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A: Overall policy framework

1. Setting the scene
1.1
General facts and figures about the country
1.2 Narrative introduction: SCP in the national environmental policy context

2. Towards Sustainable Consumption and Production: Strategic objectives, policy instruments in focus and indicators and quantitative targets defined in national strategies, action plans etc.

2.1 Strategies, action plans etc that address SCP explicitly and comprehensively

2.2 Most important SCP related strategies, action plans etc

     2.2.1 Overall, economy-wide strategic objectives, indicators and target etc

     2.2.2 SCP policies along the life-cycle chain
        Use and Management of Raw Materials
        Leaner and cleaner production, and the environmental technologies sector
        Better products and services
        Smarter consumption - household consumption
        Smarter consumption - public consumption (Intermediate private consumption by firms)

     2.2.3 Specific SCP policies in the production-consumption areas of highest environment impact
        Food and drink
        Housing
        Mobility
        Appliances
        SCP social aspects

3. Institutional setup to support the implementation of SCP
3.1 National institutions with responsibility explicitly "in the name of SCP"
3.2 Other major and innovative national institutions with SCP-related responsibility

4. SCP international cooperation
4.1 Participation in the Marrakech Process (MP)
4.2 Participation in the work of the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Man.
4.3 Organisation of other major international cooperation initiatives and events, explicitly in the name of SCP.

5. Overall stakeholder events, campaigns and dialogue processes
5.1 Overall stakeholder events, campaigns and dialogue processes "in the name of SCP".

6. References


B: Examples of National Policies to Promote Sustainable Household Consumption
List of national policies to promote sustainable household consumption

C: Show cases on national policies to promote sustainable household consumption
Show case I, II and II

1. Setting the Scene

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General facts and figures about the country

Population (projected inhabitants for 2009)1

61,612,000

Surface area (km2)2 242,900
GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) EU27=100 (2008)1 114
Share of urban population (%)3 89.8
Main economic sectors and their share in total GDP4 agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 23.6%
services: 75.5%
EU accession date5 1.1.1973

Sources:
1 Eurostat 2008
2 Demographic Yearbook, UN Statistics Division 2006
3 World Bank 2006, www.worldbank.org/prospects/migrationandremittances visited 15th Dec. 2008
4 CIA World Factbook (2007 est)
5 European Commission 2008, http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/key_dates/index_en.htm visited 15th Dec. 2008

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1.2 NARRATIVE INTRODUCTION | SCP IN THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY CONTEXT

The History of SCP in the uk
Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) was first covered in a comprehensive manner in 2003 with the publication of Changing Patterns [1], the SCP strategy for the UK, which was the first major statement from a Government on SCP since the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. Changing Patterns provided a framework to take forward a very broad, ambitious and challenging agenda.

In the UK, SCP is seen as a philosophy centred on “achieving economic growth whilst respecting environmental limits, finding ways to minimise damage to the natural world and making use of the earth's resources in a sustainable way”.

Securing the Future[2], the UK’s Sustainable Development Strategy, builds on this and sets the framework for SCP policy in the UK. Within this, “living within environmental limits” is identified as one of the top two issues within five guiding principles of sustainable development which form the basis for policy making in the UK.

SCP is one of the four agreed priorities of the strategy and is further amplified in Chapter 3, One Planet Economy. The development of SCP policy is supported through an on-going programme of research being carried out by Defra (the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), covering:

  1. SCP measurement methods
  2. Sustainable products & services
  3. Understanding and influencing pro-environmental behaviour
  4. Business, environment & economy

 

The Role of the SCP Concept in Policy Making

Defra has the lead role in SCP policy making, linking with the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) in relation to technology and innovation. In recognition of the cross-cutting nature of SCP, a cross-departmental SCP Programme Board has been established that meets regularly to foster inter-departmental communication and facilitate joined-up action across government.  This is supported by a dedicated SCP Evidence research team, whose work focuses on the four thematic areas noted above.  This work is also linked with that of Defra’s Waste and Resources Evidence Programme.

Current Key Areas of Focus for SCP or SCP-related Policy

SCP policy and thinking has more recently been defined in the UK by four key documents:

Recent flanking policies are centred around the consumption issues of energy use in buildings, production issues associated with construction and carbon emissions, and transport Carbon Reduction Commitment (2009) [11] forms a central part of the UK’s strategy for controlling CO2 emissions, specifically tackling emissions not already covered by Climate Change Agreements and the EU Emissions Trading System. The scheme covers all organisations with a total annual electricity consumption of at least 6,000 megawatt-hours (MWh).
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2. Towards SCP: Strategic objectives, policy instruments in focus and indicators and quantitative targets defined in national strategies, action plans etc.

2.1 Strategies, action plans etc that address SCP explicitly and comphrehensively

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Title and year of adoption:

Changing Patterns – UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption & Production (2003) [1]
Chapter 3, “One Planet Economy”: Sustainable Consumption and Production, within Securing the Future - delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy (2006) [2]

SCP vision and/or SCP concept statement:

In “Changing Patterns” the “core of SCP” is defined as (p. 10):
“Continuous economic and social progress that respects the limits of the Earth’s ecosystems, and meets the needs and aspirations of everyone for a better quality of life, now and for future generations to come.”
Implied by the title of the chapter on SCP “Securing the Future” defines the vision and challenge from the SCP perspective as to achieve “one planet economy”. It defines the concept of SCP as follows (p. 43.):
“Sustainable consumption and production requires us to achieve more with less. Current developed country patterns of consumption and production could not be replicated world-wide: some calculations suggest that this could require three planets’ worth of resources.” and “Past environmental policy focused mainly on pollution from domestic production activities. We now need a wider and more developed approach that focuses across the whole life cycle of goods, services and materials, also includes economic and social impacts, and in particular encompasses impacts outside the UK. There would be little value in reducing environmental impacts within the UK if the result were merely to displace those impacts overseas, or close off benefits at home or abroad.”

Main areas of action (SCP key issues etc.) and related strategic objectives defined:

In Changing Patterns the following four overall policy objectives were defined:

  • decoupling economic growth and environmental degradation;
  • focusing policy on the most important environmental impacts associated with the use of particular resources, rather than on the total level of all resource use;
  • increasing the productivity of material and energy use, as part of the broader Government commitment to increase the productivity of the nation; and
  • encouraging and enabling active and informed individual and corporate consumers who practice more sustainable consumption;

The main areas of necessary action were defined as follows:

  1. Taking a holistic approach that considers whole life-cycles of products and services;
  2. Working with the grain of markets and identifying and tackling market failures;
  3. Integrating SCP thinking and objectives in all policy development and implementation;
  4. Using a well designed package of policy measures and following the principles of better regulation; and
  5. Stimulating innovation in all its facets;

One Planet Economy in Securing the Future aims at achieving the following three overall SCP objectives:

  • better products and services, which reduce the environmental impacts from the use of energy, re sources, or hazardous substances;
  • cleaner, more efficient production processes, which strengthen competitiveness; and
  • shifts in consumption towards goods and services with lower impacts;

The planned measures and actions put forward in One Planet Economy are grouped under the following seven headline areas:

  1. Sustainable Products – cutting out problems at source;
  2. Sustainable Production – greater efficiency and value with less resource use, pollution and waste;
  3. Sustainable Consumption;
  4. Leading by example in what we do;
  5. Catalysing change within the economy and key sectors;
  6. Sustainable Waste Management; and
  7. Evidence and indicators
Furthermore, the sectors which have a particularly strong influence on the sustainability of goods and services consumed in the UK, according to the strategy, are “retailers”, “tourism”, “construction and construction minerals”, “transport”, “food” and “environmental industries”

Policy instruments in focus defined:

Policy instruments used include regulation, economic instruments, information-based instruments, investment in R&D, green public procurement, voluntary instruments, public/private partnerships and technology support.  Individual instruments are referenced in the relevant sections.

SCP indicators:

A set of “embedded” SCP indicators were defined in Securing the Future and progress is updated annually in Sustainable development indicators in your pocket (2009) [13].  The SCP indicators within this list are:
Greenhouse gas emissions

  • Greenhouse gas emissions (greenhouse gas and CO2 emissions, and emissions associated with UK consumption)
  • Carbon dioxide emissions by end user (CO2 emissions from industry, domestic, transport sectors (excluding international aviation and shipping))
  • Aviation and shipping emissions (greenhouse gases from UK-based international aviation and shipping fuel bunkers)

Carbon dioxide and other emissions by end user

  • Household energy use (domestic CO2 emissions, domestic energy consumption and household spending)
  • Road transport (CO2 , NOx , PM10 emissions and Gross Domestic Product)
  • Private vehicles (private car CO2 emissions, car-kilometres and household spending)
  • Road freight (Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) CO2 emissions, kilometres, tonnes and Gross Domestic Product)
  • Manufacturing sector (manufacturing sector CO2 , NOx , SO2 , PM10 emissions and output)
  • Service sector (service sector CO2 , NOx emissions and output)
  • Public sector (public sector CO2 , NOx emissions and output)

Resource use

  • Resource use (Domestic Material Consumption and Gross Domestic Product)
  • Water resource use (total abstractions from non-tidal surface and ground water, leakage losses and Gross Domestic Product)
  • Domestic water consumption (litres per person per day)

Waste

  • Waste (waste: (a) arisings by sector (b) arisings by disposal)
  • Household waste per person ((a) arisings (b) recycled or composted)

Natural resources

  • Agriculture sector (fertiliser input, farmland bird population, ammonia and methane emissions and output)
  • Land recycling ((a) new dwellings built on previously developed land or through conversions (b) all new development on previously developed land)
  • Fish stocks (sustainability of fish stocks around the UK)
  • Emissions of air pollutants (NH3 , NOx , PM10 and SO2 emissions and GDP)
  • River quality (rivers of good (a) biological (b) chemical quality)

Contextual indicators

  • Economic growth (Gross Domestic Product)
  • Productivity (UK output per worker)
  • Investment ((a) total investment (b) Social investment relative to GDP)
  • Demography (population and population of working age (contextual indicator))
Households and dwellings (households, single person households and dwelling stock (contextual indicator))

SCP quantitative targets:

Greenhouse gas emissions: 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050;
Waste: to reduce the amount of household waste not re used, recycled or composted in 2010 by 29% from 2000 levels, with an aspiration to reduce it by 45% in 2020. This is equivalent to a fall of 50% per person.
Recycling and composting of household waste – at least 40% by 2010, 45% by 2015 and 50% by 2020;

Recovery of municipal waste – 53% by 2010, 67% by 2015 and 75% by 2020

Expected revision of the strategic document (year):

Changing Patterns: N/A – will not be revised

Securing the Future: The government is keeping under review the extent to which the proposals in the strategy have been implemented.

The UK Parliament has devolved a range of issues to the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales.  In many areas, the devolved administrations have developed their own sustainable development strategies, which are referenced below.

Other relevant information:

Other than the overarching sustainable development strategies, all strategies listed below apply on a UK-wide basis, except where identified as applying to England.

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2.2 Most important SCP related strategies, action plans etc

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2.2.1 The overall economy-wide strategic objectives, indicators and targets etc.

Relevant strategies

Sustainable Development

  • UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (2009) [14]
  • One Wales: One Planet, a new Sustainable Development Scheme for Wales (2009) [15]
  • Securing the Future - delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy (2006) (chapters other than “One Planet Economy”) [2]
  • Every Action Counts (2006) [16]
  • Starting To Live Differently: The Sustainable Development Scheme of the National Assembly for Wales (2006) [16]
  • First steps towards sustainability: A Sustainable Development Strategy for Northern Ireland (2006) [17]
  • Choosing our future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy (2005) [18]
  • Lisbon Strategy for Jobs and Growth: UK National Reform Programme (2005) (particularly paragraphs 3.88-3.91) [19]

Consumption & Pro-Environmental Behaviour

  • A Framework for pro-Environmental Behaviours (2008) [4]

Energy and Climate Change

  • Heat and Energy Saving Strategy (2009) [7]
  • UK Renewable Energy Strategy (forthcoming 2009) [20]
  • Climate Change Act (2008) [21]
  • Energy Act (2008) [22]
  • Planning and Energy Act (2008) [23]
  • UK Biomass Strategy (2007) [24]
  • UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2007) [25]
  • Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy (2007) [26]

Transport
  • Low Carbon Transport: a Greener Future (2009) [12]

Strategic objectives:

  • Achieve “One Planet Economy” (see also above) [2]
    Break the link between economic growth and the environmental impact of waste [2]
    Enhance measures to close the loop in the way we use resources (e.g. through recycling, re-use or remanufacturing Decouple waste growth (in all sectors) from economic growth and put more emphasis on waste prevention and re-use [3]

    Legally binding target to achieve at least an 80 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and a reduction of at least 34 percent by 2020 against a 1990 baseline, through action in the UK and abroad. [21]
Policy instruments in focus: Mechanisms to provide financial support for renewable electricity and heat [22]
Office for Renewable Energy Deployment established to drive delivery of renewables targets [22]
The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) (2008 – 2011), an energy supplier obligation with targets set in terms of carbon savings [9].

Indicators:

Greenhouse gas emissions (greenhouse gas and CO2 emissions, and emissions associated with UK consumption)
Carbon dioxide emissions by end user (CO2 emissions from industry, domestic, transport sectors (excluding international aviation and shipping))
Aviation and shipping emissions (greenhouse gases from UK-based international aviation and shipping fuel bunkers)
Road freight (Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) CO2 emissions, kilometres, tonnes and Gross Domestic Product)
Total electricity used
Renewable electricity generated as a percentage of total electricity
Waste arisings by sector
Waste arisings by disposal

 

Quantitative targets:

  • A legally binding target of at least an 80 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and at least 34 percent by 2020, to be achieved through action in the UK and abroad, against a 1990 baseline.  A 21% reduction has already been delivered. 
    The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan plots out how the UK will meet the cut in emissions by 2020 [14]:

    • More than 1.2 million people will be in green jobs
    • 7 million homes will have benefited from whole house makeovers, and more than 1.5 million households will be supported to produce their own clean energy
    • 40% of electricity will be from low carbon sources, from renewables, nuclear and clean coal
    • We will be importing half the amount of gas that we otherwise would
    • The average new car will emit 40% less carbon than now.

    Under CERT, energy suppliers must, by 2011, deliver measures that will provide overall lifetime carbon dioxide savings of 185 MtCO2. [9]
    10 per cent of electricity to be supplied from renewables by 2010/11, with an aspiration to double this by 2020. Interim targets already set are 15 per cent in 2015/16 [2]
    15 per cent of all energy to be supplied from renewables by 2020
    At least 10 gigawatts (GW) of ‘Good Quality CHP capacity’, i.e. capacity that meets or exceeds set standards, by 2010 [2]

    Annual net reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions from waste management of at least 9.3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year compared to 2006 (equivalent to annual use of around 3 million cars) [3]

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2.2.2 SCP policies along the life-cycle chain

The use and management of raw materials

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Relevant strategies

Making the most of packaging: A strategy for a low-carbon economy (2009) [28]
Progress Report on Sustainable Products and Materials (2008) [6]
Strategy for Sustainable Construction (2008) [10]
Waste Strategy 2009 – 2050: Towards Zero Waste (2009) (Wales) [29]
Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP): Business Plan 2008-2011 (2008) [30]
Review of National Waste Strategy: Moving towards Zero Waste (2008) (Scotland) [31]
Waste Strategy for England (2007) [3]
Towards Resource Management: The Northern Ireland Waste Management Strategy 2006 – 2020 (2006) [32]
National Waste Plan (2003) (Scotland) [33]
Wise About Waste: The National Waste Strategy for Wales (2002) [34]

Strategic objectives:

  • Enhance measures to close the loop in the way resources are used (e.g. through recycling, re-use or remanufacturing) [2]
  • Decouple waste growth (in all sectors) from economic growth and put more emphasis on waste prevention and re-use [35]
  • Meet and exceed the Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) diversion targets for biodegradable municipal waste in 2010, 2013 and 2020 [35]
  • Increase diversion from landfill of non-municipal waste and secure better integration of treatment for municipal and non-municipal waste [35]
  • Secure the investment in infrastructure needed to divert waste from landfill and for the management of hazardous waste [35]
  • Get the most environmental benefit from that investment, through increased recycling of resources and recovery of energy from residual waste using a mix of technologies [35]

Priority policy instruments:

  • Statutory targets for reductions in biodegradable municipal waste sent to landfill delegated from national level to each local authority, accompanied by a Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme in England, which allows local authorities to sell excess allowances.
  • Landfill tax escalated by £8 per tonne each year, currently the major driver of recycling and resource efficiency.
  • Quality protocols being established for further key recyclate streams to identify when recyclates may be regarded as a non-waste product for reuse or supply into other markets.
  • The Energy Crops Scheme in England provides grants for establishing short rotation coppice and miscanthus from 2007-2013.
  • The Bio-energy Infrastructure Scheme provides grants to help the development of the supply chain required to harvest, process, store and supply biomass to heat, combined heat and power, and electricity end-users.


Indicators:

  • Domestic Material Consumption (total mass of materials directly consumed by the economy) [12]
  • Mineral (stone, sand and gravel) extraction for construction [12]
  • Water resource use (total abstractions from non-tidal surface and ground water, leakage losses and Gross Domestic Product) [12]
  • Waste (waste: (a) arisings by sector (b) arisings by disposal)

Quantitative targets:

  • The Waste Strategy for England aims to reduce the amount of household waste not reused, recycled or composted from by 29% by 2010 and 45% by 2020 [35]; different targets are set by the devolved administrations.
  • 25% of products used in construction projects to be from schemes recognized for responsible sourcing. [10]
  • Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation requires 5% of all fuel sold on UK forecourts to come from a renewable source by 2010.

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Leaner and cleaner production, environmental technologies

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Relevant strategies

Building a Low Carbon Economy: Unlocking Innovation and Skills (2009) [5]
UK Chemicals strategy: Sustainable Production and Use of Chemicals - A Strategic Approach (1999) [35]
Low Carbon Industrial Strategy: a Vision (2009) [36]
Building a Low Carbon Economy: Unlocking Innovation and Skills (2009) [5]

Strategic objectives:

  • Promote cleaner, more efficient production processes [2]
  • Promoting energy efficiency [2]
  • Encouraging waste minimisation and recycling [2] 
  • The UK Low Carbon Industrial Strategy (LCIS) sets out our actions and investment to ensure that British businesses and workers are equipped to maximise the economic opportunities and minimise the costs of the transition. To do this we’ll be investing in low carbon industries and advanced green manufacturing, and providing support for SMEs to become more resource efficient.
  • ‘Meeting the Low Carbon Skills Challenge’ is a consultation paper which aims to: Enable British workers and businesses to take advantage of the opportunities in those sectors that are key to reducing our carbon emissions and embed the necessary skills across all sectors to move the UK to a low carbon and resource efficient economy.

Priority policy instruments:

MAS (Manufacturing Advisory Service) is one of the Government's Solutions for Business suite of offerings, jointly funded by BIS (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills) and the nine English Regional Development Agencies.  It is designed to help the manufacturer, streamline processes, reduce waste, become more energy efficient and thereby improve business.
Improve Your Resource Efficiency (IYRE) is a product enabling businesses to access a range of support, from web-based guidance to grants and loans enabling them to improve their resource efficiency and cut costs. This is offered as part of Business Link: a free business advice and support service, available online and through local advisers in England

Indicators:

Manufacturing sector (manufacturing sector CO2 , NOx , SO2 , PM10 emissions and output)

NOx, CO2, PM10 and SO2 emissions of the manufacturing sector

River quality (rivers of good (a) biological (b) chemical quality) [12]

Service sector (service sector CO2 and NOx emissions and output)

Quantitative targets:

  • Commercial and industrial waste landfilled is expected to fall by 20% by 2010 compared to 2004 [3]

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Better products and services

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Relevant strategies

Low Carbon Industrial Strategy: a Vision (2009) [36]
Progress Report on Sustainable Products and Materials (2008) [6]
Market Transformation Programme (2007) [37]

Strategic objectives:

  • Promote better products and services, which reduce the environmental impacts from the use of energy, resources. or hazardous substances [2]
  • Reduce the environmental impacts of everyday products across their life cycle [2]
  • Promote more radical new design solutions, which benefit the environment and the economy [2]
  • Build up the knowledge and capacity needed to drive improvements in pridcts markets [2]

Priority policy instruments:

Product roadmaps’ are being piloted by Defra for ten priority products, to:
  • identify the impacts that occur across each product’s life cycle;
  • identify existing actions being taken to address those impacts; and
  • develop and implement a voluntary action plan to address any gaps.

The Market Transformation Programme [37] uses of a range of policy instruments including:

  • product information, e.g. product performance databases, energy labels, CEMEP motor and labelling scheme, voluntary glazing labelling scheme;
  • minimum and anticipated future performance standards, e.g. Industry Codes of Conduct in the Consumer Electronics Sector, CECED Industry Commitment on Energy Efficiency of Washing Machines; for energy-using products
  • best practice initiatives, e.g. Energy Efficiency Commitments, EU Energy Star programme, Energy Saving Recommended scheme, Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme;
  • future best practice, e.g. Energy +; and
market transformation strategies.
  • WRAP (the Waste and Resources Action Programme) also works to encourage resource efficient product design and minimised raw materials and packaging use in the production process

Indicators:

  • Service sector (service sector CO2 , NOx emissions and output)

Quantitative targets:

None identified

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Smarter consumption – household consumption

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Relevant strategies

Every Action Counts (2006) [15]
A Framework for pro-Environmental Behaviours (2008) [4]

Strategic objectives:

  • Promote shifts in consumption towards goods and services with lower impacts [2].
  • Ensure that sustainable development is embedded in the core education agenda across all education and skills sectors [2]
  • Improve access to information, advice, materials, community packs, web portals and training which will all help communities take action on sustainable development [2, 4]
  • Increase opportunities for community workers and communities to learn about sustainable development [2, 4]
  • Increase opportunities for individuals within communities to volunteer in sustainable development activity [2, 4]

Priority policy instruments:

  • The Framework on pro-Environmental Behaviours (2008) [4] enables Defra and other government departments to develop policies targeting and encouraging more sustainable consumption patterns.  It does this by providing: principles and approaches for encouraging more environmentally friendly behaviour; headline behaviour goals; consumer insight and an evidence base; an environmental segmentation model; and an assessment of the implications of this framework. [4]
  • The multi-media government campaign ACT ON CO2 (2007) [38], aims to raise awareness of the link between personal behaviour and climate change and encourage people to save money, save energy and reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • The Government website Environment and Greener Living (2009) [39] gives advice and information to citizens on all aspects of greener living including energy saving and generation; reducing waste and recycling; and greener travel and leisure, home and garden, lifestyles, life events and celebrations.
  • The Greener Living Fund (2008) [40] provides grants totalling £6 million to national Third Sector organisations to enable them to influence pro-environmental behavioural change at a grass roots level by working with individuals and communities.
  • WRAP – Love Food Hate Waste – a campaign working with local authorities to encourage people to reduce the level of food wasted and ending up in landfill

 

Indicators:

  • Household energy use (domestic CO2 emissions, domestic energy consumption and household spending)
  • Carbon dioxide emissions associated with UK consumption [12]
  • Domestic water consumption (litres per person per day) [12]
  • Household waste arising per person
  • Household waste recycled or composted per person

Quantitative targets:

  • The improvements to the energy standards of new homes will collectively deliver a reduction in carbon emissions of 1.4 million tonnes each year [2]
  • To reduce the amount of household waste not re-used, recycled or composted from over 22.2 million tonnes in 2000 by 29% to 15.8 million tonnes in 2010 with an aspiration to reduce it to 12.2 million tonnes in 2020 – a reduction of 45%. This is equivalent to a fall of 50% per person (from 450 kg per person in 2000 to 225 kg in 2020) [5]

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Smarter consumption – public consumption

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Relevant strategies

Public Sector Food Procurement Initiative: Putting it into practice - Advice for promoting healthy food and improving the sustainability and efficiency of food procurement, catering services and supply (2008) [41]
UK Government Sustainable Procurement Action Plan (2007) [43]

Strategic objectives:

  • Remove barriers to, and increase the opportunities for an enhanced sustainable procurement activity [2]

Priority policy instruments:

  • Set up Centre of Expertise in Sustainable Procurement in the Office of Government Commerce and newly created post of Chief Sustainability Officer [42]
  • The Collaborative Food Procurement Programme [43] established to identify how public sector organisations can work together when buying food, to achieve improved sustainability amongst other goals.
  • Guidance published for procuring food and catering services covering organic and fair trade food and providing more opportunities for local producers [41]
  • Local Government Performance Framework includes two new indicators on mitigating climate change

Indicators:

  • Public sector (public sector CO2 , NOx emissions and output)
  • Local authority indicators: CO2 reduction from the local authority’s own operations and CO2 reduction from the community.

