private organisations have been set up to support the recycling and valorisation of household packaging waste and achieve the countries mandatory targets. These organisations (Eco-Emballages, Adelphe) are operated according to the green dot principle whereby they collect funds from the companies which put packaging on the market and use these funds to support separate collection, sorting and recycling. Funds are given to municipalities / groupings for separate collection and sorting in the form of a subsidy per quantity collected. Subsidies are material specific and are priced to encourage high collection and sorting performances (the fee rises with the performance measured in terms of kg/head of sorted materials).|
|Waste streams involved||Packaging materials|
|Administrative level||Local authorities (municipalities / groupings)|
|Actors involved||Packaging producers, users, distributors, recyclers, local authorities|
|Targets achieved||En 1998 recovery: 56% and recycling: 42%; 2002 target 75%|
|Source of information||Decree 18 November 1996|
|Other information of relevance||The green dot organisations also carry out communication campaigns in favour of separate collection and develop optimisation programs and counselling to municipalities/ groupings.|
|Total waste generation||129253||-||-||-||128612||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||28253||28950||29677||30449||30612||31232||32198||33024||-|
|Municipal waste landfilled||12668||13408||13588||13786||13462||13320||13117||12991||12755|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||*18615||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||7478||7462||7100|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||405||401||390||-|
Source: Eurostat structural Indicators; except from *: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
|Total waste generation||2238||-||-||-||2199||-||-||-||-|
|Municipal waste generated||489||500||511||522||523||531||544||552||559|
|Municipal waste landfilled||219||231||234||236||230||227||222||218||213|
|Biodegradable municipal waste generated||*322||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Biodegradable waste landfilled||-||-||-||-||-||-||126||125||119|
|Used tyres generated||-||-||-||-||-||6.9||6.8||6.6||-|
Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators; except from*: Eurostat, data reported by member states to the European Commission (late 2005)
Arrêté du 15 mars 2006 fixant la liste des types de déchets inertes admissibles dans des installations de stockage de déchets inertes et les conditions d’exploitation de ces installations.
|BMW (Biodegredable waste)||
|End-of Life Vehicles||
|Waste of electric and electronic equipment||
|Construction & demolition waste||
Act n. 633 of the 15 July 1975 on waste recovery and disposal, as modified by Act n. 646 of the 13 July 1992, established that waste disposal responsibility is in charge of Municipalities and instituted a landfill tax on municipal and similar waste (from 1999 the landfill tax has been included in the General Tax on Pollutant Activities). Circular 28 April 1998 re affirmed the priority of waste prevention and material recovery (recycling and composting) and, to this end, it provided for:
This Circular is actually under review to reflect the new politic options stated in the communication of the French Minister of Ecology on the 21 of September 2005.
Biodegradable Municipal Waste:
Circular 29 June 2001 fixed rules to ensure the harmlessness of compost produced. Numerous waste management plans provide the development of separate collection of bio-waste. Methane projects are being studied in different agglomerations. The Communication of the Council of Ministers of 4 June 2003 on household waste provides measures to promote the development of the biological treatment of bio-waste.
Municipal packaging waste:
Decree n.377 of 1 April 1992 on municipal packaging waste put an obligation on producers to participate to the disposal of packaging waste deriving from their products in an independent way or by taking part to an organisation as Eco-Emballages, Adelphe et Cyclamed. Decree 18 November 1996, transposing EU Directive on packaging, fixed the deadline of the 30 of June 2001 for:
In application of the directive on packaging and packaging waste, state approved private organisations have been set up to support the recycling and valorisation of household packaging waste and achieve the countries mandatory targets. These organisations (Eco-Emballages, Adelphe) are operated according to the green dot principle whereby they collect funds from the companies which put packaging on the market and use these funds to support separate collection, sorting and recycling. Funds are given to municipalities / groupings for separate collection and sorting in the form of a subsidy per quantity collected. Subsidies are material specific and are priced to encourage high collection and sorting performances (the fee rises with the performance measured in terms of kg/head of sorted materials). The green dot organisations also carry out communication campaigns in favour of separate collection and develop optimisation programs and counselling to municipalities / groupings.
Mechanisms for funding MSW Service:
Local authorities in charge of waste management can choose between two ways to finance municipal waste management:
Starting January 1993, municipalities have to set up a special fee on municipal waste to finance the management of waste from professional activities comparable to municipal waste. In addition to funding by municipalities, financial support to waste management can be given to municipalities or groupings by 3 types of sources:
Support from local authorities and the state are usually in the form of investment subsidies.
In the case of tax financing, the amount of tax is determined on the same basis as property tax on buildings (value of the building, social criteria). It is thus disconnected from waste production and does not constitute an incentive to waste reduction.
In 1993, tax financing was applied in 13 666 municipalities and 245 municipality groupings. It concerned 45.3 millions of people and generated EUR2.38 billion, or EUR 52.4 head. The fee paid by households is determined by the Municipality Council or the council of the responsible authority, in case of municipality groupings.
In the case of service fee financing, the fee is theoretically linked to the actual service and thus should take into account the amount of waste produced. However, the determination of the cost of the service per household is complex and often generates litigation. Up to recently, pricing was determined on the basis of the volume put to the disposition of the household (variable pricing with collection weighting is being experimented in some municipalities). In addition, it can be difficult in social terms, as it penalises large households and does not take into account social criteria. In addition, with the development of separate collection and sorting, the costs of waste management are usually growing and their invoicing to households too.
In 1996, service fee financing was applied in 11 926 municipalities and 138 municipality groupings. It concerned 8.1 million people and generated EUR0.22 billion or EUR 27 head.
Other Mechanisms to promote minimisation / source separation:
A national awareness raising campaign (http://www.reduisonsnosdechets.org/) is actually carried by ADEME (the French environment agency). A specific communication campaign in favour of home composting will also soon be carried.
The development of weight pricing and weighting at collection is going to be a strong incentive. There is an incentive for local authorities to put in place separate collection schemes as this gives them access to a reduction of the value added tax on waste management services (5.5% instead of 19.6%). Social circumstances are taken into account in the case of tax financing, not in the case of service fee financing. The special tax for the financing of assimilated waste, although it is mandatory, has not been set up in every municipality and this fraction is paid on household financing; the assessment of the quantity of assimilated waste is difficult.
On average, 370 000 tons of used tyres are annually produced in France, only 200 000 of these are treated: 85 000 tons are reused, 115 000 tons incinerated in cement kilns, used in construction works or other production processes; remaining 170 000 tons are used in agriculture, landfilled or abandoned.
For the first time, Decree 1563/2002, issued by the Minister of the Environment, provides for rules about used tyre management. It contains economical and technical regulations for organising used tyre collection and treatment and the roles and responsibilities of the various actors concerned (producers, importers, distributors, collection services, etc.). It specifically provides for producers and importers financing of used tyre treatment. Decree 1563/2002 has been enforced by 2 technical regulations issued in 2003 and 2004.
This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase