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Austria

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

“Green Contract” for Austrian Agriculture [25]

Action Programme Ecological Agriculture 2008-2010 [48]

Climate Strategy 2007 [15]

Strategic objectives:

  • Austria shall keep its number 1 position in the EU with the highest share of ecological farmers [48]
  • Preservation of a nationwide farmer (as opposed to industrial) and nature orientated agriculture [25]
  • Minimisation of risks from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for humans [13]

Policy instruments in focus:

Laws and ordinances on the controlled introduction and use of GMOs. Funding for ecological production. Information on ecological food

Indicators:

  • Area of organic farming [13]
  • Mass of nitrogen-based fertiliser sold [13]
  • GMO pollution of food [13]
  • Share of fruit and vegetables containing excessive pesticide concentrations [13]

Quantitative targets:

  • Reduction of annual nitrogen-based fertiliser consumption as compared to 2005 [15]
  • The share of ecological farmed areas on all agricultures used areas shall increase to 20 % by the year 2010 [48]

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Czech Republic

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

The Czech Republic Strategy for Sustainable Development (2004) [2]
State Environment Policy of the Czech Republic 2004-2010 (2004) [3]
The Raw Material Policy of the Czech Republic in the Field of Mineral Materials and Their Resources (1999) [9]
Action Plan on Eco-agriculture and Organic Food (2007) [10]
Concept of Agricultural Policy in the Czech Republic after the EU accession for 2004-2013 [13]

Strategic objectives:

  • Enhance competitiveness of agriculture and food industry in Czech Republic by increased efficiency of production, quality of products based on environmental friendly production schemes, safety and regional variety of production [13]
  • Increase the share of renewable energy sources from agriculture on domestic consumption of primary energy sources with long term target of energy independent countryside [13]
  • Increase the positive influence of organic farming on nature and landscape [10]
  • Promote viable rural farms [10]
  • Contribute through organic production to the protection of consumer interests [10]
  • Respect the carrying capacity of the land as a defining factor for exploitation of primary resources [9]aintain and restore fish stocks and to save fragile nature areas [11]

Priority policy instruments:

  • “Bio Fund” for supporting the marketing of organic products and foodstuffs [10]
  • To improve (simplify) the distribution system of organic farming products, which will result in the reduction of consumer prices (e.g. to enhance direct sale of organic products by the farms to consumers) [10]
  • To use organic food products at  administration authorities (e.g. in canteens, cafeterias) [10]

Indicators:

  • Proportion of farmland area dedicated for production of renewable sources of energy in the total area of farmland (%) [2]
  • Proportion of organic farming in the total area of farmland (%) [2]
  • Consumption of fertilisers (kg of pure nutrients per hectare) [2] [3]
  • Consumption of pesticides (kg/hectare) [2] [3]

 

Quantitative targets:

  • To achieve by 2010 an approx. 10% share of organic farming in the total agricultural land [10]
  • 1 % of the total food consumption in the Czech Republic is organic food by the end of 2010 [10]
  • Min. 25 % of the Czech citizens buy organic food regularly (at least once a week) [10]
  • By the end of 2010 at least 60 % of the total organic food consumption is produced domestically [10]
  • Stable or decreasing area of fallow [13]
  • Increased production of cereals and oil crops [13]

 

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Denmark

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Food and drink

Relevant strategies

Growth with contemplation – The Government’s Strategy for Sustainable Development, 2009. [1]
Green Growth, 2009. [17]
Food production, the nature and the environment, 2004. [11]
Pesticide Action Plan 2004-2009, 2003. [12]

Strategic objectives:

Create a green growth economy in which green solutions – within transport, housing, agriculture and food manufacturing – contribute to solving environment-, climate- and nature challenges while creating green jobs. Green growth shall, for example, ensure  [17]
  • An aquatic environment of good quality [17]
  • A significant reduction of impacts from pesticides [17]
  • Reduced impact from ammonia [17]
  • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions [17]
  • An agriculture sector supplying green energy [17]
  • Promotion of market-based organic farming [17]

The Danish agricultural sector shall be a “green technology lab” [17]

Green growth shall ensure increased protection of the environment, nature and the climate [17]

To protect the aquatic environment in sea, lakes and streams, to maintain the diversity in flora and fauna, to secure clean drinking water, to maintain and restore fish stocks and to save fragile nature areas [11]

Policy instruments in focus:

  • Establishment of strategic public/private partnership for environmentally friendly agricultural technologies [1]
  • Subsidies to organic farming, environmentally friendly farming and green manure management systems [11], [17]
  • Market-based regulation with tradable nitrogen-quotas [17]
  • Increase and transformation of the pesticide duty so as pesticides with highest environmental impacts are taxed most [17]
  • Establishment of an innovation partnership for Agro Food [17]
  • Investment in R&D and testing of clean technologies for agriculture [1]
  • Green accounts for farmers [11]

Indicators:

  • Number of farms and areas which have green accounting/environmental management [2]
  • Number and area of organic farms [2]
  • Environmental impacts from agriculture: 3 environmental impacts, e.g. energy use, frequency of pesticide application, number of livestock, methane emissions, ammonia losses, and nitrogen surpluses in relation to changes in value of production. [2]
  • Release of nitrogen and phosphorous to the sea [1]

Quantitative targets:

  • A doubling of the organic farming area by 2020 [17]
  • Reduce the release of nitrogen from agriculture by 19,000 tonnes by 2015 [17]
  • Reduce the release of phosphorous from agriculture by 210 tonnes by 2015 [17]
  • Reduce the impact from pesticide from 2.1 to 1.4 by end of 2013 corresponding to a frequency in use of pesticides of 1.7  [17]
  • Use of 40% of animal manure for green energy by 2020 [17]
  • Reduce the release of ammonia [17]
  • A reduction in the agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases by 700,000 tonnes and a further reduction in 2020 [17]
  • Stop the decrease in biodiversity [17]

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France

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

Grenelle de l’Environment [2]

Climate Plan 2004-2012 (2004) [3]

New French Agricultural Model (Objectif Terres 2020) (2009) [9]

Communication Action Plan for Organic Agriculture 2008 - 2010 (2008) [14]

Strategic objectives:

  • More efficient use of water [9]
  • Better control of energy and fight against energy [9]
  • Engaging each far in sustainable development [9]
  • Developing the potentials of organic farming [9]
  • Rethinking the practices of territorial adaptation [9]
  • Educate and inform on the specific features and benefits of agriculture and organic products; encouraging the consumption of organic products [14]

Policy instruments in focus:

  • From 2008 onwards, introduce an eco-label for fisheries products [2]
  • Setting up a voluntary environmental certification scheme for farms with grades up to A for high environmental value (HVE) [2]
  • Control nitrogen-based fertilizers by preparing environmental assessments [3]
  • Launch a program to reduce fuel consumption by tractors [3]
  • Inclusion of pulses in the rotation such as alfalfa or peas, which capture nitrogen from the air, reducing the external inputs of mineral nitrogen and thus reducing the risk of excess nitrogen [9]
  • Promoting organic farming in areas at risk [9]
  • Ecophyto 2018 Action Plan aiming the reduction in the use of pesticides [9]
  • Develop French forest certification system, which guarantees that the forest has been managed according to specific criteria protecting resources, the wider environment and ecosystems [9]
  • Promoting the inclusion of sustainability criteria in the selection of seeds and the use of varieties [9]
  • Transversal communication program on all products and 3 additional programs for specific sectors: livestock, fruit & vegetables, crop products [14]

Indicators:

  • % of agricultural land
  • % of organic products in public restaurants
  • % of farms involved in environmental certification
  • % of the farms with little energy dependence
  • farmland area engaged in the Natura2000 network
  • number of energy performance diagnostics realized • global energy balance of agriculture
  • number of farmers trained in sustainable agricultural practices
  • number of hectares under pulses cultivation
  • changes in volumes of meat and poultry under the PGI (Protected Geographical Indication)

Quantitative targets:

  • Switching 6% of farmland to organic farming by 2010, 15% by 2013 and 20% by 2020 [2]
  • 15% organic products in public restaurants in 2010; 50% of farms involved in environmental certification in 2012.
  • Achieving 20% of organic products in institutional foodservices by 2012 [2]
  • 10% of products HVE-certified from 2012 [2]
  • 30% of the farms with little energy dependence by 2013 [2]
  • 50% reduction of pesticide use between 2009 and 2019 [9]
  • 50% of farms are engaged in environmental certification by 2012 [9]
  • Increasing by 50% between 2009 and 2012 the farmland engaged in the Natura 2000 network [9]
  • 100 000 energy performance diagnostics realized in the agricultural sector by 2013 [9]
  • Improving global energy balance of agriculture by 10% by 2013 [9]
  • 20% of farmers trained in sustainable agricultural practices by 2020 [9]
  • Doubling the number of hectares under pulses cultivation by 2020 [9]
  • Increasing by 40% the volumes of meat and poultry under the PGI by 2020 [9]
  • 50% increase between 2009 and 2012 of farmland engaged in the Natura 2000 network [9]
  • 100 000 energy performance diagnostics realized in the agricultural sector by 2013 [9]
  • Improve global energy balance of agriculture10% by 2013 [9]
  • 20% of farmers trained in sustainable agricultural practices by 2020 [9]
  • Double number of hectares under pulses cultivation by 2020 [9]
  • Increasing by 40% the volumes of meat and poultry under the PGI by 2020 [9]