Quantitative targets:

The UK is recognised amongst the leaders in sustainable procurement across EU member states by 2009 [2]
Related to the operations of the Government Estate
  • Reducing absolute carbon emissions, from fuel and electricity used in buildings on their estate, by 12.5 per cent by 2010-11 and 30% by 2020, relative to 1999-2000 [2]
  • Increasing the energy efficiency of buildings on their estate by 15 per cent by 2010-11 and 30% by 2020, relative to 1999-2000 [2]
  • Sourcing at least 10 per cent of electricity from renewable sources by March 2008 [2]
  • Sourcing at least 15 per cent of electricity from Good Quality CHP by 2010 [2]
  • Reduce water consumption by 25% by 2020 relative to 2004/2005
  • Reduce waste arisings by 5% by 2010 and 25% by 2020 relative to 2004/2005
  • Increase proportion of waste arisings recycled to 40% by 2010 and 75% by 2020 relative to 2004/2005
  • Achieve a carbon neutral office estate by 2012.
  • Central Government to buy and rent buildings with energy performance in the top 25 per cent [2]

Related to fleets managed by the government

  • 10 per cent of all governmental vehicles will be low carbon by 2012 [44]

Relevant to the operation of the National Health Service (NHS)

  • Reduce the level of primary energy consumption by 15 per cent by 2010, compared to 2000 levels
  • To achieve a target of 35-55 GJ/100m3 energy efficiency performance for the healthcare estate for all new capital developments and major redevelopments or refurbishments; and that all existing facilities should achieve a target of 55-65 GJ/100m3

 

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2.2.3 Specific SCP Policies in the production-consumption areas of highest environment impact

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

Food Matters: Towards a Strategy for the 21st Century (2008) [41]

Fisheries 2027: A Long Term Vision for Sustainable Fisheries (2007) [42]
Sustainable Farming and Food Strategy: Forward Look (2006) [27]
Food Industry Sustainability Strategy (2006) [28]

Strategic objectives:

  • Improve the net environmental impact of food production [45]
  • Secure a more environmentally sustainable food chain [45]
  • Transform European agriculture’s response to the risks, responsibilities and opportunities of climate change [45]
  • Reduced environmental cost of the food chain [27]
  • Better use of natural resources [27]
  • Improved landscape and biodiversity [27]

Priority policy instruments:

  • The ‘Love Food Hate Waste’ awareness campaign [46] aims to reduce food waste, providing practical everyday steps to waste less food
  • The Food Standards Agency's consumer advice and information site, ‘Eatwell’ [47], also promotes seasonal local foods and helps reduce food waste by providing a better understanding of sell by/ best by/ best before dates .
  • A new voluntary agreement is being negotiated with the food industry to achieve a demanding net packaging reduction target and substantial cuts in food waste from households and businesses by 2012 [45]
  • A new voluntary nutritional and environmental sustainability standard, 'Healthy Food Mark' is being developed for food served in the public sector in England [45]

Indicators:

Farming:
  • Fertiliser input and ammonia and methane emissions in the agriculture sector [13]; Farming and environmental stewardship: land covered by environmental schemes [13]; Fish stocks (sustainability of fish stocks around the UK) [13]; Farmland bird population [13]

Food industry energy efficiency:

  • total energy use by the food, drink (and tobacco) manufacturing industry [28]; energy use per unit of output in the food and drink manufacturing industry [28]; total savings of CO2 under food and drink manufacturing and retail sector CCAs (Climate Change Agreements) [28] ; savings of CO2 per unit of output under food and drink manufacturing sector CCAs [28].

Food industry waste efficiency:

  • levels of waste arising in the food and drink (& tobacco) manufacturing industry; levels of “food waste” across all sectors of the food industry;food industry progress against recycling targets; and

A new framework set of indicators is being developed for Secure and Sustainable Food [48] under the themes:

  • Economic performance and resilience; Skills and innovation; Eco-efficiency; Essential resources; A healthy and well managed ecosystem; Healthy and informed consumers;

Quantitative targets:

  • The share of the UK market for indigenous organic food supplied by home producers to have increased to 70% by 2010
  • Halt biodiversity loss by 2010
  • Reverse the long-term decline in the number of farmland birds by 2020
  • Courtauld Commitment targets (WRAP’s voluntary agreement with the food and drink industry):
  • Design out packaging waste growth by 2008 (achieved: zero growth)
  • Deliver absolute reductions in packaging waste by 2010
  • Help reduce the amount of food the nation's householders throw away by 155,000 tonnes by 2010, against a 2008 baseline.

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Housing

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Relevant strategies

Heat and Energy Saving Strategy (2009) [7]
UK Renewable Energy Strategy (forthcoming 2009) [20]
Climate Change Act (2008) [21]
Energy Act (2008) [22]
Planning and Energy Act (2008) [23]
UK Biomass Strategy (2007) [24]
UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2007) [25]
Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy (2007) [26]
Strategy for Sustainable Construction (2008) [10]

Strategic objectives:

  • Improve the resource efficiency of the existing building stock [2]
  • Lower the carbon intensity of homes
  • Lower the levels of construction, demolition and excavation (CD&E) waste sent to landfills
  • Reduce per capita consumption of water in the home

 

Priority policy instruments:

  • Code for Sustainable Homes [49]
  • Comprehensive information and advice to be made available to help people make changes to save energy and save money – including widespread availability of home energy advice by accredited advisers. [7]
  • Development of new ways to provide financial support so people can make more substantial energy saving and renewable energy improvements to their homes through mechanisms that allow costs to be more than offset by energy bill savings. [7]
  • A new focus on district heating in suitable communities, and removing barriers to their development. [7]
  • Encouragement of combined heat and power and better use of surplus heat through carbon pricing mechanisms. [7]
  • Encourage adoption of the Construction Commitments to promote best practice construction procurement and supply side integration. [10]
  • The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (2009) [50] provides grants for the installation of microgeneration technologies in a range of buildings to include households, community organisations, public, private and the non-profit sectors. Householders can apply for grants of up to £2,500 per property towards the cost of installing a certified product by a certified installer.
  • The Home Energy Saving Programme (2008) [8], and the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target 2008-2011 [9] place an obligation on energy suppliers and electricity generators to meet a CO2 reduction target by providing energy efficiency measures to domestic consumers;
  • The Warm Front Scheme (2007) [51] is the Government's main grant-funded programme for tackling fuel poverty. It installs energy efficiency measures, including central heating and insulation, into vulnerable private sector households. The Scheme provides a grant of up to £3,500 (or £6,000 for oil central heating) for householders on benefits.
  • WRAP – Half Waste to Landfill – voluntary construction sector commitment to half the amount of construction, demolition and excavation waste reaching landfill by 2012. This is through adoption and implementation of  standards for good practice in reducing waste, recycling more, and increasing the use of recycled and recovered materials in projects

