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  1. General facts
  2. National legislative framework
  3. National policies on waste
  4. Instruments
  5. Data on waste management
  6. National legislation on waste (selected)
  7. Competent Authorities
  8. Bibliography

1. General facts

General facts
Surface area 5 695 Km²
Population (tousand inhabitans) 715
Population density 127 inhabitants/Km²
Average number of persons per private

Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants** 405
GDP per capita in Purchasing Power
Standards(PPS) EU25=100

GDP per capita (Constant prices) EUR 12 996 (at 1995 and exchange rates)
Land use*** -
Household characteristics by
urbanisation degree, distribution of
households % ****
Gross value added (GVA) -
At current basic prices and current
exchange rates (% of all branches).
12% Industry, including energy
8% Construction
28% Trade, transport and communication services
24% Buisness activities and financial services
24% Other services
4% Agriculture, hunting and fishing

Source: Eurostat, 2004 except from * 2003; ** EUROSTAT/DGTREN, 2002; ***1999

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2. National legislative framework

National Acts/Laws on Waste Management
Reference Main features
Framework Law on the Environment and the Protection of Nature
  • Covers the principle to guide all environment related legislation
  • Allocates responsibilities for environmental protection
  • Adopts the polluter pays principle
  • Defines the areas of environmental impact assessment
  • Aims at a reduction in waste generation
  • Sets the framework for waste treatment, recycling and hazardous waste management
Law for the Assessment of the Environmental Impacts from Certain Projects (Law on Environmental Impact Assessment) (Law No.57 (I)/2001)
  • List of waste types
Municipalities Law (Law No 111/85) and Community Councils Law (Law No 86 (I)/99)
  • Allocates the responsibility of domestic solid waste collection, transport and disposal to local authorities.
Law on the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste (No.215 (I)/2002) (Possibly same as “Law on the Control and Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste” and “Solid and Hazardous Waste Law of 2002” and “Urban solid waste management plan”) –
  • The objective is to comply with the Landfill Directive by 2009
  • Provides the framework for ordinances on the management of hazardous and non-hazardous public waste, household, packaging and industrial waste, old tyres, electrical appliances and used mineral oil
  • Obligation for preventing and reducing the generation of waste
  • Requirement for the authorization (licensing) of all waste management activities and projects
  • Introduction of producer responsibility
  • Defines waste streams

Note: Only little information and only secondary literature is published in English. Thus the detailed regulations as specified in the laws, acts and ordinances cannot be assessed. Also the secondary literature published in English is rather general. Only little information was found on the ordinances actually implemented since 2002. Possibly more regulations and instruments were established in Cyprus up to now, than described below. There is some uncertainty if strategies, law, acts and programmes cited in the different sources with slightly different names are actually the same or not. Here it is assumed that the former is the case.

2.1 Summary of the legislation relevant to waste management

The Cyprus Waste Management legislation focuses on:

Waste management planning obligations require the development of measures for the reduction of waste volume to be landfilled and a capacity planning for the treatment and disposal installations required to cover the waste management needs.

National Waste Management Plans
Period of implementation Main features
Strategic Plan for the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste(decided in 2003, implementation programmes still under development) (possibly same as “Strategy for a comprehensive solid waste management system”, “National strategy on waste management” and “Strategy for the Management of Waste”)
Life-Household Recycling Partnership Programme –Launched in 2000
  • Objective: develop sustainable ways of managing recyclable household waste
  • Implementation projects on separate collection of paper, glass, plastic and aluminium
  • Partners: 5 municipalities and Recyclers Association
Transposition of landfill and incineration directives
Transposition Act/Law/decree Year of transposition Text available
Landfill Directive 99/31 Law on the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste (No.215 (I)/2002) 2009 N
Landfill Decision 33/03 unknown unknown N
Incineration Directive 76/00 Regulation on municipal waste incineration. Specifics unknown* unknown N

*Up to now there is no MSW-incineration in Cyprus. There seem to be only very general plans to build an MSW-incineration plant.

2.2 Transposition of Landfill and Incineration Directive

The full implementation of the landfill directive is planned for the year 2009. It requires a number of up to 100 existing landfill sites to be closed and replaced by 4 non-hazardous waste treatment and disposal centres plus 1 hazardous waste treatment centre. It also requires the establishment of a separate collection system for recyclable (packaging) waste and the promotion of composting of biodegradable waste.
A major issue is the financing of the required changes which are estimated to cost EUR 60 – 70 million.
With respect to the transposition of the incineration directive a municipal waste incineration regulation exists. This, however, up to now is no priority issue, as no municipal solid waste incineration plant exists in Cyprus and as plans for building one are in a very general state.