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Germany

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

Perspectives for Germany. The German Federal Sustainable Development Strategy, 2002 [1]
National Programme on Ecological Farming, 2004 [10]
Milestone of Agro-Environmental Policy, 2005 [11]

Strategic objectives:

  • Supporting competitiveness of ecological farming [10]
  • Eliminating barriers to the development of ecological farming [10]
  • Increasing the amount ecological farming [1]
  • Integration of environmental criteria into the farm income support (Cross-Compliance)[11]
  • Promotion of ecological products through the national eco-label [not related to a national strategy or action plan]

Priority policy instruments:

  • Information, education and financial aid [10]
  • Regulatory instruments [11]

Indicators:

  • Proportion of agricultural land farmed organically [1]
  • Nitrogen surplus in farming [1]

Quantitative targets:

  • Proportion of agricultural land farmed organically 20% by 2010 [1]
  • 80 kg nitrogen surplus discharge/ha farming land by 2010 [1]

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United Kingdom

Food and drink

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Relevant strategies

Food Matters: Towards a Strategy for the 21st Century (2008) [41]

Fisheries 2027: A Long Term Vision for Sustainable Fisheries (2007) [42]
Sustainable Farming and Food Strategy: Forward Look (2006) [27]
Food Industry Sustainability Strategy (2006) [28]

Strategic objectives:

  • Improve the net environmental impact of food production [45]
  • Secure a more environmentally sustainable food chain [45]
  • Transform European agriculture’s response to the risks, responsibilities and opportunities of climate change [45]
  • Reduced environmental cost of the food chain [27]
  • Better use of natural resources [27]
  • Improved landscape and biodiversity [27]

Priority policy instruments:

  • The ‘Love Food Hate Waste’ awareness campaign [46] aims to reduce food waste, providing practical everyday steps to waste less food
  • The Food Standards Agency's consumer advice and information site, ‘Eatwell’ [47], also promotes seasonal local foods and helps reduce food waste by providing a better understanding of sell by/ best by/ best before dates .
  • A new voluntary agreement is being negotiated with the food industry to achieve a demanding net packaging reduction target and substantial cuts in food waste from households and businesses by 2012 [45]
  • A new voluntary nutritional and environmental sustainability standard, 'Healthy Food Mark' is being developed for food served in the public sector in England [45]

Indicators:

Farming:
  • Fertiliser input and ammonia and methane emissions in the agriculture sector [13]; Farming and environmental stewardship: land covered by environmental schemes [13]; Fish stocks (sustainability of fish stocks around the UK) [13]; Farmland bird population [13]

Food industry energy efficiency:

  • total energy use by the food, drink (and tobacco) manufacturing industry [28]; energy use per unit of output in the food and drink manufacturing industry [28]; total savings of CO2 under food and drink manufacturing and retail sector CCAs (Climate Change Agreements) [28] ; savings of CO2 per unit of output under food and drink manufacturing sector CCAs [28].

Food industry waste efficiency:

  • levels of waste arising in the food and drink (& tobacco) manufacturing industry; levels of “food waste” across all sectors of the food industry;food industry progress against recycling targets; and

A new framework set of indicators is being developed for Secure and Sustainable Food [48] under the themes:

  • Economic performance and resilience; Skills and innovation; Eco-efficiency; Essential resources; A healthy and well managed ecosystem; Healthy and informed consumers;

Quantitative targets:

  • The share of the UK market for indigenous organic food supplied by home producers to have increased to 70% by 2010
  • Halt biodiversity loss by 2010
  • Reverse the long-term decline in the number of farmland birds by 2020
  • Courtauld Commitment targets (WRAP’s voluntary agreement with the food and drink industry):
  • Design out packaging waste growth by 2008 (achieved: zero growth)
  • Deliver absolute reductions in packaging waste by 2010
  • Help reduce the amount of food the nation's householders throw away by 155,000 tonnes by 2010, against a 2008 baseline.

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