Indicators:

  • Land recycling: new dwellings built on previously developed land or through conversions
  • Household spending (household final consumption expenditure)
  • Domestic energy consumption from households Domestic CO2 emissions (including an estimate of share of energy industry emissions) from household energy use

Quantitative targets:

  • Improve the average energy efficiency of the domestic housing stock by 20% compared with 2000 [2]
  • All social homes (i.e. those owned by local authorities or Housing Associations) have effective insulation and heating by 2010 [2]
  • All homes to have received by 2030 a ‘whole house’ package including all cost-effective energy saving measures, plus renewable heat and electricity measures as appropriate. All lofts and cavity walls will be insulated where practical by 2015 [7]
  • New homes will be zero carbon from 2016, and an ambition that new schools, public sector non-domestic buildings and other non-domestic buildings will be zero carbon from 2016, 2018 and 2019 respectively. [10]
  • By 2012, a 50% reduction of construction, demolition and excavation (CD&E) waste to landfill compared to 2008 [10]
  • To reduce per capita consumption of water in the home to an average of 130 litres per person per day by 2030, or possibly even 120 litres per person per day depending on new technological developments and innovation [10]
  • Household energy efficiency savings of 3.5 MtC in England from 2000 level by 2010 (as set out in the Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2004, in fulfilment of the Sustainable Energy Act 2003);
  • Improve household energy efficiency in England by 20 per cent by 2010, from a 2000 baseline (Housing Act 2004).

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Mobility

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Relevant strategies

Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future (2009) [12]
Ultra-low Carbon Cars: Next steps on delivering the £250 million consumer incentive programme for electric and plug-in hybrid cars (2009) [49]
Ultra–Low Carbon Vehicles in the UK (2009) [50]
Delivering a Sustainable Transport System: The Logistics Perspective (2008) [53]
Low Carbon Transport Innovation Strategy (2007) [54]
Towards a Sustainable Transport System: Supporting Economic Growth in a Low Carbon World (2007) [51]
Delivering a Sustainable Railway - White Paper (2007) [52]
A Sustainable Future for Cycling (2008) [55]

Strategic objectives:

  • Supporting a shift to new technologies and fuels [12]
  • Promoting lower carbon choices [12]
  • Using market mechanisms to encourage a shift to lower carbon transport [12]

Priority policy instruments:

  • New infrastructure and public transport investment focused in and around most congested cities, whilst also addressing the most important capacity constraints on other priority links
  • Government investment in increased capacity: more trains, more carriages, improved capacity handling such as longer platforms and a strategic freight network
  • National smart cards and e-ticketing using mobile phones to be enabled for seamless travel across transport modes
  • Vehicle Excise Duty rates set according to CO2 emissions to encourage the purchase of cars with lower emissions
  • Consumers to be given incentives to purchase electric vehicles and funding to be provided towards network of electric charging points
  • Cycling encouraged via Cycle to Work salary sacrifice bike loan scheme and Cycling England, which champions best practice, provides advice to planners, supports the Cycle Towns and the Cycle City and channels funding to partners engaged in training, engineering and marketing projects such as the Bikeability cycle training scheme,.
  • Guidance issued on workplace and school travel plans; schools expected to have one

Indicators:

  • Road transport (CO2 , NOx , PM10 emissions and Gross Domestic Product)
  • Private vehicles (private car CO2 emissions, car-kilometres and household spending)
  • CO2 emissions from transport sectors (excluding international aviation and shipping)
  • Mobility: split in the number of trips per person in terms of walking and cycling, private motor vehicles, public transport and taxis
  • Mobility: Distance travelled per person per year by broad trip purpose
  • How children get to school: split in terms of walking and cycling, private motor vehicles, public transport and taxis
  • Access to key services (with/without car), households perceiving difficulty: corner shop/ supermarket, post office, doctor/hospital
  • Private car-kilometres
  • Private car CO2 emissions

Quantitative targets:

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Appliances

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Relevant strategies

Market Transformation Programme (2007) [37]

Strategic objectives:

  • Encourage competition and innovation in the environmental performance of traded goods and services [37]
  • Facilitate the delivery of effective Europe-wide standards via measures such as mandatory energy labelling, mandatory energy efficiency requirements and voluntary industry initiatives [37]

Priority policy instruments:

The Market Transformation Programme [37] uses of a range of policy instruments including:

    • product information, e.g. product performance databases and labelling;
    • minimum and anticipated future performance standards for energy-using products
    • best practice initiatives, e.g. Energy Efficiency Commitments, EU Energy Star programme, Energy Saving Recommended scheme, Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme;
    • future best practice, e.g. Energy +; and
    • market transformation strategies. 

Indicators:

none

Quantitative targets:

none

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SCP social aspects

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Relevant strategies

Building a Low Carbon Economy: Unlocking Innovation and Skills (2009) [5]

UK Fuel Poverty Strategy (2001) [56]
Fuel Poverty in England: The Government’s Plan for Action (2004) [57]

Strategic objectives:

Reduce fuel poverty

Priority policy instruments:

Under CERT, suppliers must focus 40 per cent of their activity on a ‘Priority Group’ of vulnerable and low-income households, including those in receipt of certain income/disability benefits and pensioners over 70. By increasing the energy efficiency of GB households, CERT will not only help households from falling into fuel poverty but is also expected to help alleviate fuel poverty [9].

Indicators:

Number of households in fuel poverty [13].

Quantitative targets:

    Ending fuel poverty in England in vulnerable households by 2010 and in all households by 2016, with other targets set in the devolved administrations such that by 2018 no household in the UK should be in fuel poverty. [57]

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3. Institutional setup to support the implementation of SCP

National institutions with responsibility explicitly "in the name of SCP"

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Name of institution:

Sustainable Consumption and Production Network [58]

Year of inception and duration of operation:

2005 – present

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

To be the primary focal point for sustainable consumption and production at a sub-national level.