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3. National policies on waste

Description of historic development of municipal waste (MSW) arising and treatment


The youngest available waste data are from the year 2002. As the relevant legislation was imposed from 2002 onwards, it cannot be expected that any effect is seen. It is, however, important to shortly describe the development of waste generation, of the amount landfilled and recycled.
From the statistical data it can be concluded that all municipal waste was either landfilled or recycled. There seems to be no waste incineration in Cyprus.
In 2002 the amount of municipal waste generated in Cyprus was 500 000 tonnes. This corresponds to 704 kg/capita, a value well above the EU average. The MSW generation per GDP in 2002 was EUR 144 per kg.
When analysing the development from 1996 to 2002 it can be seen, that all three, the total amount of municipal solid waste generated, the amount of MSW landfilled and the amount recycled increased. Related to the population the MSW generation grew 10 % faster than the population, related to the economy, MSW generation grew 5 % slower than GDP between 1996 and 2002.
While the total amount of MSW landfilled grew by 16 % from 1996 to 2002 the share on all MSW treated decreased from 93 to 90 %. Simultaneously the share of MSW collected fro recycling increased from 7.7 to 10 %. This, however, is still a very low number in international comparison. The increase in the recycling rate was caused by an increase in the recycling rate of paper, plastics and metals. The recycling rate of glass, however, decreased.

Strategic Plan for the Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste

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4. Instruments

Kind of instrument Obligation on meeting packaging recovery and recycling targets
Year of introduction 2005
Purpose of instrument Targets 50-65 % recovery and 25 – 45% recycling
Waste streams involved Packaging waste
Administrative level Local authorities
Actors involved Local authorities, retailers
Targets achieved To early to measure
Source of information Cameron E. Governance, Finance and Capacity – A review of waste management practices in the 12 EU Accession Candidates. Austrian Association of Cities and Towns, CEEC LOGON project, Cameron*sds, Brussels
Kind of instrument Separate collection of waste streams
Life-Household Recycling Partnership Programme:
  • Launched in 2000
  • Objective: develop sustainable ways of managing recyclable household waste
  • Implementation projects on separate collection of paper, glass, plastic and aluminium
  • Partners: 5 municipalities and Recyclers Association
Further development and legal implementation unknown.

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5. Data on waste management

Waste generation and treatment in 1000 tonnes
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation - - - - - - - - -
Municipal waste generated 387 421 433 448 458 470 490 500 518
Municipal waste landfilled 387 389 398 406 413 423 442 450 466
Biodegradable municipal waste generated 273 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - - - -
Used tyres generated 5 - - 5 5 5 5 5 5

Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators

Waste generation and treatment in kg per capita
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Total waste generation - - - - - - - - -
Municipal waste generated 600 642 650 664 670 680 703 709 724
Municipal waste landfilled 600 593 597 601 605 613 634 638 653
Biodegradable municipal waste generated 423 - - - - - - - -
Biodegradable waste landfilled - - - - - - - - -
Used tyres generated 7.8 - - 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.0

Source: Eurostat Structural Indicators

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6. National legislation on waste (selected)

National regulations Exists or not (Y/N) Reference* (if available)
Landfill Y
Incineration Y
BMW (Bio-degradable municipal waste) unknown
Packaging Y
  • Law on Packaging and Packaging Waste No.32 (I)/2002) – the purpose of the law is to prevent the generation of packaging waste, to reduce the heavy metals contents in packaging and to enhance reduction of packaging waste disposal by re-use, recovery and recycling. It is supported by EUR 2.72 million programme on the encouragement of recycling
  • Packaging and Packaging Waste Act. This act sets targets
    • 50-65 % recovery
    • 25-45 % recycling
    Individual compliance or joining a recovery system is possible. Local authorities may establish their own systems.
End-of Life Vehicles / Tyres Y/in preparation
Waste of electrical and electronic equipment In preparation
Batteries Y Order 82/2003
Construction/demolition waste In preparation
Use of sewage sludge Y Act 407/2002, Act 517/2002

*Reference: type of act, title, number, year

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7. Competent authorities

This hyperlink will direct you to Competent Authorities on eionet wastebase

8. Bibliography

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