The Sustainable Consumption and Production Network, SCPnet, is a partnership network dedicated to promoting the philosophy of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) at a sub-national level, providing a single point of reference on SCP for the Regional Development Agencies, Regional Assemblies (now Leaders' Boards), Government Offices for the Regions, Regional Observatories and the regional offices of the Environment Agency.

SCPnet supports the development and determination of Regional Strategies and their Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) by providing an economic-environmental SCP evidence base and analytical modelling tools, REEIO and REAP, to assess the likely impacts of “what if” scenarios.

Other relevant information:

www.scpnet.org.uk

 

Name of institution:

Business Taskforce on Sustainable Consumption and Production [59]

Year of inception and duration of operation:

2004 – present

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

The Business Taskforce on Sustainable Consumption and Production was convened by Defra and DTI (now BERR), following through on a commitment in the UK Government’s sustainable development strategy.

The aim of the Business Taskforce is to bring forward practical proposals that enable companies to move to more sustainable patterns of consumption and production (SCP) in ways that boost competitiveness and contribute to economic growth.

The Business Taskforce is approaching this by:

  • Looking at how government policy can shape the context in which a move to more sustainable production and consumption can be made;
  • Examining evidence from business of the most effective ways to deliver SCP;
  • Identifying tools and skills that will enable business to implement SCP initiatives

Other relevant information:

www.cpi.cam.ac.uk/programmes/sustainable_consumption/scp_taskforce.aspx

 

Name of institution:

Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP)

Year of inception and duration of operation:

2000

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

WRAP works in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland to help businesses and individuals reap the benefits of reducing waste, develop sustainable products, and use resources in an efficient way.

WRAP works through a variety of means including sectoral voluntary commitments with major producers, helping local authorities improve waste collection approaches, and facilitating greater use and uptake of recycled materials in production. WRAP engages consumers through campaigns such as Love Food Hate Waste (on food waste), and Recycle Now to increase uptake of recycling. Its work increasingly includes work on waste avoidance through more efficient product design, as well as its original aim of minimising the amount of waste reaching landfill and encouraging increase and innovation in uptake of recycled material.

Following a review of existing bodies providing material resource efficiency advice in England, it was decided in March 2009 to create a single national-level source of advice from 1st April 2010.

Other relevant information:

www.wrap.org.uk

 

Name of institution:

Business Link

Year of inception and duration of operation:

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

Business Link is a free business advice and support service, available online and through local advisers. It provides a single portfolio of publicly-funded advice for business under the Solutions for Business standardised banner on its website. This includes a product aimed specifically at sustainable production called Improve Your Resource Efficiency (IYRE). IYRE provides a range of simple, introductory level as well as more specialist forms of publicly funded business support, including grants for making improvements as well as case studies and web based practical advice and guidance on how to increase resource efficiency and make bottom line cost savings.

Other relevant information:

http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=ONEOFFPAGE&itemId=1082105198

 

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Other major and innovative national institutions with SCP-related responsibility

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Name of institution:

Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) [60]

Year of inception and duration of operation:

2000 – present

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

    The Sustainable Development Commission is the Government's independent adviser on sustainable development, reporting to the Prime Minister, the First Ministers of Scotland and Wales and the First Minister and Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. The aim is to put sustainable development at the heart of Government policy through advocacy, advice and appraisal.  It is now an executive non-departmental body (Executive NDPB).

    The SDC works to:

    • Produce evidence-based public reports on contentious environmental, social and economic issues, such as nuclear power
    • Draw on expert opinion to advise key Ministers, policy-makers and stakeholders across Government
    • Respond openly to Government policy initiatives
    • Invite debates on controversial subjects
    • Undertake watchdog appraisals of Government's progress.

Other relevant information:

www.sd-commission.org.uk

 

Name of institution:

Environmental Innovations Advisory Group (EIAG) [61]

Year of inception and duration of operation:

2003-to date

Description
(objectives, roles and responsibilities, means and relevance):

The objective of the business-led Environmental Innovations Advisory Group is to identify practical measures to tackle barriers to innovation in the environmental industries sector and to mobilise key stakeholders to bring about change.

 

Other relevant information:

www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/sectors/environmental/EIAG/page10066.html


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4. SCP international cooperation

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Participation in the Marrakech Process (MP)

Management of Task Force (TF):

Yes: the UK is managing the “International Task Force for Sustainable Products (ITFSP)” [63]

Priority areas of action / concrete initiatives in the TF:

The drafting of a work plan is ongoing [63]

Country participation in the meetings of the MP:

Marrakech(2003)

Costa Rica (2005)

Stockholm (2007)

[X]

[X]

[X] [62]

Other ways of supporting the work of MP:

N/A

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Participation in the work of the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management

Membership in the steering committee:

No [64]

Membership in the panel:

No [64]

Other ways of supporting the work of the Panel:

N/A


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Organisation of other major international cooperation initiatives and events, explicitly in the name of SCP.

Title of initiative / event, year

N/A

Brief description (objectives, means etc.):

N/A

Other relevant information:

N/A

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5. Overall stakeholder events, campaigns and dialogue processes

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Overall stakeholder events, campaigns and dialogue processes "in the name of SCP"

Title of initiative / event, year

Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (SCR), 2006 [65]

Brief description (objectives, means etc.):

The Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (SCR) was a joint initiative from the National Consumer Council and Sustainable Development Commission and funded by Defra and DTI.

The Roundtable was charged with building wide ownership of sustainable consumption, and producing practical advice to Government for actions and policies to create a shift to more sustainable lifestyles..

Other relevant information:

www.sd-commission.org.uk/pages/sustainable-consumption.html


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6. Reference

Reference

Strategies, action plans etc.

[1]

Changing Patterns – UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption & Production (2003)
www.defra.gov.uk/Environment/business/scp

[2]

Securing the Future - delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy (2005)
www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/publications/uk-strategy
Chapter 3, "One Planet Economy": Sustainable Consumption and Production, is available to download separately:
www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/publications/uk-strategy/documents/Chap3.pdf

[3]

Waste Strategy for England (2007)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy

[4]

A Framework for pro-Environmental Behaviours (2008)
www.defra.gov.uk/evidence/social/behaviour

[5]

Building a Low Carbon Economy: Unlocking Innovation and Skills (2009)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/innovation/commission

[6]

Progress Report on Sustainable Products and Materials (2008)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/consumerprod

[7]

Heat and Energy Saving Strategy (2009)
http://hes.decc.gov.uk

[8]

Community Energy Saving Programme (2008)
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/open/cesp/cesp.aspx

[9]

Carbon Emissions Reduction Target 2008-2011 (2008)
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/open/cert

[10]

Strategy for Sustainable Construction (2008)
www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/sectors/construction/sustainability/sustainablestrategy/page48779.html

[11]

Carbon Reduction Commitment
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/lc_uk/crc.aspx

[12]

Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future (2009))
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/carbonreduction/

[13]

UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (2009)
http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/progress/index.htm

[14]

One Wales: One Planet, a new Sustainable Development Scheme for Wales (2009)

[15]

Every Action Counts (2006)
www.everyactioncounts.org.uk

[16]

Every Action Counts (2006)
www.everyactioncounts.org.uk

[17]

First steps towards sustainability: A Sustainable Development Strategy for Northern Ireland (2006)
www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/index/economic-policy/economic-policy-sustainable-development.htm
www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/sustain-develop.pdf

[18]

Choosing our future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy (2005)
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/SustainableDevelopment
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/12/1493902/39032 (file in 3 parts)

[19]

Lisbon Strategy for Jobs and Growth: UK National Reform Programme (2005)
www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/int_lisbonstrategy_jobs.htm

[20]

UK Renewable Energy Strategy (2009)
http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/renewable/res/res.aspx

[21]

Climate Change Act (2008)
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/legislation/en/content/cms/legislation/cc_act_08/cc_act_08.aspx

[22]

Energy Act (2008)
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/legislation/energy_act_08/energy_act_08.aspx

[23]

Planning and Energy Act (2008)
www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2008/en/ukpgaen_20080032_en_1.htm

[24]

UK Biomass Strategy (2007)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/energy/renewablefuel

[25]

UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2007)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/energy/efficiency

[26]

Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy (2007)
www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/energy/whitepaper/page39534.html

[27]

Sustainable Farming and Food Strategy: Forward Look (2006)
www.defra.gov.uk/farm/policy/sustain

[27]

UK Climate Change Programme
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/ukccp/index.htm

[28]

Food Industry Sustainability Strategy (2006)
www.defra.gov.uk/farm/policy/sustain/fiss

[29]

Making the most of packaging: A strategy for a low-carbon economy (2009)
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/packaging/strategy.htm

[30]

Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP): Business Plan 2008-2011 (2008)
www.wrap.org.uk/wrap_corporate/about_wrap/what_does_wrap_do/wrap_business_plan.html

[31]

UK Chemicals strategy: Sustainable Production and Use of Chemicals - A Strategic Approach (1999)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/chemicals/ukstrategy.htm

[32]

Low Carbon Industrial Strategy: a Vision (2009)
www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/sectors/lowcarbon/lowcarbonstrategy/page50105.html

[33]

Market Transformation Programme (2007)
www.mtprog.com

[34]

Act on CO2 (2007)
http://campaigns2.direct.gov.uk/actonco2/home/about-us.html

[35]

Environment and greener living (2009)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/chemicals/ukstrategy.htm

[36]

Low Carbon Industrial Strategy: a Vision (2009)
www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/sectors/lowcarbon/lowcarbonstrategy/page50105.html

[37]

Market Transformation Programme (2007)
www.mtprog.com

[38]

Act on CO2 (2007)
http://campaigns2.direct.gov.uk/actonco2/home/about-us.html

[39]

Powering future vehicles strategy (2002)
www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roads/environment/poweringfuturevehicles/poweringfuturevehiclesstrategy

[40]

Collaborative Food Procurement Programme
http://www.ogc.gov.uk/collaborative_procurement_food_8659.asp

[41]

Food Matters: Towards a Strategy for the 21st Century (2008)
http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/strategy/work_areas/food_policy.aspx

[42]

Fisheries 2027: A Long Term Vision for Sustainable Fisheries (2007)
http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/fisheries/documents/fisheries2027vision.pdf 

[43]

Love Food Hate Waste (2007)
www.lovefoodhatewaste.com

[44]

Eatwell
www.eatwell.gov.uk/info/aboutus/?lang=en

[45]

Secure and Sustainable Food (2009)
http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodrin/security

[46]

Code for Sustainable Homes

[47]

Low Carbon Buildings Programme (2009)
www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/about

[48]

Warm Front (2007)
www.warmfront.co.uk

[49]

Ultra-low Carbon Cars: Next steps on delivering the £250 million consumer incentive programme for electric and plug-in hybrid cars (2009)

[50]

Ultra–Low Carbon Vehicles in the UK (2009)
www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/ultralowcarbonvehicles

[51]

Towards a Sustainable Transport System: Supporting Economic Growth in a Low Carbon World (2007)
www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/transportstrategy/hmtlsustaintranssys

[52]

Delivering a Sustainable Railway - White Paper (2007)
www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/whitepapercm7176/

[53]

Delivering a Sustainable Transport System: The Logistics Perspective (2008)
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/freight/dastslogistics/dastslogisticsperspective.pdf

[54]

Low Carbon Transport Innovation Strategy (2007)
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/scienceresearch/technology/lctis/lowcarbontis

[55]

A Sustainable Future for Cycling (2008)
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/cycling/cyclingfuture.pdf

[56]

UK Fuel Poverty Strategy (2001)
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/consumers/fuel_poverty/strategy/strategy.aspx

[57]

Fuel Poverty in England: the Government’s Plan for Action (2004)
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/consumers/fuel_poverty/strategy/strategy.aspx

[58]

Website of the  Sustainable Consumption & Production Network (SCPnet)
www.scpnet.org.uk

[59]

Business Taskforce on Sustainable Consumption and Production
www.cpi.cam.ac.uk/programmes/sustainable_consumption/scp_taskforce.aspx

[60]

Sustainable Development Commission (SDC)
www.sd-commission.org.uk

[61]

Environmental Innovations Advisory Group (EIAG)
www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/sectors/environmental/EIAG/page10066.html

[62]

Website of the Marrakech Process
http://esa.un.org/marrakechprocess/international.shtml visited 19 December 2008

[63]

Website of the International Task Force for Sustainable Products (ITFSP)
www.itfsp.org visited 19 December 2008

[64]

Website of the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management
www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/members.htm visited 19 December 2008

[65]

Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (2006)
www.sd-commission.org.uk/pages/sustainable-consumption.html

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